||It has been suggested that this article be merged into MCI Communications. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2013.|
|Headquarters||Ashburn, Virginia, USA|
|Key people||Francis J. Shammo – President
Kerry T. Bailey – Senior Vice President – Global Services
John F. Killian - CFO
|Products||Conferencing, Contact Centers, Data and IP Services, Internet access, IT Solutions and Hosting, Managed Networks, Premises Equipment (CPE), Security, Voice, VoIP, Wireless|
|Revenue||$21.2 billion USD (2007)|
|Parent||Verizon Communications (2006-present)|
|Website||Verizon Enterprise Solutions mci.com|
MCI, Inc. (d/b/a Verizon Business) is an American telecommunications corporation, currently a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, with its main office in Ashburn, Virginia. The corporation was formed originally as a result of the merger of WorldCom and MCI Communications corporations, and used the name MCI WorldCom succeeded by WorldCom before changing its name to the present version on April 12, 2003, as part of the corporation's ending of its bankruptcy status. The company traded on NASDAQ as WCOM (pre-bankruptcy) and MCIP (post-bankruptcy). The corporation was purchased by Verizon Communications with the deal finalizing on January 6, 2006, and is now identified as that company's Verizon Enterprise Solutions division with the local residential divisions being integrated slowly into local Verizon subsidiaries.
For a time, WorldCom was the United States's second largest long distance telephone company (after AT&T). WorldCom grew largely by acquiring other telecommunications companies, most notably MCI Communications. It also owned the Tier 1 ISP UUNET, a major part of the internet backbone. It was headquartered in Clinton, Mississippi, before being relocated to Virginia.
The company began as Long Distance Discount Services, Inc. (LDDS) during 1983, based in Clifton, Mississippi. In 1985 LDDS selected Bernard Ebbers (born 1941) to be its CEO. The company became traded publicly as a corporation in 1989 as a result of a merger with Advantage Companies Inc. The company name was changed to LDDS WorldCom in 1995.
The company grew rapidly in the 1990s. Among the companies that were bought or merged with WorldCom were Advanced Communications Corp. (1992), Metromedia Communication Corp. (1993), Resurgens Communications Group (1993), IDB Communications Group, Inc (1994), Williams Technology Group, Inc. (1995), and MFS Communications Company (1996), and MCI in 1998.The acquisition of MFS included UUNET Technologies, Inc., which had been acquired by MFS shortly before the merger with WorldCom. In February 1998, WorldCom purchased, by a complex transaction, online pioneer company CompuServe from its parent company H&R Block. WorldCom then retained the CompuServe Network Services Division, sold its online service to America Online, and received AOL's network division, ANS. The acquisition of Digex (DIGX) during June 2001 was also complex; Worldcom acquired Digex's corporate parent, Intermedia Communications, and then sold all of Intermedia's non-Digex assets to Allegiance Telecom.
On November 4, 1997, WorldCom and MCI Communications announced their US$37 billion merger to form MCI WorldCom, making it the largest corporate merger of U.S. history. On September 15, 1998, the new company, MCI WorldCom, opened for business, after MCI divested itself of its successful "internetMCI" business to gain approval from the U.S. Department of Justice.
Proposed Sprint merger
On October 5, 1999, Sprint Corporation and MCI WorldCom announced a $129 billion merger agreement between the two companies. Had the deal been completed, it would have been the largest corporate merger in history, causing MCI WorldCom to be even larger than AT&T and therefore the largest communications company in the United States. However, the deal did not finalize because of opposition from the U.S. Department of Justice and the European Union on concerns of it creating a monopoly. On July 13, 2000, the boards of directors of both companies terminated the merger process. Later that year, MCI WorldCom renamed itself simply "WorldCom".
CEO Bernard Ebbers became very wealthy from the increasing price of his holdings in WorldCom common stock. However, beginning in the year 2000 the telecommunications industry was declining and WorldCom’s aggressive growth strategy suffered a serious setback when it was forced by the U.S. Justice Department to abandon its proposed merger with Sprint during mid-2000. By that time, WorldCom’s stock price was decreasing and banks were placing increasing demands on Ebbers to cover margin calls on his WorldCom stock that was used to finance his other businesses (timber and yachting, among others). In 2001, Ebbers persuaded WorldCom’s board of directors to provide him corporate loans and guarantees in excess of $400 million to cover his margin calls. The board hoped that the loans would avert the need for Ebbers to sell substantial amounts of his WorldCom stock, as his doing so would result in further decrease of the stock's price. However, this strategy failed and Ebbers resigned as CEO during April 2002 and was replaced by John Sidgmore, former CEO of UUNET Technologies, Inc.
