Workplace incivility has been defined as "low-intensity deviant behavior with ambiguous intent to harm the target. ... Uncivil behaviors are characteristically rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others." The authors hypothesize there is an "incivility spiral" in the workplace made worse by "asymmetric global interaction".
Incivility is distinct from violence. The reduction of workplace incivility is a fertile area for applied psychology research.
Surveys on occurrence and effects
A summary of research conducted in Europe suggests that workplace incivility is common there. In research on more than 1000 U.S. civil service workers, Cortina, Magley, Williams, and Langhout (2001) found that more than 70% of the sample experienced workplace incivility in the past five years. Similarly, Laschinger, Leiter, Day, and Gilin found that among 612 staff nurses, 67.5% had experienced incivility from their supervisors and 77.6% had experienced incivility from their coworkers. In addition, they found that low levels of incivility along with low levels of burnout and an empowering work environment were significant predictors of nurses’ experiences of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Compared to men, women were more exposed to incivility.
Incivility was associated with occupational stress and reduced job satisfaction. After conducting more than six hundred interviews with "employees, managers, and professionals in varying industries across the United States" and collecting "survey data from an additional sample of more than 1,200 employees, managers, and professionals representing all industrial categories in the United States and Canada", researchers Christine M. Pearson and Chiristine L. Porath wrote in 2004 that "The grand conclusion: incivility does matter. Whether its costs are borne by targets, their colleagues, their organizations, their families, their friends outside work, their customers, witnesses to the interactions, or even the instigators themselves, there is a price to be paid for uncivil encounters among coworkers." Citing previous research (2000) Pearson writes that "more than half the targets waste work time worrying about the incident or planning how to deal with or avert future interactions with the instigator. Nearly 40 percent reduced their commitment to the organization; 20 percent told us that they reduced their work effort intentionally as a result of the incivility, and 10 percent of targets said that they deliberately cut back the amount of time they spent at work."
Examples at the more subtle end of the spectrum include:
- giving somebody a "dirty look"
- asking for input and then ignoring it
- "forgetting" to share credit for a collaborative work
- speaking with a condescending tone
- interrupting others
- not listening
- waiting impatiently over someone's desk to gain their attention
- side conversations during a formal business meeting/presentation
- sending a nasty and demeaning note (hate mail)
- talking about someone behind his or her back
- emotional put-downs
- Disrespecting workers by comments, gestures or proven behaviors (hostility) based on characteristics such as their race, religion, gender, etc. This is considered workplace discrimination.
- making accusations about professional competence
- undermining credibility in front of others
- overruling decisions without giving a reason
- disrupting meetings
- giving public reprimands
- giving the silent treatment
- not giving credit where credit is due
- giving dirty looks or other negative eye contact (i.e. "hawk eyes" considered to be threatening in the culture of the United States)
- insulting others
Corporate symptoms of long term incivility
- Higher than normal employee turnover.
- Alarge number of employee grievances and complaints.
- Lost work time by employees calling in sick.
- Increased consumer complaints.
- Diminished productivity in terms of quality and quantity of work.
- Cultural and communications barriers.
- Lack of confidence in leadership.
- Inability to adapt effectively to change.
- Lack of individual accountability.
- Lack or respect.
Workplace bullying overlaps to some degree with workplace incivility but tends to encompass more intense and typically repeated acts of disregard and rudeness. Negative spirals of increasing incivility between organizational members can result in bullying, but isolated acts of incivility are not conceptually bullying despite the apparent similarity in their form and content. In case of bullying, the intent of harm is less ambiguous, an unequal balance of power (both formal and informal) is more salient, and the target of bullying feels threatened, vulnerable and unable to defend himself or herself against negative recurring actions.
Anther related notion is petty tyranny, which also involves a lack of consideration towards others, although petty tyranny is more narrowly defined as a profile of leaders and can also involve more severe forms of abuse of power and of authority.
- Andersson, Lynne M.; Pearson, Christine M. (July 1999). "Tit for Tat? The Spiraling Effect of Incivility in the Workplace". The Academy of Management Review 24 (3): 452–471. doi:10.2307/259136. JSTOR 259136.
- Cortina, Lilia M.; Magley, Vicki J.; Williams, Jill Hunter; Langhout, Regina Day (2001). "Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 6 (1): 64–80. doi:10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206. PMID 11199258.
- Laschinger, Heather K. Spence.; Leiter, Michael; Day, Arla; Gilin, Debra (2009). "Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes". Journal of Nursing Management 17 (3): 302–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.00999.x. PMID 19426367. 
- Christine M. Pearson, Christine L. Porath (2004). "On Incivility, Its Impact and Directions for Future Research". In Ricky W. Griffin and Anne O'Leary-Kelly. The Dark Side of Organizational Behavior. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 403–404. ISBN 978-0-7879-6223-4.
- Christine M. Pearson, Christine L. Porath (2004). "On Incivility, Its Impact and Directions for Future Research". In Ricky W. Griffin and Anne O'Leary-Kelly. The Dark Side of Organizational Behavior. John Wiley & Sons. p. 412. ISBN 978-0-7879-6223-4.
- Johnson, Pamela R.; Indvik, Julie (2001). "Slings and arrows of rudeness: incivility in the workplace". Journal of Management Development 20 (8): 705–714. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000005829.
- Beale, Diane (2001). "Monitoring bullying in the workplace". In Tehrani, Noreen. Building a culture of respect: managing bullying at work. London: Routledge. pp. 77–94. ISBN 978-0-415-24648-4.
