Working electrode

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A gold disk working electrode with a Teflon shroud insulating the disk.

The working electrode is the electrode in an electrochemical system on which the reaction of interest is occurring.[1][2][3] The working electrode is often used in conjunction with an auxiliary electrode, and a reference electrode in a three electrode system. Depending on whether the reaction on the electrode is a reduction or an oxidation, the working electrode is called cathodic or anodic, respectively. Common working electrodes can consist of materials ranging from inert metals such as gold, silver or platinum, to inert carbon such as glassy carbon or pyrolytic carbon, and mercury drop and film electrodes. Chemically modified electrodes are employed for the analysis of both organic molecules as well as metal ions.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Special types of working electrodes[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kissinger, Peter; William R. Heineman (1996-01-23). Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded (2 ed.). CRC. ISBN 0-8247-9445-1. 
  2. ^ Bard, Allen J.; Larry R. Faulkner (2000-12-18). Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications (2 ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-471-04372-9. 
  3. ^ Zoski,, Cynthia G. (2007). Handbook of Electrochemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51958-0. 
  4. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2010). "Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine using an in situ surfactant-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode". Electrochimica Acta 55: 8638–8648. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.07.093. 
  5. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Mobin, Shaikh; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam; Srivastava, Ashwini (2013). "Biomimetic sensor for certain catecholamines employing copper(II) complex and silver nanoparticle modified glassy carbon paste electrode". Biosensors and Bioelectronics 39: 124–132. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2012.07.008. 
  6. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). Simultaneous voltammetric determination of acetaminophen and tramadol using Dowex50wx2 and gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon paste electrode 706. pp. 246–254. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.08.040. 
  7. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). "Adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetric determination of venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine employing Nafion–carbon nanotube composite glassy carbon electrode". Electrochimica Acta 56: 4188–4196. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.01.097. 
  8. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Hirsch, Gary; Karna, Shashi; Srivastava, Ashwini (2012). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of methyl and ethyl parathion employing carbon nanoparticles and halloysite nanoclay modified carbon paste electrode". Analytica Chimica Acta 735: 37–45. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2012.05.029. 
  9. ^ Mobin, Shaikh; Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini; Mathur, Pradeep; Lahiri, Goutam (2010). "Biomimetic Sensor for Certain Phenols Employing a Copper(II) Complex". Analytical Chemistry 82: 5983–5992. doi:10.1021/ac1004037. 
  10. ^ Gadhari, Nayan; Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2011). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of antimony based on carbon paste electrode modified with hexathia crown ether and rice husk". Analytica Chimica Acta 703: 31–40. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.07.017. 
  11. ^ Gadhari, Nayan; Sanghavi, Bankim; Karna, Shashi; Srivastava, Ashwini (2010). "Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand 2.2.1 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes". Electrochimica Acta 56: 627–635. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.09.100. 
  12. ^ Sanghavi, Bankim; Srivastava, Ashwini (2013). "Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of imipramine, trimipramine and desipramine employing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and an Amberlite XAD-2 modified glassy carbon paste electrode". Analyst. doi:10.1039/C2AN36330E. 

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