Wool

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Wool just before processing
Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Booneville, Arkansas
Wool section, Walcha show. The creamy fleeces on the left are crossbred wool.

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.[1]

Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters).[2] While in the United States the term wool is usually restricted to describing the fibrous protein derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles in sheep, in the UK the term may be used of any long curling fiber such as wood wool, wire wool, etc.[3]

Characteristics[edit]

Champion hogget fleece, Walcha Show
Fleece of fine New Zealand Merino wool and combed wool top on a wool table

Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Insulation works both ways: Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes to keep heat out and protect the body.

Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together.

The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while the coarser wools like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, and little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. The relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting, or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland.

Wool fibers are hydrophilic, meaning they readily absorb moisture, but are not hollow. Wool can absorb moisture almost one-third of its own weight.[4] Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics. It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes.

Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers. It has a lower rate of flame spread, a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, and does not melt or drip;[5] it forms a char which is insulating and self-extinguishing, and it contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products when used in carpets.[6] Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire.[6]

Wool is considered by the medical profession to be hypoallergenic.[6][dubious ]

Processing[edit]

Shearing[edit]

Fine Merino shearing Lismore, Victoria

Sheep shearing is the process by which the woolen fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken, bellies, and locks. The quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified person called a wool classer groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner. In Australia and New Zealand, before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, yield (including the amount of vegetable matter), staple length, staple strength, and sometimes color and comfort factor.

Scouring[edit]

Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool"[7] or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, pesticides, and vegetable matter. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali and specialized equipment.[8] In North West England special Potash pits were constructed to produce Potash used in the manufacture of a soft soap for scouring locally produced white wool.

In commercial wool, vegetable matter is often removed by chemical carbonization.[citation needed][9] In less-processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand and some of the lanolin left intact through the use of gentler detergents. This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into particularly water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is widely used in cosmetic products such as hand creams.

Quality[edit]

Various types and natural colors of wool, and a picture made from wool

The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, crimp, yield, color, and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price.

Merino wool is typically 3–5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12 and 24 microns).[10] The finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibers 1.5 to 6 inches (38 to 152 mm) in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break.[11]

Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns and also its style. These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. For example:

  • <15.5 - Ultrafine Merino[7]
  • 15.6–18.5 – Superfine Merino
  • 18.6–20 – Fine Merino[7]
  • 20.1–23 – Medium Merino
  • >23 - Strong Merino[7]
  • Comeback: 21–26 microns, white, 90–180 mm long
  • Fine crossbred: 27–31 microns, Corriedales, etc.
  • Medium crossbred: 32–35 microns
  • Downs: 23–34 microns, typically lacks luster and brightness. Examples, Aussiedown, Dorset Horn, Suffolk, etc.[12]
  • Coarse crossbred: >36 microns
  • Carpet wools: 35–45 microns[7]

Any wool finer than 25 microns can be used for garments, while coarser grades are used for outerwear or rugs. The finer the wool, the softer it is, while coarser grades are more durable and less prone to pilling.

The finest Australian and New Zealand Merino wools are known as 1PP, which is the industry benchmark of excellence for Merino wool 16.9 microns and finer. This style represents the top level of fineness, character, color, and style as determined on the basis of a series of parameters in accordance with the original dictates of British Wool as applied today by the Australian Wool Exchange (AWEX) Council. Only a few dozen of the millions of bales auctioned every year can be classified and marked 1PP.[13]

History[edit]

1905 illustration of a Tibetan man spinning wool.

Wild sheep were more hairy than woolly. Although sheep were domesticated nine to eleven thousand years ago, archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC,[14][15] with the earliest woven wool garments having only been dated to two to three thousand years later.[16] Woolly-sheep were introduced into Europe from the Near East in the early part of the 4th millennium BC. The oldest known European wool textile, ca. 1500 BC, was preserved in a Danish bog.[17]

Prior to invention of shears—probably in the Iron Age—the wool was plucked out by hand or by bronze combs. In Roman times, wool, linen, and leather clothed the European population; the cotton of India was a curiosity that only naturalists had heard of; and silk, imported along the Silk Road from China, was an extravagant luxury. Pliny the Elder records in his Natural History that the reputation for producing the finest wool was enjoyed by Tarentum, where selective breeding had produced sheep with a superior fleece, but which required special care.

