Words per minute
Words per minute, commonly abbreviated WPM, is a measure of words processed in a minute, often used as a measurement of typing speed or reading speed.
For the purpose of typing measurement, each word is standardized to be five characters or keystrokes long, including spaces and punctuation. For example, the phrase "I run" counts as one word, but "rhinoceros" and "let's talk" both count as two.
Characters per minute (CPM) are WPM times five, so that 20 WPM are 100 CPM.
In one study of average computer users in 1998, the average rate for transcription was 33 words per minute, and 19 words per minute for composition. In the same study, when the group was divided into "fast," "moderate," and "slow" groups, the average speeds were 40 wpm, 35 wpm, and 23 wpm, respectively.
An average professional typist types usually in speeds of 50 to 80 wpm, while some positions can require 80 to 95 (usually the minimum required for dispatch positions and other time-sensitive typing jobs), and some advanced typists work at speeds above 120 wpm. Two-finger typists, sometimes also referred to as "hunt and peck" typists, commonly reach sustained speeds of about 37 wpm for memorized text and 27 wpm when copying text, but in bursts may be able to reach speeds of 60 to 70 wpm. From the 1920s through the 1970s, typing speed (along with shorthand speed) was an important secretarial qualification and typing contests were popular and often publicized by typewriter companies as promotional tools.
The fastest typing speed on an alphanumeric keyboard, 216 words in one minute, was achieved by Stella Pajunas in 1946 on an IBM electric. As of 2005[update], writer Barbara Blackburn was the fastest alphanumerical English language typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she maintained 150 wpm for 50 minutes, and 170 wpm for shorter periods. Her top speed was 212 wpm.
Stenotype keyboards enable the trained user to input text as fast as 225 wpm or faster at very high accuracy for an extended period of time, which is sufficient for real-time activities such as court reporting or closed captioning. While dropout rates are very high—in some cases, only 10% or even less graduate—stenotype students are usually able to reach speeds of 100–120 wpm within six months, which is faster than most alphanumeric typists. Guinness World Records gives 360 wpm with 97.23% accuracy as the highest achieved speed using a stenotype.
The numeric entry or 10 key speed is a measure of one's ability to manipulate the numeric keypad found on most modern separate computer keyboards. It is used to measure speed for jobs such as data entry of number information on items such as remittance advice, bills, or checks, as deposited to lockboxs. It is measured in "Keystrokes per hour," or KPH. Many jobs require a certain KPH, often 8,000 or 10,000.
Reading and comprehension
Words per minute is a common metric for assessing reading speed and is often used in the context of remedial skills evaluation, as well as in the context of speed reading, where it is a controversial measure of reading performance.
A word in this context is the same as in the context of speech.
Speech and listening
Slide presentations tend to be closer to 100-125 wpm for a comfortable pace, auctioneers can speak at about 250 wpm, and the fastest speaking policy debaters speak from 350 to over 500 words per minute. Internet speech calculators show that various things influence words per minute including nervousness.
John Moschitta, Jr., was listed in Guinness World Records, for a time, as the world's fastest speaker, being able to talk at 586 wpm. He has since been surpassed by Steve Woodmore, who achieved a rate of 637 wpm.
It is common to hear 20 wpm among experienced ham radio operators sending Morse Code using a one-hand "key". There are several CW (continuous wave) organizations that routinely send at 60 wpm. The fastest CW operator was Ted McElroy copying at 75.6 wpm at the 1939 world championship.
- Ahmed Sabbir Arif, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger Analysis of Text Entry Performance Metrics Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering York University
- Karat CM, Halverson C, Horn D, Karat J (1999). "Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '99)". New York, NY, USA: ACM. pp. 568–575. doi:10.1145/302979.303160. ISBN 0-201-48559-1. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
- Brown, CM (1988). Human-computer interface design guidelines. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
- Ayres, Robert U; Martinás, Katalin (2005), "120 wpm for very skilled typist", On the Reappraisal of Microeconomics: Economic Growth and Change in a Material World, Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 41, ISBN 1-84542-272-4, retrieved 22 November 2010
- 2007-09-12 (2007-09-12). "History of Typewriters – Big Site of Amazing Facts". Bigsiteofamazingfacts.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "World Records in Typing". Owled.com. 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "IBM Archives: Typing posture". 03.ibm.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "Stenotype Institute of Jacksonville Jacksonville - Review & Ranking". American-school-search.com. 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- "Fastest realtime court reporter (stenotype writing)". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 2004-07-30. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- Brown, C. M. (1988). Human-computer interface design guidelines. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
- "New World'S Record For Shorthand Speed". New York Times. 1922-12-30. Retrieved 2014-05-13.
- Ziefle, M (December 1998). "Effects of display resolution on visual performance.". Human factors 40 (4): 554–68. PMID 9974229.
- Williams, J. R. (1998). Guidelines for the use of multimedia in instruction, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, 1447–1451
- Wong, Linda (2014). Essential Study Skills. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1285965620.
- Chafets, Zev (2006-03-19). "Ministers of Debate". The New York Times.
- "Falwell Inc.: Inside a Religious, Political, Educational, and Business Empire - Dirk Smillie - Google Boeken". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "John Moschitta set record for fast talking... May 24 in History". Brainyhistory.com. 1988-05-24. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "World's Fastest Talker - Steve Woodmore". YouTube. 2011-02-05. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- "Morse code page of Roger J. Wendell - WBŘJNR (WB0JNR)". Rogerwendell.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- Chart – A visual representation of various activities and the corresponding speeds in words-per-minute