Beginning modestly during mid-1999 and continuing at an accelerated pace through May 2002, the company—directed by Ebbers (as CEO), Scott Sullivan (CFO), David Myers (Controller) and Buford "Buddy" Yates (Director of General Accounting)—used fraudulent accounting methods to disguise its decreasing earnings to maintain the price of WorldCom’s stock.
The fraud was accomplished primarily in two ways:
- Booking "line costs" (interconnection expenses with other telecommunication companies) as capital expenditures on the balance sheet instead of expenses.
- Inflating revenues with bogus accounting entries from "corporate unallocated revenue accounts".
In 2002, a small team of internal auditors at WorldCom worked together, often at night and secretly, to investigate and reveal $3.8 billion worth of fraud. Soon thereafter, the company’s audit committee and board of directors were notified of the fraud and acted swiftly: Sullivan was dismissed, Myers resigned, Arthur Andersen company withdrew its audit opinion for 2001, and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began an investigation into these matters on June 26, 2002 (see accounting scandals). Sidgmore was instrumental in beginning to turn around the failed company and in revealing to federal investigators the accounting fraud left over from Ebbers' management of the company. Sidgmore died suddenly in December 2003 from acute pancreatitis.
By the end of 2003, it was estimated that the company's total assets had been inflated by about $11 billion.
On July 21, 2002, WorldCom filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the largest such filing in United States history at the time (since overtaken by the bankruptcies of both Lehman Brothers and Washington Mutual in a span of eleven days during September 2008). The WorldCom bankruptcy proceedings were held before U.S. Federal Bankruptcy Judge Arthur J. Gonzalez who simultaneously heard the Enron bankruptcy proceedings which were the second largest bankruptcy case resulting from one of the largest corporate fraud scandals. None of the criminal proceedings against WorldCom and its officers and agents was originated by referral from Gonzalez or the Department of Justice lawyers. By the bankruptcy reorganization agreement, the company paid $750 million to the SEC in cash and stock in the new MCI, which was intended to be paid to wronged investors.
Effective December 16, 2002, Michael Capellas became chairman and chief executive officer. On April 14, 2003, WorldCom changed its name to MCI and relocated its corporate headquarters from Clinton, Mississippi, to Dulles, Virginia.
During May 2003, the company was given a no-bid contract by the United States Department of Defense to build a cellular telephone network in Iraq. The deal has been criticized by competitors and others who cite the company's lack of experience with that technology.
The SEC and Worldcom concluded a deal in which Worldcom agreed to pay a civil penalty of $2.25 billion. The deal was approved by federal judge Jed Rakoff during July 2003. In a sweeping consent decree, the SEC and Rakoff essentially took control of Worldcom. Rakoff appointed former SEC chairman Richard C. Breeden to oversee Worldcom's compliance with the SEC agreement. Breeden actively involved himself with the management of the company, and prepared a report for Rakoff, titled Restoring Trust, in which he proposed extensive corporate governance reforms, as part of an effort to "cast the new MCI into what he hoped would become a model of how shareholders should be protected and how companies should be run".
The company emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy during 2004 with about $5.7 billion in debt and $6 billion in cash. About half of the cash was intended to pay various claims and settlements. Previous bondholders ended up being paid 35.7 cents on the dollar, in bonds and stock in the new MCI company. The previous stockholders' stock was cancelled, making it totally worthless.
It had yet to pay many of its creditors, who had waited for two years for a portion of the money owed. Many of the small creditors included former employees, primarily those who were dismissed during June 2002 and whose severance and benefits were withheld when WorldCom filed for bankruptcy.
On August 7, 2002, the exWorldCom 5100 group was formed. It was composed of former WorldCom employees with a common goal of seeking full payment of severance pay and benefits based on the WorldCom Severance Plan. The "5100" stands for the number of WorldCom employees dismissed on June 28, 2002 before WorldCom filed for bankruptcy.
On February 14, 2005, Verizon Communications agreed to acquire MCI for $7.6 billion.
On March 15, 2005, Bernard Ebbers was found guilty of all charges and convicted of fraud, conspiracy and filing false documents with regulators—- all related to the $11 billion accounting scandal. Other former WorldCom officials charged with criminal penalties in relation to the company's financial misstatements include former CFO Scott Sullivan (entered a guilty plea on March 2, 2004, to one count each of securities fraud, conspiracy to commit securities fraud, and filing false statements), former comptroller David Myers (pleaded guilty to securities fraud, conspiracy to commit securities fraud, and filing false statements on September 27, 2002), former accounting director Buford Yates (pleaded guilty to conspiracy and fraud charges on October 7, 2002), and former accounting managers Betty Vinson and Troy Normand (both pleading guilty to conspiracy and securities fraud on October 10, 2002).
