World Association of Nuclear Operators
Logo of the WANO
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
The World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) unites every company and country in the world with an operating commercial nuclear power plant to achieve the highest possible standards of nuclear safety.
Based in London with regional centres in Moscow, Atlanta, Tokyo and Paris, WANO cuts across political barriers and interests. The organisation exists purely to help its members accomplish the highest levels of operational safety and reliability.
WANO is a non-profit organisation and does not advocate for, or on behalf of, the nuclear industry.
WANO members accept collective responsibility for nuclear safety and understand that the industry is only as strong as its weakest member. While WANO works directly with its members, the organisation is not a regulatory body and does not advise companies on issues such as initial reactor design selection. With safety as the only goal, WANO helps operators communicate effectively and share information openly. Experience shows many accidents could have been prevented if lessons had been learned from previous incidents. Ultimately, this will raise the performance of all operators to that of the best.
WANO's activities are concentrated in four main programmes: Peer Reviews, Operating Experience, Technical Support and Exchange, and Professional and Technical Development. Together these programmes provide a comprehensive package of resource and support to members.
"To maximise the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants worldwide by working together to assess, benchmark and improve performance through mutual support, exchange of information and emulation of best practice".
- Peer Reviews aim to help members compare their operational performance against standards of excellence through an in-depth, objective review of their operations by an independent team from outside their utility.
- Operating Experience enables members to learn from the experience of other plants and alerts them to events that have occurred so they can prevent similar events.
- Technical Support and Exchange consists of four distinct activities: guidelines and good practices; operator exchanges; performance indicators and technical support missions. Together, they help members learn from the experiences of their peers.
- Professional and Technical Development uses various settings to provide an information exchange forum for WANO members to enhance their professional knowledge and skills. Specific activities include workshops, conferences, seminars, expert meetings and training courses.
Following the Chernobyl disaster, nuclear operators worldwide were determined to work together to ensure such a disaster could never happen again. From this, WANO emerged and formally came into being on May 15, 1989, during an inaugural meeting in Moscow. Below is a look at some key moments in WANO’s history:
1986 - 1989
April 1986 - At Chernobyl-4, a severe reactivity excursion was experienced at an RBMK-1000 reactor in the Ukraine, called as Soviet Union at that time. This disaster occurred during a turbine-generator coast-down test at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant. Insufficient management control, inappropriate use of procedures, human error and design problems contribute to the worst disaster experienced by any nuclear power plant. Public confidence in the use of nuclear energy is badly shaken throughout the world.
October 1987 - The International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electric Energy (UNIPEDE) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) co-sponsor the International Nuclear Utility Executive Meeting in Paris. Électricité de France (EDF) hosts the meeting, which is chaired by Lord Walter Marshall of Goring, Chairman of the United Kingdom’s Central Electricity Generating Board. Thirty of the world’s 32 countries that have nuclear power plants operating or under construction are represented.
The utility executives form steering and implementation committees to plan for a worldwide association of nuclear operators. Soviet Minister Nickolai Lukonin agrees to consider whether the inaugural meeting can be held in Moscow. The purpose of the association will be to exchange operating experience throughout the international nuclear community.
May 1989 – WANO’s inaugural meeting is held in Moscow and hosted by Minister Nickolai Lukonin, who is recognised as the first President of the association.
November 1989 – The WANO Charter is signed by 144 companies, committing them to work in support of the WANO mission. Lord Marshall is named Chairman of the Governing Board and William S. Lee, Duke Power Company, USA, is elected as President to serve until the first Biennial General Meeting. Minister Lukonin accepts a challenge to organise two-way exchange visits between every Moscow Centre plant and a plant of another centre within two years.
1990 - 1999
April 1990 – Governors approve the Plant Performance Indicator Programme at the 4th WANO Governing Board meeting in London, UK.
April 1991 - Nearly 250 participants attend the 1st Biennial General Meeting, which is held in Atlanta. A trial period is established for peer reviews. Shoh Nasu, President of Tokyo EPC, succeeds William Lee as WANO President.
