In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders. Correlations between orders found in different syntactic sub-domains are also of interest. The primary word orders that are of interest are the constituent order of a clause – the relative order of subject, object, and verb; the order of modifiers (adjectives, numerals, demonstratives, possessives, and adjuncts) in a noun phrase; and the order of adverbials.
Some languages use relatively restrictive word order, often relying on the order of constituents to convey important grammatical information. Others—often those that convey grammatical information through inflection—allow more flexibility, which can be used to encode pragmatic information such as topicalisation or focus. Most languages, however, have a preferred word order.
Most nominative–accusative languages—which have a major word class of nouns and clauses that include subject and object—define constituent word order in terms of the finite verb (V) and its arguments, the subject (S), and object (O).
There are six theoretically possible basic word orders for the transitive sentence: subject–verb–object (SVO), subject–object–verb (SOV), verb–subject–object (VSO), verb–object–subject (VOS), object–subject–verb (OSV) and object–verb–subject (OVS). The overwhelming majority of the world's languages are either SVO or SOV, with a much smaller but still significant portion using VSO word order. The remaining three arrangements are exceptionally rare, with VOS being slightly more common than OSV, and OVS being significantly more rare than the two preceding orders.
- 1 Finding the basic constituent of word order and mode of transmission
- 2 Constituent word orders
- 3 Functions of constituent word order
- 4 Phrase word orders and branching
- 5 Pragmatic word order
- 6 Other issues
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Finding the basic constituent of word order and mode of transmission
According to Nobel prize winner Murray Gell-Mann, based on his decades-long comprehensive lab studies, the distribution of word order types in the world’s languages, interpreted in terms of the putative phylogenetic tree of human languages, was originally SOV. This distribution expanded rather recently (sometime after Y chromosomal Adam, "out of Africa"). SOV word order followed the phylogenetic tree of languages, with the transmission of word order, to a great extent, vertical (genetic i.e. follow the phylogenetic tree of ancestry), as opposed to horizontal (areal i.e. by diffusion). A strong similarity exists between the linguistic tree and the genetic tree. It is not always easy to find the basic word order of S, O and V. First, not all languages make use of the categories of subject and object. In others, the subject and object may not form a clause with the verb. If subject and object can be identified within a clause, the problem can arise that different orders prevail in different contexts. For instance, French has SVO for nouns, but SOV when the object is a pronoun and VSO for questions; German has verb-medial order in main clauses, but verb-final order in subordinate clauses. In other languages the word order of transitive and intransitive clauses may not correspond. In still others, the rules for ordering S, O, and V may exist, but be secondary to (and often overruled by) more fundamental ordering rules – e.g., for considerations such as topic–comment. To have a valid base for comparison, the basic word order is defined[by whom?] as:
- main clause
- S and O must both be nominal arguments
- pragmatically neutral, i.e. no element has special emphasis
While the first two of these requirements are relatively easy to respect, the latter two are more difficult. In spoken language, there are hardly ever two full nouns in a clause; the norm is for the clause to have at most one noun, the other arguments being pronouns. In written language, this is somewhat different, but that is of no help when investigating oral languages. Finally, the notion of "pragmatically neutral" is difficult to test. While the English sentence "The king, they killed." has a heavy emphasis on king, in other languages, that order (OSV) might not carry a significantly higher emphasis than another order.
If all the requirements above are met, it still sometimes turns out that languages do not seem to prefer any particular word order. The last resort is text counts, but even then, some languages must be analyzed as having two (or even more) word orders.
Constituent word orders
|SOV||"She him loves."||45%||Japanese, Latin, Turkish|
|SVO||"She loves him."||42%||English, Mandarin, Russian|
|VSO||"Loves she him."||9%||Hebrew, Irish, Zapotec|
|VOS||"Loves him she."||3%||Malagasy, Baure|
|OVS||"Him loves she."||1%||Apalaí?, Hixkaryana?|
|OSV||"Him she loves."||0%||Warao|
These are all possible word orders for the subject, verb, and object in the order of most common to rarest (the examples use "I" as the subject, "see" as the verb, and "him" as the object):
- SOV is the order used by the largest number of distinct languages; languages using it include the prototypical Korean, Japanese, Mongolian, Basque, the Indo-Aryan languages and the Dravidian languages. Some, like Persian, Latin and Quechua, have SOV normal word order but conform less to the general tendencies of other such languages. A sentence glossing as "I him see" would be grammatically correct in these languages.