- Rayner, Charlotte; Hoel, Helge; Cooper, Cary L. (2002). Workplace bullying: what we know, who is to blame, and what can we do?. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24062-8.[page needed]
- Peyton, Pauline Rennie (2003). Dignity at work: eliminate bullying and create a positive working environment. London: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 978-1-58391-238-6.[page needed]
|This section lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it. (November 2010)|
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- Milam AC Individual differences and perceptions of workplace incivility (2006)
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- Simmons DC Organizational culture, workplace incivility, and turnover: (2008)
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- Bartlett, Michelle Elizabeth (2009). Workplace incivility and conflict management styles of community college leaders in the nine mega states (Doctoral Thesis). Clemson University.
- Blau, Gary; Andersson, Lynne (2005). "Testing a measure of instigated workplace incivility". Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 78 (4): 595–614. doi:10.1348/096317905X26822.
- Brady, Christopher C. (2007). Gender, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Workplace Incivility (Masters Thesis). Western Kentucky University.
- Cortina, Lilia M.; Magley, Vicki J. (2009). "Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 14 (3): 272–88. doi:10.1037/a0014934. PMID 19586222.
- Dion MJ The impact of workplace incivility and occupational stress on the job satisfaction and turnover intention of acute care nurses – April 2006
- Estes, B.; Jia Wang (2008). "Integrative Literature Review: Workplace Incivility: Impacts on Individual and Organizational Performance". Human Resource Development Review 7 (2): 218–240. doi:10.1177/1534484308315565.
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- Haines, Ted; Stringer, Bernadette; Duku, Eric (Fall 2007). "Workplace Safety Climate and Incivility Among British Columbia and Ontario Operating Room Nurses: A Preliminary Investigation". Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 26 (2): 141–52.
- Hershcovis, M. Sandy (2010). "'Incivility, social undermining, bullying...oh my!': A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research". Journal of Organizational Behavior 32 (3): 499–519. doi:10.1002/job.689.
- Hornstein HA Workplace incivility: An unavoidable product of human nature and organizational nurturing – Ivey Business Journal, November/December 2003
- Hutton SA Longitudinal Study of Workplace Incivility in a Hospital – University of Cincinnati 2008
- Hutton, Scott; Gates, Donna; Gates, Donna (2008). "Workplace Incivility and Productivity Losses Among Direct Care Staff". AAOHN Journal 56 (4): 168–75. doi:10.3928/08910162-20080401-01. PMID 18444405.
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- Kain VJJM The Relationship between workplace incivility and strain: Equity sensitivity as a moderator – Bowling Green State University 2008
- Spence Laschinger, Heather K.; Leiter, Michael; Day, Arla; Gilin, Debra (2009). "Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes". Journal of Nursing Management 17 (3): 302–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2009.00999.x. PMID 19426367.
- Lewis PS Workplace Incivility: Results of a Pilot Study 2009
- Lim VKG, Chin JY Cyber Incivility at the Workplace: What has Supervisor's Sex got to do with It? – PACIS 2006 Proceedings, 2006
- Lim, Sandy; Cortina, Lilia M. (2005). "Interpersonal Mistreatment in the Workplace: The Interface and Impact of General Incivility and Sexual Harassment". Journal of Applied Psychology 90 (3): 483–96. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483. PMID 15910144.
- Linvill JS Surviving workplace incivility: The use of supportive networks as a coping strategy – Purdue University, 2008
- Liu, Wu; Steve Chi, Shu-Cheng; Friedman, Ray; Tsai, Ming-Hong (2009). "Explaining Incivility in the Workplace: The Effects of Personality and Culture". Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 2 (2): 164–184. doi:10.1111/j.1750-4716.2009.00035.x.
- Milam, Alex C.; Spitzmueller, Christiane; Penney, Lisa M. (2009). "Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 14 (1): 58–69. doi:10.1037/a0012683. PMID 19210047.
- Namie G Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility – Ivey Business Journal, 2003
- Pearson, Christine M.; Porath, Christine L. (2005). "On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for 'nice'? Think again". Academy of Management Executive 19 (1): 7–18. doi:10.5465/AME.2005.15841946.
- Pearson, C.M.; Andersson, L.M.; Wegner, J.W. (2001). "When Workers Flout Convention: A Study of Workplace Incivility". Human Relations 54 (11): 1387–1419. doi:10.1177/00187267015411001.
- Reio, Thomas G.; Ghosh, Rajashi (2009). "Antecedents and outcomes of workplace incivility: Implications for human resource development research and practice". Human Resource Development Quarterly 20 (3): 237–264. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20020.
- Roberts SJ Incivility as a function of workplace favoritism and employee impulsivity – University of Nebraska at Omaha 2009
- Shim JH, Park S Concept exploration of workplace incivility: Its Implication to HRD – University of Minnesota
- Simmons DC Organizational culture, workplace incivility, and turnover: The impact of human resources practices – University of Louisville 2008
- Taylor SG Cold Looks and Hot Tempers: Individual-Level Effects of Incivility in the Workplace 2010
- Trudel J Workplace incivility: Relationship with conflict management styles and impact on perceived job performance, organizational commitment and turnover – University of Louisville 2009
- Vickers MH Writing what's relevant: workplace incivility in public administration-a wolf in sheep's clothing – Administrative Theory & Praxis, March 1, 2006
- Yang LQ, Spector PE, Zhang XC, Lin XH Occupational Stress among Chinese Service Workers: The Role of Workplace Incivility
- Zauderer DG Workplace incivility and the management of human capital – The Public Manager, Spring 2002