Woodbine, New Jersey

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Woodbine, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Woodbine
Motto: "Gateway to the Jersey Cape"
Woodbine Borough highlighted in Cape May County. Inset map: Cape May County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Woodbine Borough highlighted in Cape May County. Inset map: Cape May County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Woodbine, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Woodbine, New Jersey
Coordinates: 39°13′42″N 74°48′35″W / 39.228399°N 74.809726°W / 39.228399; -74.809726Coordinates: 39°13′42″N 74°48′35″W / 39.228399°N 74.809726°W / 39.228399; -74.809726[1][2]
Country  United States
State  New Jersey
County Cape May
Incorporated March 3, 1903
Government[5]
 • Type Borough
 • Mayor William Pikolycky (term ends December 31, 2014)[3]
 • Clerk Lisa Garrison[4]
Area[1]
 • Total 8.020 sq mi (20.773 km2)
 • Land 8.020 sq mi (20.773 km2)
 • Water 0.000 sq mi (0.000 km2)  0.00%
Area rank 233rd of 566 in state
6th of 16 in county[1]
Elevation[6] 33 ft (10 m)
Population (2010 Census)[7][8][9]
 • Total 2,472
 • Estimate (2013)[10] 2,448
 • Rank 472nd of 566 in state
10th of 16 in county[11]
 • Density 308.2/sq mi (119.0/km2)
 • Density rank 477th of 566 in state
13th of 16 in county[11]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 08270[12][13]
Area code(s) 609 Exchanges: 628, 861[14]
FIPS code 3400981890[1][15][16]
GNIS feature ID 0885446[1][17]
Website www.boroughofwoodbine.net

Woodbine is a borough in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the Ocean City Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 2,472,[7][8][9] reflecting a decline of 244 (-9.0%) from the 2,716 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 38 (+1.4%) from the 2,678 counted in the 1990 Census.[18]

Woodbine was incorporated as a borough by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 3, 1903, from portions of Dennis Township.[19]

Geography[edit]

Woodbine is located at 39°13′42″N 74°48′35″W / 39.228399°N 74.809726°W / 39.228399; -74.809726 (39.228399,-74.809726). According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 8.020 square miles (20.773 km2), all of which was land.[1][2]

The borough borders Dennis Township and Upper Township.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 2,399
1920 1,406 −41.4%
1930 2,164 53.9%
1940 2,111 −2.4%
1950 2,417 14.5%
1960 2,823 16.8%
1970 2,625 −7.0%
1980 2,809 7.0%
1990 2,678 −4.7%
2000 2,716 1.4%
2010 2,472 −9.0%
Est. 2013 2,448 [10] −1.0%
Population sources:1910-2000[20]
1910-1920[21] 1910[22] 1910-1930[23]
1930-1990[24] 2000[25][26] 2010[7][8][9]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,472 people, 757 households, and 516.3 families residing in the borough. The population density was 308.2 per square mile (119.0/km2). There were 1,079 housing units at an average density of 134.5 per square mile (51.9/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 58.21% (1,439) White, 24.72% (611) Black or African American, 0.24% (6) Native American, 0.73% (18) Asian, 0.00% (0) Pacific Islander, 12.30% (304) from other races, and 3.80% (94) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 23.22% (574) of the population.[7]

There were 757 households, of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 23.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.8% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.13.[7]

In the borough, 20.6% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 33.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.0 years. For every 100 females there were 135.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 143.1 males.[7]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $28,125 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,957) and the median family income was $25,254 (+/- $5,816). Males had a median income of $35,500 (+/- $7,453) versus $31,298 (+/- $9,891) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $15,734 (+/- $2,126). About 33.9% of families and 38.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.8% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.[27]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[15] there were 2,716 people, 773 households, and 558 families residing in the borough. The population density was 339.6 people per square mile (131.1/km2). There were 1,080 housing units at an average density of 135.1 per square mile (52.1/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 53.39% White, 32.40% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 11.01% from other races, and 2.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.24% of the population.[25][26]

There were 773 households out of which 41.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 27.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.8% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.21.[25][26]

In the borough the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 142.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 158.2 males.[25][26]

The median income for a household in the borough was $30,298, and the median income for a family was $31,786. Males had a median income of $30,139 versus $24,150 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $13,335. About 18.8% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.[25][26]

Government[edit]

A political meeting in Woodbine in the 1890s

Local government[edit]

Woodbine is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[5] The Borough form of government used by Woodbine, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.[28][29]

As of 2014, the Mayor of Woodbine is William Pikolycky, whose term of office ends on December 31, 2014. The members of the Woodbine Borough Council are Council President Eduardo Ortiz (2016), Michael Benson (2015), Louis Murray (2015), Mary Helen Perez (2016), Clarence Ryan (2014) and Douglas Watkins (2014).[30][31]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Woodbine is located in the 2nd Congressional District[32] and is part of New Jersey's 1st state legislative district.[8][33][34]