In medieval times, as trade connections expanded, the Champagne fairs revolved around the production of wool cloth in small centers such as Provins. The network developed by the annual fairs meant that the woolens of Provins might find their way to Naples, Sicily, Cyprus, Majorca, Spain, and even Constantinople.[18] The wool trade developed into serious business, a generator of capital. In the 13th century, the wool trade became the economic engine of the Low Countries and central Italy. By the end of the 14th century, Italy predominated, though Italian production turned to silk in the 16th century.[18] Both pre-industries, based on the export of English raw wool, were rivaled only by the 15th century sheepwalks of Castile and were a significant source of income to the English crown, which in 1275 had imposed an export tax on wool called the "Great Custom". The importance of wool to the English economy can be seen in the fact that since the 14th century the presiding officer of the House of Lords has sat on the "Woolsack", a chair stuffed with wool.

Economies of scale were instituted in the Cistercian houses, which had accumulated great tracts of land during the 12th and early 13th centuries, when land prices were low and labor still scarce. Raw wool was baled and shipped from North Sea ports to the textile cities of Flanders, notably Ypres and Ghent, where it was dyed and worked up as cloth. At the time of the Black Death, English textile industries accounted for about 10% of English wool production;[19] the English textile trade grew during the 15th century, to the point where export of wool was discouraged. Over the centuries, various British laws controlled the wool trade or required the use of wool even in burials. The smuggling of wool out of the country, known as owling, was at one time punishable by the cutting off of a hand. After the Restoration, fine English woolens began to compete with silks in the international market, partly aided by the Navigation Acts; in 1699, the English crown forbade its American colonies to trade wool with anyone but England herself.

A great deal of the value of woolen textiles was in the dyeing and finishing of the woven product. In each of the centers of the textile trade, the manufacturing process came to be subdivided into a collection of trades, overseen by an entrepreneur in a system called by the English the "putting-out" system, or "cottage industry", and the Verlagssystem by the Germans. In this system of producing wool cloth, until recently perpetuated in the production of Harris tweeds, the entrepreneur provides the raw materials and an advance, the remainder being paid upon delivery of the product. Written contracts bound the artisans to specified terms. Fernand Braudel traces the appearance of the system in the 13th-century economic boom, quoting a document of 1275.[18] The system effectively bypassed the guilds' restrictions.

Before the flowering of the Renaissance, the Medici and other great banking houses of Florence had built their wealth and banking system on their textile industry based on wool, overseen by the Arte della Lana, the wool guild: wool textile interests guided Florentine policies. Francesco Datini, the "merchant of Prato", established in 1383 an Arte della Lana for that small Tuscan city. The sheepwalks of Castile shaped the landscape and the fortunes of the meseta that lies in the heart of the Iberian peninsula; in the 16th century, a unified Spain allowed export of Merino lambs only with royal permission. The German wool market – based on sheep of Spanish origin – did not overtake British wool until comparatively late. The Industrial Revolution introduced mass production technology into wool and wool cloth manufacturing. Australia's colonial economy was based on sheep raising, and the Australian wool trade eventually overtook that of the Germans by 1845, furnishing wool for Bradford, which developed as the heart of industrialized woolens production.

A World War I-era poster sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture encouraging children to raise sheep to provide needed war supplies.

Due to decreasing demand with increased use of synthetic fibers, wool production is much less than what it was in the past. The collapse in the price of wool began in late 1966 with a 40% drop; with occasional interruptions, the price has tended down. The result has been sharply reduced production and movement of resources into production of other commodities, in the case of sheep growers, to production of meat.[20][21][22]

Superwash wool (or washable wool) technology first appeared in the early 1970s to produce wool that has been specially treated so it is machine washable and may be tumble-dried. This wool is produced using an acid bath that removes the "scales" from the fiber, or by coating the fiber with a polymer that prevents the scales from attaching to each other and causing shrinkage. This process results in a fiber that holds longevity and durability over synthetic materials, while retaining its shape.[23]

In December 2004, a bale of the world's finest wool, averaging 11.8 microns, sold for $3,000 per kilogram at auction in Melbourne, Victoria. This fleece wool tested with an average yield of 74.5%, 68 mm long, and had 40 newtons per kilotex[24] strength. The result was A$279,000 for the bale.[25] The finest bale of wool ever auctioned was sold for a seasonal record of 269,000 cents per kilo during June 2008. This bale was produced by the Hillcreston Pinehill Partnership and measured 11.6 microns, 72.1% yield and had a 43 newtons per kilotex strength measurement. The bale realized $247,480 and was exported to India.[26]

In 2007, a new wool suit was developed and sold in Japan that can be washed in the shower, and which dries off ready to wear within hours with no ironing required. The suit was developed using Australian Merino wool, and it enables woven products made from wool, such as suits, trousers, and skirts, to be cleaned using a domestic shower at home.[27]

In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of wool and other natural fibers.