April 1993 - Rémy Carle of Électricité de France is elected as the new Chairman of the Governing Board, succeeding Lord Marshall. More than 420 participants attend the 2nd WANO Biennial General Meeting held in Tokyo. Special emphasis is placed on the Peer Review Programme, which continues beyond the pilot phase on a regional basis, and on assistance to east/central European operators. Dr. Ian McRae, Chief Executive of ESKOM, succeeds Shoh Nasu as WANO President.
April 1995 – Rémy Carle is re-elected WANO Chairman. Nearly 300 representatives of utilities from 30 countries participate in the 3rd Biennial General Meeting, which is held in Paris. Eric Pozdyshev succeeds Dr. Ian McRae as WANO President.
May 1997 - Rémy Carle retires as WANO Chairman. Dr. Zack Pate is elected Chairman. More than 275 participants from 136 utilities in 33 countries attend the 4th Biennial General Meeting in Prague. Allan Kupcis, Chief Executive Officer of Ontario Hydro, succeeds Eric Pozdyshev as President of WANO.
September 1999 - The 5th WANO Biennial General Meeting is held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. More than 320 participants representing more than 430 nuclear reactors in 32 countries attend. The meeting marks WANO’s 10th anniversary. Soo-byung Choi, president of Korea Electric Power Company, succeeds Allan Kupcis as WANO President.
2001 - 2010
June 2001 - The WANO Governing Board re-elects Dr. Zack Pate as WANO Chairman through June 2002, or until a successor is selected and qualified.
September 2001 – WANO launches its first public web site.
February 2002- Governors approve a resolution to elevate the role of the Director of the London Coordinating Centre to include the role of Managing Director of WANO under the supervision of the WANO Chairman and WANO Governing Board.
March 2002 - The 6th WANO Biennial General Meeting is held in Seoul, Korea. 340 participants representing more than 429 nuclear reactors in 32 countries attend. Pierre Carlier of EDF is elected President.
May 2002 – WANO conducts its first pilot peer review at a nuclear fuel fabrication and processing facility.
July 2002 - Hajimu Maeda succeeds Dr. Zack Pate as the WANO Chairman. Dr. Pate becomes WANO Chairman Emeritus. WANO Governors establish the WANO Nuclear Excellence Awards.
October 2002 – Sig Berg succeeds Tony Capp as WANO Managing Director.
October 2003 – The 7th WANO Biennial General Meeting is held in Berlin, Germany. Nearly 390 participants attend. Chairman Hajimu Maeda reports on WANO’s activities and discusses the need for openness and transparency in WANO and the industry. Oleg Saraev of Concern Rosenergoatom is elected President of WANO.
April 2004 - Governors formally elect William Cavanaugh III to serve a two-year term as WANO Chairman.
May 2004 - WANO marks its 15th anniversary.
November 2004 – Lucas Mampaey from Electrabel succeeds Sig Berg as Managing Director of WANO.
October 2005 - The 8th WANO Biennial General Meeting is held in Budapest, Hungary. Approximately 400 participants attend. In his opening address, Chairman William Cavanaugh III says, ‘A nuclear renaissance is under way, but without safety there is no future. We create the climate of openness and transparency which is required for safety.’ Mr. Oliver D Kingsley Jr. is elected President of WANO.
April 2006 - William Cavanaugh III is unanimously re-elected to serve a second two-year term. An Extraordinary General Meeting is held to amend the WANO Articles of Association to include nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities.
June 2008 - During the 65th Governing Board meeting, William Cavanaugh III is re-elected to serve as Chairman.
January 2009 - Laurent Stricker, Electricité de France, is elected Chairman, succeeding William Cavanaugh III.
May 2009 - WANO marks its 20th anniversary.
July 2009 - A working group forms to review WANO’s membership and organisational structures.
September 2009 – George Felgate from INPO succeeds Lucas Mampaey as Managing Director.
February 2010 - The 10th BGM is held in Delhi, India. QIAN Zhimin, Chairman of the Board of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) succeeds Dr. Shreyans Kumar Jain as WANO President. Attendees are informed that every commercial nuclear plant in the world has now received a WANO peer review. At an Extraordinary General Meeting, WANO members approve sweeping changes to the Charter and Articles of Association. The changes focus WANO membership on the companies operating nuclear plants instead of on countries and strengthen governance of WANO under a restructured Governing Board. The roles of the Managing Director are defined and the Coordinating Centre is renamed the London Office to clarify its role in governance of WANO. In the following months, all operating companies reapply for membership under the restructured organisation.