- SVO languages include English, the Romance languages, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Chinese and Swahili, among others. "I see him."
- VSO languages include Classical Arabic, the Insular Celtic languages, and Hawaiian. "See I him" is grammatically correct in these languages.
- VOS languages include Fijian and Malagasy. "See him I."
- OVS languages include Hixkaryana. "Him see I."
- OSV languages include Xavante and Warao. "Him I see."
Sometimes patterns are more complex: German, Dutch and Frisian have SOV in subordinates, but V2 word order in main clauses, SVO word order being the most common. Using the guidelines above, the unmarked word order is then SVO.
Others, such as Latin, Greek, Persian, Romanian, Turkish and Finnish, have no strict word order; rather, the sentence structure is highly flexible and reflects the pragmatics of the utterance. Nonetheless, there is often a preferred order; in Latin and Turkish, SOV is the most frequent outside of poetry, and in Finnish SVO is both the most frequent and obligatory when case marking fails to disambiguate argument roles. Just as languages may have different word orders in different contexts, so may they have both fixed and free word orders. For example, Russian has a relatively fixed SVO word order in transitive clauses, but a much freer SV / VS order in intransitive clauses. Cases like this can be addressed by encoding transitive and intransitive clauses separately, with the symbol 'S' being restricted to the argument of an intransitive clause, and 'A' for the actor/agent of a transitive clause. ('O' for object may be replaced with 'P' for 'patient' as well.) Thus, Russian is fixed AVO but flexible SV/VS. In such an approach, the description of word order extends more easily to languages that do not meet the criteria in the preceding section. For example, Mayan languages have been described with the rather uncommon VOS word order. However, they are ergative–absolutive languages, and the more specific word order is intransitive VS, transitive VOA, where S and O arguments both trigger the same type of agreement on the verb. Indeed, many languages that some thought had a VOS word order turn out to be ergative like Mayan.
Functions of constituent word order
A fixed or prototypical word order is one out of many ways to ease the processing of sentence semantics and reducing ambiguity. One method of making the speech stream less open to ambiguity (complete removal of ambiguity is probably impossible) is a fixed order of arguments and other sentence constituents. This works because speech is inherently linear. Another method is to label the constituents in some way, for example with case marking, agreement, or another marker. Fixed word order reduces expressiveness but added marking increases information load in the speech stream, and for these reasons strict word order seldom occurs together with strict morphological marking, one counter-example being Persian.
Observing discourse patterns, it is found that previously given information (topic) tends to precede new information (comment). Furthermore, acting participants (especially humans) are more likely to be talked about (to be topic) than things simply undergoing actions (like oranges being eaten). If acting participants are often topical, and topic tends to be expressed early in the sentence, this entails that acting participants have a tendency to be expressed early in the sentence. This tendency can then grammaticalize to a privileged position in the sentence, the subject.
The mentioned functions of word order can be seen to affect the frequencies of the various word order patterns: The vast majority of languages have an order in which S precedes O and V. Whether V precedes O or O precedes V however, has been shown to be a very telling difference with wide consequences on phrasal word orders.
Knowledge of word order on the other hand can be applied to identify the thematic relations of the NPs in a clause of an unfamiliar language. If we can identify the verb in a clause, and we know that the language is strict accusative SVO, then we know that Grob smock Blug probably means that Grob is the smocker and Blug the entity smocked. However, since very strict word order is rare in practice, such applications of word order studies are rarely effective.
Phrase word orders and branching
The order of constituents in a phrase can vary as much as the order of constituents in a clause. Normally, the noun phrase and the adpositional phrase are investigated. Within the noun phrase, one investigates whether the following modifiers occur before or after the head noun.