Production[edit]

Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tonnes per year, of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second-largest producer of wool, and the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third-largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln, Romney, Tukidale, Drysdale and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool from these sheep is usually used for making carpets.

In the United States, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). There is also a thriving home-flock contingent of small-scale farmers who raise small hobby flocks of specialty sheep for the hand spinning market. These small-scale farmers offer a wide selection of fleece. Global woolclip (total amount of wool shorn) 2004/2005[28]

  1.  Australia: 25% of global woolclip (475 million kg greasy, 2004/2005)
  2.  China: 18%
  3.  United States: 17%
  4.  New Zealand: 11%
  5.  Argentina: 3%
  6.  Turkey: 2%
  7.  Iran: 2%
  8.  United Kingdom: 2%
  9.  India: 2%
  10.  Sudan: 2%
  11.  South Africa: 1%

Organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia.[29] It is becoming easier to find in clothing and other products, but these products often carry a higher price. Wool is environmentally preferable (as compared to petroleum-based nylon or polypropylene) as a material for carpets, as well, in particular when combined with a natural binding and the use of formaldehyde-free glues.

Animal rights groups have noted issues with the production of wool, such as mulesing.

Marketing[edit]

Australia[edit]

Merino wool samples for sale by auction, Newcastle, New South Wales.

About 85% of wool sold in Australia is sold by open cry auction.[citation needed] 'Sale by sample' is a method in which a mechanical claw takes a sample from each bale in a line or lot of wool. These grab samples are bulked, objectively measured, and a sample of not less than 4 kg is displayed in a box for the buyer to examine. The Australian Wool Exchange conducts sales primarily in Sydney, Melbourne, Newcastle, and Fremantle. There are about 80 brokers and agents throughout Australia.[citation needed]

Wool received by Australian brokers and dealers (tonnes/quarter) since 1973
Wool buyers' room at a wool auction, Newcastle, New South Wales.

About 7% of Australian wool is sold by private treaty on farms or to local wool-handling facilities. This option gives wool growers benefit from reduced transport, warehousing, and selling costs. This method is preferred for small lots or mixed butts in order to make savings on reclassing and testing.

About 5% of Australian wool is sold over the internet on an electronic offer board.[citation needed] This option gives wool growers the ability to set firm price targets, reoffer passed-in wool and offer lots to the market quickly and efficiently. This method works well for tested lots, as buyers use these results to make a purchase. About 97% of wool is sold without sample inspection; however, as of December 2009, 59% of wool listed had been passed in from auction.[citation needed] Growers through certain brokers can allocate their wool to a sale and at what price their wool will be reserved.

Sale by tender can achieve considerable cost savings on wool clips large enough to make it worthwhile for potential buyers to submit tenders. Some marketing firms sell wool on a consignment basis, obtaining a fixed percentage as commission.

Forward selling: Some buyers offer a secure price for forward delivery of wool based on estimated measurements or the results of previous clips. Prices are quoted at current market rates and are locked in for the season. Premiums and discounts are added to cover variations in micron, yield, tensile strength, etc., which are confirmed by actual test results when available.[citation needed]

Another method of selling wool includes sales direct to wool mills.

Other countries[edit]

The British Wool Marketing Board operates a central marketing system for UK fleece wool with the aim of achieving the best possible net returns for farmers.

Less than half of New Zealand's wool is sold at auction, while around 45% of farmers sell wool directly to private buyers and end-users.[30]

United States sheep producers market wool with private or cooperative wool warehouses, but wool pools are common in many states. In some cases, wool is pooled in a local market area, but sold through a wool warehouse. Wool offered with objective measurement test results is preferred. Imported apparel wool and carpet wool goes directly to central markets, where it is handled by the large merchants and manufacturers.[31]

Yarn[edit]

Worsted wool yarn, the first step in the manufacture of most wool clothing.

Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time.[32]

Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and respinning the resulting fibers.[32] As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. The recycled wool may be mixed with raw wool, wool noil, or another fiber such as cotton to increase the average fiber length. Such yarns are typically used as weft yarns with a cotton warp. This process was invented in the Heavy Woollen District of West Yorkshire and created a micro-economy in this area for many years.

Rag is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications such as gloves.

Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface.[32]

Woolen is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting.[32] In traditional weaving, woolen weft yarn (for softness and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom.[33]

Uses[edit]

Woolen garments in the wool samples area of a wool store, Newcastle, New South Wales.

In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, felt, wool insulation (also see links) and upholstery. Wool felt covers piano hammers, and it is used to absorb odors and noise in heavy machinery and stereo speakers. Ancient Greeks lined their helmets with felt, and Roman legionnaires used breastplates made of wool felt.

Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers. Wool fiber exteriors are hydrophobic (repel water) and the interior of the wool fiber is hygroscopic (attracts water); this makes a wool garment able to cover a wet diaper while inhibiting wicking, so outer garments remain dry. Wool felted and treated with lanolin is water resistant, air permeable, and slightly antibacterial, so it resists the buildup of odor. Some modern cloth diapers use felted wool fabric for covers, and there are several modern commercial knitting patterns for wool diaper covers.

Initial studies of woolen underwear have found it prevented heat and sweat rashes because it more readily absorbs the moisture than other fibers.[34]

Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such as swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.

As an animal protein, it can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a slow-release source of nitrogen and ready-made amino acids.

Researchers at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology school of fashion and textiles have discovered a blend of wool and kevlar, the synthetic fiber widely used in body armor, was lighter, cheaper and worked better in damp conditions than kevlar alone. Kevlar, when used alone, loses about 20% of its effectiveness when wet and therefore required an expensive waterproofing process. Wool increased friction in a vest with 28–30 layers of fabric, to provide the same level of bullet resistance as 36 layers of Kevlar alone.[35]

Events[edit]

Andean woman sorting wool as part of the theme park Los Aleros in Mérida, Venezuela.

A buyer of Merino wool, Ermenegildo Zegna, has offered awards for Australian wool producers. In 1963 the first Ermenegildo Zegna Perpetual Trophy was presented in Tasmania for growers of "Superfine skirted Merino fleece". In 1980, a national award, the Ermenegildo Zegna Trophy for Extrafine Wool Production, was launched. In 2004, this award became known as the Ermenegildo Zegna Unprotected Wool Trophy. In 1998, an Ermenegildo Zegna Protected Wool Trophy was launched for fleece from sheep coated for around nine months of the year.

In 2002, the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum Trophy was launched for wool that is 13.9 micron and finer. Wool from Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, and South Africa may enter, and a winner is named from each country.[36] In April 2008, New Zealand won the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum Trophy for the first time with a fleece that measured 10.8 microns. This contest awards the winning fleece weight with the same weight in gold as a prize, hence the name.

In 2010 an ultra-fine, 10 micron fleece, from Windradeen, near Pyramul, New South Wales, set a new world record in the fineness of wool fleeces when it won the Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum International Trophy.[37]

Since 2000, Loro Piana has awarded a cup for the world's finest bale of wool that produces just enough fabric for 50 tailor-made suits. The prize is awarded to an Australian or New Zealand wool grower who produces the year's finest bale.[38]

The New England Merino Field days which display local studs, wool, and sheep are held during January, every two years (in even numbered years) around the Walcha, New South Wales district. The Annual Wool Fashion Awards, which showcase the use of Merino wool by fashion designers, are hosted by the city of Armidale, New South Wales, in March each year. This event encourages young and established fashion designers to display their talents. During each May, Armidale hosts the annual New England Wool Expo to display wool fashions, handicrafts, demonstrations, shearing competitions, yard dog trials, and more.[1]