July 2010 – Laurent Stricker is re-elected to second term as WANO Chairman. HE Yu of CGNPG succeeds QIAN Zhimin as interim President. James O. Ellis, President and CEO of INPO, Sergey Obozov, Director General of Concern Rosenergoatom, Henri Proglio, Chairman and CEO of EDF and Masataka Shimizu, President of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), join the WANO Governing Board.
2011 - present
11 March 2011 – A 9.0 magnitude earthquake strikes off the coast of Honshu, Japan. The resulting tsunamis engulf Tokyo Electric Power Company’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, starting a chain of events that eventually leads to core damage in three of its reactors and offsite releases of radioactivity. The event is eventually classified as a level 7, the most severe level of disaster on the international nuclear event scale. Only the Chernobyl disaster has been more severe. WANO offices commence communicating event information to its members and marshalling resources to support TEPCO.
Six days after the event, WANO issues Significant Operating Experience Report (SOER) 2011-2 – Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station Fuel Damage Caused by Earthquake and Tsunami, for members’ urgent responses.
31 March 2011, WANO establishes a Post-Fukushima Commission to determine lessons for the organisation following the disaster. The Commission is tasked with reporting back to its findings and recommendations to members by the Shenzhen BGM in October 2011.
26 April 2011 – The world marks 25 years since the Chernobyl disaster.
30 September 2011 – The Post-Fukushima Commission issues its final report with five recommendations for consideration by the WANO Governing Board.
October 2011 – The 11th BGM is held in Shenzhen, China. Vladimir Asmolov, First Deputy Director General, Concern Rosenergoatom OJSC, succeeds HE Yu of CGNPC as WANO President. At an Extraordinary General Meeting, members unanimously support the recommendations of the Post-Fukushima Commission approved the previous day by the WANO Governing Board. The recommendations include expanding the scope of WANO activities; developing a worldwide integrated event response strategy, improving WANO’s credibility including changes to WANO’s peer reviews and corporate peer reviews; improving visibility; and improving the quality and consistency of WANO’s products and services worldwide.
14–16 May 2012 - At the recent WANO Governing Board meeting in Moscow, Mr Robert F. Willard replaced Mr James O. Ellis, Jr on the WANO Governing Board.
Tom Mitchell of Ontario Power Generation is elected Chair of the Governance and Nominating Committee, tasked with appointing a successor to Chairman Stricker and examining the roles and responsibilities of the WANO governance positions and structures.
Five new WANO members are approved. Axpo AG, BKW-FMB Energie AG, Kernkraftwerk Gösgen-Däniken AG and Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG are approved as category 2 members affiliated with the Paris Centre.
The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is approved as a new category 3 member affiliated with the Paris Centre.
21–26 May 2012- The second Regional Centre assessment takes place at the WANO Paris Centre.
25 July 2012- Mr Chen Hua and Mr He Yu were elected to the WANO Governing Board
31 October 2012- Jacques Regaldo, Electricité de France, is elected Chairman, succeeding Laurent Stricker. Mr Vissarion Kim was elected to the WANO Governing Board.
1 April 2013 - Ken Ellis from Bruce Power succeeds George Felgate as Managing Director.
19–22 May 2013- The 12th WANO Biennial General Meeting was held in Moscow, Russia. An Extraordinary General Meeting (EGM) was held during the BGM in order for members to vote to approve the election of a new WANO President – a position with a nominal two-year term – and two changes to the organisation’s Articles of Association were approved. As a result of the EGM, Mr Duncan Hawthorne was voted to succeed Professor Vladimir Asmolov as President of WANO; and Ken Ellis, Managing Director of WANO, joined the WANO Governing Board.
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: About us".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: Our mission".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: Peer reviews".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: Operating Experience".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: Technical Support and Exchange".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: Professional and Technical Development".
- "World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO):: History".