Woolworth Building

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Woolworth Building
View of Woolworth Building fixed crop.jpg
c.1913
Record height
Tallest in the world from 1913 to 1930[I]
Preceded by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
Surpassed by 40 Wall Street
General information
Location 233 Broadway
Manhattan, New York City
Construction started 1910
Completed 1913
Opening April 24, 1913
Cost US$13.5 million
Owner Witkoff Group
Height
Roof 241.4 m (792 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 57
Lifts/elevators 34
Design and construction
Architect Cass Gilbert
Structural engineer Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle
Woolworth Building
Woolworth Building is located in New York City
Woolworth Building
Coordinates 40°42′44″N 74°00′29″W / 40.71222°N 74.00806°W / 40.71222; -74.00806Coordinates: 40°42′44″N 74°00′29″W / 40.71222°N 74.00806°W / 40.71222; -74.00806
Area 0.5 acres (0.2 ha)
NRHP Reference # 66000554
Significant dates
Added to NRHP 11/13/1966
Designated NYCL April 12, 1983
References
[1][2][3]

The Woolworth Building, at 233 Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, designed by architect Cass Gilbert and completed in 1913, is an early US skyscraper. The original site for the building was purchased by F. W. Woolworth and his real estate agent Edward J. Hogan by April 15, 1910, from the Trenor Luther Park Estate and other owners for $1.65 million. By January 18, 1911, Woolworth and Hogan had acquired the final site for the project, totaling $4.5 million. More than a century after the start of its construction, it remains, at 241.4 meters (792 ft), one of the one-hundred tallest buildings in the United States as well as one of the twenty tallest buildings in New York City. It has been a National Historic Landmark since 1966,[4][5][6] and a New York City landmark since 1983.[7]

Architecture[edit]

The Woolworth Building was designed in the neo-Gothic style by the architect Cass Gilbert, who Frank Woolworth commissioned in 1910 to design a 20-story office building [7] as the F. W. Woolworth Company's new corporate headquarters on Broadway, between Park Place and Barclay Street in Lower Manhattan, opposite City Hall. Originally designed to be 420 feet (130 m) high, the building was eventually elevated to 792 feet (241 m).[citation needed] At its opening, the Woolworth Building was 60 stories tall and had over 5,000 windows.[8] The construction cost was US$13.5 million. With Irving National Exchange Bank Woolworth set up the Broadway-Park Place Company to finance the building, but by May 1914, had purchased all of the shares from the bank, thus owning the building outright. On completion, the Woolworth building topped the record set by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower as the world's tallest building.

The building opened on April 24, 1913. President Woodrow Wilson turned the lights on by way of a button in Washington, D.C. that evening.[8]

Under construction

Given its resemblance to European Gothic cathedrals, the structure was called "The Cathedral of Commerce" by the Reverend S. Parkes Cadman in a booklet of the same title published in 1916.[8][9][10] It remained the tallest building in the world until the construction of 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building, also in New York City, in 1930; an observation deck on the 57th floor attracted visitors until 1941.

The building's tower, flush with the main frontage on Broadway, joins an office block base with a narrow interior court for light. The exterior decoration was cast in limestone-colored, glazed architectural terra-cotta panels.[8] Strongly articulated piers, carried—without interrupting cornices—right to the pyramidal cap, give the building its upward thrust. The Gothic detailing concentrated at the highly visible crown is over scaled, able to be read from the street level several hundred feet below.[citation needed]

Engineers Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle designed the steel frame, supported on massive caissons that penetrate to the bedrock. The high-speed elevators were innovative, and the building's high office-to-elevator ratio made the structure profitable.[citation needed]

The ornate, cruciform lobby, is "one of the most spectacular of the early 20th century in New York City".[7] It is covered in Skyros veined marble,[9] has a vaulted ceiling, mosaics, a stained-glass ceiling light and bronze fittings. Over the balconies of the mezzanine are the murals Labor and Commerce. Corbel sculptures include Gilbert with a model of the building, Aus taking a girder's measurements, and Woolworth counting nickels.[7][9] Woolworth's private office, revetted in marble in the French Empire style, has been preserved.[citation needed]

The building's facade was restored between 1977 and 1981 by the Ehrenkrantz Group,[9] during which much of the terra-cotta was replaced with cast stone and Gothic ornament was removed.[7]

Tenants[edit]

At the building's completion, the F. W. Woolworth Company occupied only one and a half floors of the building,[7] but, as the owner, profited from renting space out to others, including the Irving National Exchange Bank and Columbia Records. Columbia Records had moved into the building in 1913 and housed a recording studio in it.[11] In 1917, Columbia made a recording of a dixieland band, the Original Dixieland Jass Band in this studio.[12][13]

Recent history[edit]

The building was owned by the Woolworth company for 85 years until 1998, when the Venator Group (formerly the F. W. Woolworth Company) sold it to the Witkoff Group for $155 million.[14] Until recently, that company kept a presence in the building through a Foot Locker store (Foot Locker is the successor to the Woolworth Company).