- adjective (red house vs house red)
- determiner (this house vs house this)
- numeral (two houses vs houses two)
- possessor (my house vs house my)
- relative clause (the by me built house vs the house built by me)
Within the adpositional clause, one investigates whether the languages makes use of prepositions (in London), postpositions (London in), or both (normally with different adpositions at both sides).
There are several common correlations between sentence-level word order and phrase-level constituent order. For example, SOV languages generally put modifiers before heads and use postpositions. VSO languages tend to place modifiers after their heads, and use prepositions. For SVO languages, either order is common.
For example, French (SVO) uses prepositions (dans la voiture, à gauche), and places adjectives after (une voiture spacieuse). However, a small class of adjectives generally go before their heads (une grande voiture). On the other hand, in English (also SVO) adjectives almost always go before nouns (a big car), and adverbs can go either way, but initially is more common (greatly improved). (English has a very small number of adjectives that go after their heads, such as extraordinaire, which kept its position when borrowed from French.)
Pragmatic word order
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007)|
Some languages have no fixed word order. These languages often use a significant amount of morphological marking to disambiguate the roles of the arguments. However, some languages use a fixed word order, even if they provide a degree of marking that would support free word order. Also, some languages with free word order—such as some varieties of Datooga—combine free word order with a lack of morphological distinction between arguments.
Typologically there is a trend that highly animate actors are more likely topical than low-animate undergoers, this trend would come through even in free-word-order languages giving a statistical bias for SO order (or OS in the case of ergative systems, however ergative systems do not usually extend to the highest levels of animacy, usually giving way to some form of nominative system at least in the pronominal system). Most languages with a high degree of morphological marking have rather flexible word orders such as Latin, Portuguese, Romanian, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, Russian (in intransitive clauses), and Finnish. In some of those, a canonical order can still be identified, but in others this is not possible.
In Hungarian, the enclitic -t marks the direct object. For "Kate ate a piece of cake", the possibilities are:
- "Kati megevett egy szelet tortát." (same word order as English) ["Kate ate a piece of cake."]
- "Egy szelet tortát Kati evett meg." (emphasis on agent [Kate]) ["A piece of cake Kate ate."]
- "Kati egy szelet tortát evett meg." (emphasis on object [cake]) ["Kate a piece of cake ate."]
- "Egy szelet tortát evett meg Kati." (emphasis on number [a piece, i.e. only one piece]) ["A piece of cake ate Kate."]
- "Megevett egy szelet tortát Kati." (emphasis on completeness of action) ["Ate a piece of cake Kate."]
- "Megevett Kati egy szelet tortát." (emphasis on completeness of action) ["Ate Kate a piece of cake."]
In Portuguese, the clitic pronouns allow many different orders:
- Eu vou entregar pra você amanhã. ["I will deliver to you tomorrow."] (same word order as English)
- Entregarei pra você amanhã. ["deliver I will to you tomorrow."]
- Eu te entregarei amanhã. ["I to you will deliver tomorrow."]
- Entregar-te-ei amanhã. ["Deliver to you I will tomorrow."] (mesoclisis allowed only in the future tense)
- A ti eu entregarei amanhã. ["To you I will deliver tomorrow."]
- A ti entregarei amanhã. ["To you deliver I will tomorrow."]
- Amanhã entregarei pra você. ["Tomorrow I will deliver to you"]
- Acaso entregaria eu a você amanhã? ["could deliver I to you tomorrow?]
In Latin, the endings of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and pronouns allow for extremely flexible order in most situations. Latin lacks articles.
- Romulus condiderat urbem. ["Romulus had founded the city."] (Same order as English)
- Romulus urbem condiderat. ["Romulus the city had founded."]
- Condiderat Romulus urbem. ["He had founded Romulus city."]
- Condiderat urbem Romulus. ["He had founded city Romulus."]
- Urbem Romulus condiderat. ["The city Romulus he had founded."]
- Urbem condiderat Romulus. ["The city he had founded Romulus."]
Romulus is in the nominative case, so it is the subject of the sentence. Urbem is the accusative case form of the third declension noun, Urbs, so it is the object of the sentence. Condiderat is the third person active indicative pluperfect form of the verb Condo, condere. It tells the relationship between Romulus and Urbem.