In July, the annual Australian Sheep and Wool Show is held in Bendigo, Victoria. This is the largest sheep and wool show in the world, with goats and alpacas as well as woolcraft competitions and displays, fleece competitions, sheepdog trials, shearing, and wool handling. The largest competition in the world for objectively measured fleeces is the Australian Fleece Competition, which is held annually at Bendigo. In 2008 there were 475 entries from all states of Australia with first and second prizes going to the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales fleeces.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Braaten, Ann W. (2005). "Wool". In Steele, Valerie. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion 3. Thomson Gale. pp. 441–443. ISBN 0-684-31394-4. 
  2. ^ D'Arcy, J. B., Sheep and Wool Technology, NSW University Press, Kensington, 1986 ISBN 0-86840-106-4
  3. ^ Australian Wool Corporation, Australian Wool Classing, Raw Wool Services, 1990
  4. ^ Wool Facts. Aussiesheepandwool.com.au. Retrieved on 2012-08-05.
  5. ^ Wool History. Tricountyfarm.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-05.
  6. ^ a b c The Land, Merinos – Going for Green and Gold, p.46, US use flame resistance, 21 August 2008
  7. ^ a b c d e Preparation of Australian Wool Clips, Code of Practice 2010–2012, Australian Wool Exchange (AWEX), 2010
  8. ^ "Technology in Australia 1788–1988". Australian Science and Technology Heritage Center. 2001. Retrieved 2006-04-30. 
  9. ^ A study of wool carbonizing / by Wu Zhao. - Version details - Trove
  10. ^ "Merino Sheep in Australia". Archived from the original on 2006-11-05. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  11. ^ Van Nostran, Don. "Wool Management – Maximizing Wool Returns". Mid-States Wool growers Cooperative Association. Archived from the original on 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  12. ^ D'Arcy, J.B., Sheep Management & Wool Technology, NSW University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-86840-106-4
  13. ^ 1PP Certification. awex.com.au
  14. ^ Ensminger, M. E.; R. O. Parker (1986). Sheep and Goat Science, Fifth Edition. Danville, Illinois: The Interstate Printers and Publishers Inc. ISBN 0-8134-2464-X. 
  15. ^ Weaver, Sue (2005). Sheep: small-scale sheep keeping for pleasure and profit. 3 Burroughs Irvine, CA 92618: Hobby Farm Press, an imprint of BowTie Press, a division of BowTie Inc. ISBN 1-931993-49-1. 
  16. ^ Smith M.S., Barbara; Mark Aseltine, Gerald Kennedy DVM (1997). Beginning Shepherd's Manual, Second Edition. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-2799-X. 
  17. ^ "Fibre history". Woolmark. Archived from the original on 2006-08-28. 
  18. ^ a b c Fernand Braudel, 1982. The Wheels of Commerce, vol 2 of Civilization and Capitalism (New York:Harper & Row), pp.312–317
  19. ^ Cantor 2001, 64
  20. ^ "The end of pastoral dominance". Teara.govt.nz (2009-03-03). Retrieved on 2012-08-05.
  21. ^ 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2000, Australian Bureau of Statistics
  22. ^ "Sheep, Lamb, Mutton And Goat Meat[dead link]. Fas.usda.gov (1996-11-22). Retrieved on 2012-08-05.
  23. ^ Superwash Wool Retrieved on 10 November 2008
  24. ^ Kilotex
  25. ^ World’s Finest Bale Record Broken. landmark.com.au, 22 November 2004
  26. ^ Country Leader, NSW Wool Sells for a Quarter of a Million, 7 July 2008
  27. ^ Shower suit Retrieved on 11 November 2008
  28. ^ WoolFacts (PDF). Australian Wool Innovation. September 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-11-28. 
  29. ^ Speer, Jordan K. (2006-05-01). "Shearing the Edge of Innovation". Apparel Magazine. 
  30. ^ Wool Production in New Zealand. maf.govt.nz
  31. ^ Wool Marketing. sheepusa.org
  32. ^ a b c d Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007, ISBN 0-13-118769-4, p. 63
  33. ^ Østergård, Else: Woven into the Earth: Textiles from Norse Greenland , Aarhus University Press, 2004, ISBN 87-7288-935-7, p. 50
  34. ^ ABC Rural Radio: Woodhams, Dr. Libby, New research shows woollen underwear helps prevent rashes Retrieved 2010-3-24
  35. ^ Blenkin, Max (2011-04-11). "Wool's tough new image". Country Leader. 
  36. ^ "2004/51/1 Trophy and plaque, Ermenegildo Zegna Vellus Aureum trophy and plaque, plaster / bronze / silver / gold, trophy designed and made by Not Vital for Ermenegildo Zegna, Switzerland, 2001". Powerhouse Museum, Sydney. Retrieved 2008-04-27. 
  37. ^ Country Leader, 26 April 2010, Finest wool rewarded, Rural Press, North Richmond
  38. ^ Australian Wool Network News, Issue #19, July 2008
  39. ^ Walcha News (2008-07-24, Fletcher Wins Australian Fleece Comp, p. 3

External links[edit]