According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2011, violence and other injuries caused by persons or animals contributed to 17% of all occupational fatalities, with homicides contributing to 10% of the total. From 1992 to 2010, there were 13,827 reported workplace homicide victims, averaging over 700 victims per year, in the United States. Examination of the 2011 data shows that while a majority of workplace fatalities occurred to males, workplace violence disproportionately affects females. Homicides contributed to 21% of all occupational fatalities for women, compared to 9% for men. Of these homicides, relatives or domestic partners contributed to 39% of female homicide cases; male homicide cases were most likely to be perpetrated by robbers, contributing to 36% of male homicide cases.
Most cases if workplace violence turn out to be non-fatal incidents. From 1993 to 1999, there was an average of about 1.7 million people victimized each year in a case of occupational violence. About 75% of these cases are considered simple assault, while 19% of cases are considered aggravated assault.
Buss (1961) identified eight types of aggression:
- Verbal-passive-indirect (failure to deny false rumors about target, failure to provide information needed by target)
- Verbal-passive-direct ("silent treatment", failure to return communication, i.e. phone calls, e-mails)
- Verbal-active-indirect (spreading false rumors, belittling ideas or work)
- Verbal-active-direct (insulting, acting condescendingly, yelling)
- Physical-passive-indirect (causing others to create a delay for the target)
- Physical-passive-direct (reducing target's ability to contribute, i.e. scheduling them to present at the end of the day where fewer people will be attending)
- Physical-active-indirect (theft, destruction of property, unnecessary consumption of resources needed by the target)
- Physical-active-direct (physical attack, nonverbal, vulgar gestures directed at the target)
In a study performed by Baron and Neuman, researchers found pay cuts and pay freezes, use of part-time employees, change in management, increased diversity, computer monitoring of employee performance, reengineering, and budget cuts were all significantly linked to increased workplace aggression. The study also showed a substantial amount of evidence linking unpleasant physical conditions (high temperature, poor lighting) and high negative affect, which facilitates workplace aggression.
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (September 2009)|
In the United Kingdom there is a legal obligation to complete risk assessments. Regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 states that, “every employer shall make a suitable and sufficient assessment of:
- The risks to the health and safety of his (or her) employees to which they are exposed whilst they are at work; and
- The risks to the health and safety of persons not in his employment arising out of or in connection with the conduct of him or his undertaking”.
Regulation 4 then obliges the employer to apply a hierarchy of risk controls.[clarification needed]
Occupational groups at higher risk
The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety lists the following higher risk occupations.
- health care employees
- correctional officers
- social services employees
- municipal housing inspectors
- public works employees
- retail employees
- Industrial espionage
- Industrial and Organizational Psychology
- Occupational health psychology
- Occupational safety and health
- Workplace aggression
- Workplace conflict
- "Occupational Violence". WorkSafe. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 2011". US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- "CDC - Occupational Violence - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Buss, AH (1961). The Psychology of Aggression.
- Baron, RA; Neuman, HA. "Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence on their relative frequency and potential causes". Aggressive Behavior 22: 161–173.
- Workplace Violence and Workplace Aggression: Evidence and Their Relative Frequency and Potential Causes., retrieved February 24, 2009
- Violence in the Workplace, retrieved May 8, 2008
- Workplace Violence News & Resources
- Before the Storm: Workplace Safety Webinar
- PDF (6.08 MiB)
- Safety and Health Topics from www.osha.gov
- Violence on the Job, video from NIOSH
- Half of Large Employers Had Workplace Violence Incident in Last Year
- Workplace Violence Q&A - CCOHS
- Work and Family Researchers Network
- Workplace Violence, 1993-2009 Bureau of Justice Statistics
- Workplace Violence Against Government Employees, 1994-2011 Bureau of Justice Statistics