In theory, Latin prose generally follows the word order "Subject Indirect-Object Direct-Object Adverb Verb" (commonly known by the acronym "SIDAV"), but this is more of a guideline than a rule. Adjectives normally go after a noun they modify (either the Subject or the Object), but this is not absolutely required. In practice, there is great flexibility in word order, though the one rule usually upheld is that the Verb goes last in the sentence. Nonetheless, it is technically not incorrect grammar to use a completely different word order. Putting a word earlier in the sentence increases the emphasis on it, but this subtlety would only be particularly obvious to a native Latin speaker. However, even in Classical Latin poetry, lyricists follow word order very loosely to achieve a desired rhyming scheme. Romulus urbem condiderat (Subject Object Verb) is preferable, but there is nothing explicitly incorrect with Condiderat urbem Romulus (Verb Object Subject).
In many languages, changes in word order occur due to topicalization or in questions. However, most languages are generally assumed to have a basic word order, called the unmarked word order; other, marked word orders can then be used to emphasize a sentence element, to indicate modality (such as an interrogative modality), or for other purposes.
For example, English is SVO (subject-verb-object), as in "I don't know that", but OSV is also possible: "That I don't know." This process is called topic-fronting (or topicalization) and is common. In English, OSV is a marked word order because it emphasises the object, and is often accompanied by a change in intonation.
An example of OSV being used for emphasis:
- A: I can't see Alice. (SVO)
- B: What about Bill?
- A: Bill I can see. (OSV, rather than I can see Bill, SVO)
Non-standard word orders are also found in poetry in English, particularly archaic or romantic terms – as the wedding phrase "With this ring, I thee wed" (SOV) or "Thee I love" (OSV) – as well as in many other languages.
Differences in word order complicate translation and language education – in addition to changing the individual words, the order must also be changed. This can be simplified by first translating the individual words, then reordering the sentence, as in interlinear gloss, or by reordering the words prior to translation.
- Comrie, 1981
- Hengeveld, Kees (1992). Non-verbal predication. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Sasse, H.J.(1993) "Das Nomen – eine universelle Kategorie?" in Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung 46 (3))
- Jan Rijkhoff (2007) "Word Classes" Language and Linguistics Compass 1 (6) , 709–726 doi:10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00030.x
- Rijkhoff, Jan (2004), "The Noun Phrase", Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-926964-5
- Russel S.Tomlin;1986;Basic word order: Functional principles;London:Croom Helm
- Gell-Mann, M.; Ruhlen, M. (10 October 2011). "The origin and evolution of word order". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (42): 17290–17295. doi:10.1073/pnas.1113716108.
- Henn, B. M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, M. W. (17 October 2012). "The great human expansion". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (44): 17758–17764. doi:10.1073/pnas.1212380109.
- Introducing English Linguistics International Student Edition by Charles F. Meyer
- Russell Tomlin, "Basic Word Order: Functional Principles", Croom Helm, London, 1986, page 22
- Kordić, Snježana (2006) [1st pub. 1997]. Serbo-Croatian. Languages of the World/Materials ; 148. Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa. pp. 45–46. ISBN 3-89586-161-8. OCLC 37959860. OL 2863538W. Contents. Summary. [Grammar book].
- Dryer, Matthew S. 1992. 'The Greenbergian Word Order Correlations', Language 68: 81–138
- "Language Universals and linguistic typology", Bernard Comrie, 1981
- A collection of papers on word order by a leading scholar, some downloadable
- Basic word order in English clearly illustrated with examples.
- Language Universals and Linguistic Typology: Syntax and Morphology – Bernard Comrie (1981) – this is the authoritative introduction to word order and related subjects.
- Order of Subject, Object, and Verb (PDF) A basic overview of word order variations across languages.
- Haugan, Jens Old Norse Word Order and Information Structure. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 2001 ISBN 82-471-5060-3
- Song, Jae Jung (2012) Word order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87214-0 & ISBN 978-0-521-69312-7