Word clock

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For the record label, see Wordclock Records.

A word clock or wordclock (sometimes sample clock, which can have a broader meaning)[further explanation needed] is a clock signal used to synchronise other devices, such as digital audio tape machines and compact disc players, which interconnect via digital audio. S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, and TDIF are some of the formats that use a word clock. Various audio over Ethernet systems use broadcast packets to distribute the word clock. The device which generates the word clock is the master clock.

Word clock is so named because it clocks each sample. Samples are represented in data words.

Comparison to timecode[edit]

Word clock should not be confused with timecode; word clock is used entirely to keep a perfectly timed and constant bitrate to avoid data errors. Timecode is actual data (technically metadata) about the media being transmitted, and is optional, being sent in a higher layer. Time code can be used as an initial phase reference for jam sync using the word clock as the frequency reference.

Word clock over coax cable[edit]

Professional digital audio equipment may have a word clock input or output to synchronize timing between multiple devices. Although the electrical characteristics of the word clock signal have not been completely standardized, some characteristics should always apply. Things that should remain consistent are a 75ohm output impedance, 75ohm cables and a 75ohm terminating resistor at the end of a chain or cable.

Proper termination of the word clock signal with a 75ohm resistor is important. It prevents the clock signal from reflecting back into the cable and causing false detection of extra 1's and 0's. Some digital equipment include a switchable terminator, some include a hardwired terminator and others have no terminator at all. The unfortunate part is that some equipment manuals do not indicate whether a hardwired terminator is included or not.[1]

Word clock over AES3[edit]

The AES11 standard defines a means for carrying a word clock over an AES3 connection. In this context the word clock is known as a Digital Audio Reference Signal (DARS).

See also[edit]

References[edit]