On July 13, 2005, Bernard Ebbers received a sentence that would keep him imprisoned for 25 years. At time of sentencing, Ebbers was 63 years old. On September 26, 2006, Ebbers surrendered himself to the Federal Bureau of Prisons prison at Oakdale, Louisiana, the Oakdale Federal Corrections Institution to begin serving his sentence.
In December 2005, the Microsoft corporation announced that MCI will join it by providing Windows Live Messenger customers "Voice Over Internet Protocol" (VoIP) service to make telephone calls. This was MCI's last new product—- called "MCI Web Calling". After the merger, this product was renamed "Verizon Web Calling".
In the media
- Movie Fun with Dick and Jane (2005), featuring Jim Carrey: The closing credits begin with a Special Thanks To list, naming executives at Enron, WorldCom, Tyco, Adelphia, ImClone Systems, Arthur Andersen, Cendant and HealthSouth. The character Jack McCallister (played by Alec Baldwin) was based on real-life WorldCom CEO, "Bernie" Ebbers (see above).
- Movie The Other Guys: Will Ferrel's character says to a SEC employee, "From everything I've heard, you guys are the best at these types of investigations...Outside of Enron... and AIG; and Bernie Madoff; WorldCom, Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers."
- Corporate governance
- Corporate scandal
- Dot-com Bubble
- Bernard "Bernie" Ebbers—Founder, CEO of WorldCom. Became a convicted criminal for accounting fraud and the resulting US$11 billion loss to investors.
- Vivien v. Worldcom
- Verizon closes book on MCI merger. News.cnet.com. January 6, 2006. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- "MCI Inc – SC 13D/A – LCC International Inc ." Securities and Exchange Commission. March 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 25, 2009.
- "WorldCom to emerge from collapse." CNN. Monday April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 25, 2009.
- "JUSTICE DEPARTMENT CLEARS WORLDCOM/MCI MERGER AFTER MCI AGREES TO SELL ITS INTERNET BUSINESS". US Department of Justice. July 15, 1998.
- "Report of Investigation by The Special Investigative Committee of the Board of Directors of Worldcom, Inc.". SEC. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- Pulliam, Susan; Deborah Soloman. "How Three Unlikely Sleuths Exposed Fraud at WorldCom: Firm's Own Employees Sniffed Out Cryptic Clues and Followed Hunches". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- Ripley, Amanda (December 30, 2002). "The Night Detective". Time. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- Cooper, Cynthia. Extraordinary Circumstances: The Journey of a Corporate Whistleblower. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0-470-12429-1. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- "WorldCom, Inc. Annual Report". Edgar form 10-K. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 12, 2004. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- The Honorable Jed Rakoff Approves Settlement of SEC'S Claim for a Civil Penalty Against Worldcom, US Department of Justice, July 7, 2003
- Restoring Trust: Corporate Governance for the future of MCI. Nysd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- "WorldCom News". WorldCom News. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- "Ebbers indicted, ex-CFO pleads guilty". CNN. March 2, 2004. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- John Geralds Former WorldCom exec pleads guilty. vnunet.com. 27 Sep 2002
- Backover, Andrew (October 7, 2002). "Another guilty plea in WorldCom fraud case". USA Today. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- 2 More WorldCom Execs Plead Guilty. CBSnews.com (2009-02-11). Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- Rovella, David E.. (2005-03-16) JPMorgan to Pay $2 Bln to Settle WorldCom Fraud Suit (Update5). Quote.bloomberg.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- Citigroup Reaches Settlement on WorldCom Class Action Litigation for $1.64 Billion After-Tax. Citigroup.com. May 10, 2004. Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- Backhanded Slapstick. Sfweekly.com (2005-12-21). Retrieved on 2011-12-10.
- Lynne W. Jeter (2003). Disconnected: Deceit and Betrayal at WorldCom. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-42997-X.
- Om Malik (2003). Broadbandits. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-43405-1.
- First Interim Report of Dick Thornburgh, Bankruptcy Court Examiner, United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, In re WorldCom, Inc., Case No. 02-15533 (AJG) (November 4, 2002) Retrieved 2008-05-02
- "LDDS-Metro Communications, Inc. – Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on LDDS-Metro Communications, Inc.". Advameg, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- Official MCI website
- WorldCom (Archive)
- Verizon Enterprise Solutions corporate website
- William McGowan's MCI: 1968 to 1991