The building's crown

Prior to its 2001 destruction, the World Trade Center was often photographed in such a way that the Woolworth Building could be seen between 1 and 2 World Trade Center.[citation needed] After the September 11, 2001, attacks a few blocks away, the building was without electricity, water and telephone service for a few weeks and had broken windows and the top turret was damaged by falling rubble. Increased post-attack security restricted access to most of the ornate lobby, previously a tourist attraction.[15]

The structure has a long association with higher education, housing a number of Fordham University schools in the early 20th century. Today, the building houses, among other tenants, TTA Inc., Control Group Inc. and the New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies' Center for Global Affairs.[citation needed]

In August 2012, The New York Times reported that an investment group led by Alchemy Properties, a New York developer, bought the top 30 floors of the landmark on July 31 for $68 million from the Witkoff Group and Cammeby's International. The firm plans to renovate the space into luxury apartments and convert the penthouse into a five-level living space. The lower 28 floors are still owned by the Witkoff Group and Cammeby International, who plan to lease them as office space.

The project will cost approximately $150 million, according to the article, including its $68 million purchase price. Although apartment prices have not been set, they may sell for as much as $3,000 a square foot, said Howard Lorber, chairman of the brokerage firm Prudential Douglas Elliman. That could mean $7.5 million for a 2,500-square-foot unit.[citation needed]

Part of the lobby

In popular culture[edit]

  • The Lincoln American Tower in Memphis, Tennessee, built in 1924, is a small replica of the building, standing at one-third its height.
  • On film, the building has been referenced several times: In the 1949 film On the Town, it is one of the places Chip wants to visit because his out-dated travel guide lists it as the tallest building in the world. In the 2007 Disney film Enchanted, the building is the site of the film's grand climax; and in the opening scenes of the 2008 film Cloverfield, the building is depicted collapsing after an enormous monster critically damages it.[16]
  • The building is shown as the headquarters of Meade Publications in the 2006 television series, Ugly Betty.[16]
  • In the 2007 novel Peak, the protagonist is arrested for climbing the building.
  • The "Woodworld Building" in the 2008 video game Grand Theft Auto IV mimics the Woolworth Building in its name, architectural style and street address number.
  • In Baz Luhrmann's 2013 adaption of The Great Gatsby, Nick Carraway works in the building as a stock broker for Chase. In an opening scene, a spectacular pan down from the top of the building is shown.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Woolworth Building at Emporis
  2. ^ Woolworth Building at SkyscraperPage
  3. ^ Woolworth Building at Structurae
  4. ^ "Woolworth Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 23, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  5. ^ Patricia Heintzelman and Cecil McKithan (January 6, 1978). "The Woolworth Building" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. National Park Service. 
  6. ^ "The Woolworth Building--Accompanying 3 photos, exterior, from 1975.". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. National Park Service. January 6, 1978. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Postal, Matthew A. (ed. and text); Dolkart, Andrew S. (text). (2009) Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.) New York:John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, p. 25.
  8. ^ a b c d "Study for Woolworth Building, New York". World Digital Library. 1910-12-10. Retrieved 2013-07-25. 
  9. ^ a b c d White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5. , p. 67.
  10. ^ Sutton, Philip. "The Woolworth Building: The Cathedral of Commerce". Blogs. New York Public Library. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Hoffman, Frank, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, New York & London : Routledge, 1993 & 2005, Volume 1. Cf. p. 212, article on "Columbia (Label)".
  12. ^ Cogan, Jim; Clark, William, Temples of sound : inside the great recording studios, San Francisco : Chronicle Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8118-3394-1. Cf. chapter on Columbia Studios.
  13. ^ "The Woolworth Building", NYC Architecture
  14. ^ recordonline.com - The Times Herald-Record, serving New York’s Hudson Valley and the Catskills[dead link]
  15. ^ Fendrich, Laurie (January 8, 2008). "American Architectural Wonder: Keep Out". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  16. ^ a b Soll, Lindsay (October 17, 2008). "The Deep Dive: Made in NYC". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 21, 2010. 

Bibliography

External links[edit]


Records
Preceded by
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
Tallest building in the world
1913–1930
Succeeded by
40 Wall Street
Tallest building in the United States
1913–1930