New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Frank LoBiondo (R, Ventnor City).[35] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[36][37] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[38][39]

The 1st Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Jeff Van Drew (D, Dennis Township) and in the General Assembly by Bob Andrzejczak (D, Middle Township) and Sam Fiocchi (R, Vineland).[40] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[41] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[42]

Cape May County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of five members, elected at-large in partisan elections to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year; At an annual reorganization held each January, the freeholders select one member to serve as Director and another to serve as Vice-Director.[43] As of 2013, Cape May County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Gerald M. Thornton (Middle Township, term ends December 31, 2013),[44] Freeholder Vice-Director Leonard C. Desiderio (Sea Isle City, 2015),[45] Kristine Gabor (Upper Township, 2014)[46] and Will Morey (Wildwood Crest, 2014),[47] along with the vacant seat of M. Susan Sheppard expiring in 2013 that was vacated after Sheppard was sworn in as County Surrogate.[43][48] The county's constitutional officers are Sheriff Gary Schafer (Ocean City, 2014),[49][50] Surrogate M. Susan Sheppard (Ocean City, 2015)[51] and County Clerk Rita Fulginiti (Ocean City, 2013).[52]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 1,470 registered voters in Woodbine, of which 286 (19.5%) were registered as Democrats, 537 (36.5%) were registered as Republicans and 647 (44.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.[53]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 66.4% of the vote here (708 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain, who received 29.8% (318 votes), with 1,066 ballots cast among the borough's 1,386 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.9%.[54] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 59.0% of the vote here (526 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received around 38.6% (344 votes), with 891 ballots cast among the borough's 1,344 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 66.3.[55]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 56.5% of the vote here (476 ballots cast), ahead of both Republican Chris Christie with 29.2% (246 votes) and Independent Chris Daggett with 3.3% (28 votes), with 842 ballots cast among the borough's 1,540 registered voters, yielding a 54.7% turnout.[56]

History[edit]

Woodbine was founded in 1891 as a settlement for Eastern European Jews. The Baron DeHirsch Fund, organized by philanthropist Maurice de Hirsch, purchased 5,300 acres (21 km2) of land in Dennis Township, in Cape May County, New Jersey to start a settlement. Immigrants from Poland and Russia were invited to settle the new community. Within two years, they cleared the forest and built a town and thriving farms. 800 acres (3.2 km2) of land were set aside as town lots. The residential center of Woodbine still uses the same grid that was originally laid out in 1891. Using modern agricultural practices, the first colonists (Woodbine was sometimes called the "Jewish Colony" in the early days) turned Woodbine into a model agricultural community.

Woodbine was incorporated as a borough by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 3, 1903, from portions of Dennis Township.[19] Because most of the original settlers were Jewish, Woodbine became known as "the first self-governing Jewish community since the fall of Jerusalem."[57]

The community started the Baron DeHirsch Agricultural College in 1894. Until it was closed during World War I (1917), the college was a model of progressive education. The college and its graduates won many state, national, and international awards. World War I, however, signaled a change in the community from an agricultural economy to one with a light manufacturing economy. The Baron DeHirsch Agricultural College became what is today the Woodbine Developmental Center, a state-run facility for training the mentally-handicapped. The Developmental Center is Cape May County's largest employer.[58]

During World War II, the United States Army built an airfield in Woodbine to be used as a training base and as a base for anti-submarine patrols. German U-boats were very active off the East Coast of America, especially off the Jersey coast. Today, Woodbine Municipal Airport is the center of Woodbine's redevelopment efforts.[59]

Education[edit]

The Woodbine School District serves students in public school for kindergarten through eighth grade at Woodbine Elementary School. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's one school had an enrollment of 195 students and 24.2 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 8.06:1.[60]

Public school students in ninth through twelfth grades started to attend Middle Township High School as part of a sending/receiving relationship that begin with the 2013-14 school year.[61] Students had previously been sent to attend high school in Millville, as part of a relationship with the Millville Public Schools.[62] Students attended Memorial High School[63] for ninth grade and half of tenth and Millville Senior High School[64] for 10th grade through the 12th grade[65] with those in attendance as of the 2013-14 school year completing until their graduation.[66]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Woodbine include:

Transportation[edit]

Roads and highways[edit]

As of May 2010, the borough had a total of 32.45 miles (52.22 km) of roadways, of which 19.61 miles (31.56 km) were maintained by the municipality and 12.84 miles (20.66 km) by Cape May County.[70]

Public transportation[edit]

New Jersey Transit offers the 313 inter-city bus route that runs between Cape May and Philadelphia.[71][72]

Climate[edit]

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Woodbine has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[73]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 14, 2013.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 13, 2013.
  4. ^ Borough Staff, Borough of Woodbine. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  5. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 8.
  6. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Woodbine, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 14, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Woodbine borough, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 1. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Woodbine borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  10. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - 2013 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2014.
  11. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  12. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Woodbine, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed December 10, 2011.
  13. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  14. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Woodbine, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  15. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  16. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  17. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  18. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  19. ^ a b Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 116. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  20. ^ Barnett, Bob. Population Data for Cape May County Municipalities, 1810 - 2000, WestJersey.org, January 6, 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  21. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 30, 2013.
  22. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  23. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States: 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 715. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  24. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  25. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Woodbine borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  26. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Woodbine borough, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  27. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Woodbine borough, Cape May County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  28. ^ Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask", New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014.
  29. ^ "Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 6. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed December 1, 2014.
  30. ^ Borough Council Members, Borough of Woodbine. Accessed July 26, 2014. As of date accessed, 2013 term-end years are listed for Ortiz and Perez.
  31. ^ 2014 Municipal Data Sheet, Borough of Woodbine. Accessed July 26, 2014.
  32. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  33. ^ 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 66, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  34. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  35. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  36. ^ Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  37. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  38. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  39. ^ Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  40. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 14, 2014.
  41. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  42. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  43. ^ a b Freeholders Home Page, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  44. ^ Gerald M. Thornton, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  45. ^ Leonard C. Desiderio, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  46. ^ Kristine Gabor, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  47. ^ Will Morey, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  48. ^ Cape May County Installs Returning Freeholder Leonard Desiderio and Names Director and Vice-Director, Cape May County, New Jersey, January 3, 2013. Accessed January 9, 2013. "Freeholder Leonard C. Desiderio, who was re-elected in November to serve a three-year term, was sworn in by Superior Court Judge J. Christopher Gibson.... Additionally at the meeting, Freeholder Gerald M. Thornton was re-elected Director of the Board and Freeholder Desiderio was elected Vice-Director."
  49. ^ Sheriff's Office, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  50. ^ Sheriff, Cape May County Sheriff. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  51. ^ Surrogate, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  52. ^ County Clerk's Office, Cape May County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
  53. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Cape May, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  54. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  55. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  56. ^ 2009 Governor: Cape May County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed October 18, 2012.
  57. ^ Shaw, Albert. The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Volume 36, p. 354. Accessed July 30, 2013.
  58. ^ Leach, Ben. "Explosion rocks vacant laundryroom at Woodbine State School, no one injured", The Press of Atlantic City, August 2, 2010. Accessed July 30, 2013. "The Woodbine Developmental Center is a state-run facility for training of the handicapped and is Cape May County's largest employer."
  59. ^ Woodbine Municipal Airport, Borough of Woodbine. Accessed July 30, 2013.
  60. ^ District information for Woodbine School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed June 11, 2014.
  61. ^ Middle Township High School 2013 School Report Card, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed July 26, 2014. "Middle Township High School is a four-year, accredited, comprehensive high school situated in central Cape May County. The school serves the communities of Middle Township, Dennis Township, Avalon, Stone Harbor, and now Woodbine Borough."
  62. ^ Campbell, Al. "Woodbine School Proposes Consolidation with Middle Schools", Cape May County Herald, February 27, 2008. Accessed April 6, 2011. "One key factor, said Kopakowski, is Woodbine’s sending-receiving relationship with Millville School District. That Cumberland County district, with about 6,400 pupils K-12 has long educated Woodbine’s high school students."
  63. ^ Memorial High School, Millville Public Schools. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  64. ^ Millville Senior High School, Millville Public Schools. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  65. ^ Schools Directory, Millville Public Schools. Accessed September 1, 2013.
  66. ^ Campbell, Al. 'Woodbine Freshmen to Enter Middle Township High School in September", Cape May County Herald, August 7, 2013. Accessed July 26, 2014. "That’s due the July 29 decision by state Commissioner of Education Chris Cerf to permit eighth grade graduates from Woodbine to enter Middle Township High School instead of Millville High School. Pupils presently enrolled at Millville High School from Woodbine will graduate from there, to minimize impact on them."
  67. ^ Staff. "Woodbine's history recalled", Courier Post, April 16, 2001. Accessed August 22, 2011. "'It was like a large extended family here', said Julie Meranze-Levitt, whose grandfather Joseph Rabinowitz was the borough's third mayor".
  68. ^ Exhibits: Farming & Factories - Joseph Rabinowitz, Sam Azeez Museum of Woodbine Heritage. Accessed August 22, 2011.
  69. ^ Formal portrait of Lena and Joseph Rabinowitz on the occasion of their 50th Anniversary September 29th, 1948. Joseph Rabinowitz was a former mayor of Woodbine, NJ., Children's Clothing Company, Woodbine, NJ., Woodbine Children's Clothing Company, Woodbine, NJ., Images of Joseph Rabinowitz and Woodbine from the Temple University Library. Accessed August 22, 2011.
  70. ^ May.pdf Cape May County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  71. ^ Cape May County Bus/Rail Connections, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  72. ^ South Jersey Transit Guide, Cross County Connection, as of April 1, 2010. Accessed December 15, 2014.
  73. ^ Climate Summary for Woodbine, New Jersey

External links[edit]