World Chess Championship 1993

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The World Chess Championship 1993 was one of the most controversial matches in chess history, with incumbent World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov, and official challenger Nigel Short, splitting from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and playing their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association. In response, FIDE stripped Kasparov of his title, and instead held a title match between Anatoly Karpov and Jan Timman.

The matches were won by Kasparov and Karpov respectively. For the first time in history, there were two rival World Chess Champions, a situation which persisted until the World Chess Championship 2006.

1990 Interzonal Tournament[edit]

For the first time, the Interzonal was held as a Swiss system tournament in Manila in June and July 1990. 64 contestants played 13 rounds; the top 11 qualified for the Candidates Tournament.[1]

1990 Interzonal Tournament
Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Total
1  GM Boris Gelfand (Soviet Union) 2680 =26 +42 +3 =14 +29 =5 =2 =11 +8 =12 =6 =9 +16 9
2  GM Vassily Ivanchuk (Soviet Union) 2680 −54 +41 +43 +21 +8 +48 =1 =6 =12 =10 =5 +17 =3 9
3  GM Viswanathan Anand (India) 2610 =32 +44 −1 +49 −13 =54 +47 =18 =14 +29 +37 +12 =2
4  GM Nigel Short (England) 2610 +20 −21 −13 =46 +33 +24 +7 −8 +30 +18 =11 =6 +12
5  GM Gyula Sax (Hungary) 2600 =22 +64 +51 +8 =48 =1 =12 =9 =13 =11 =2 =10 =7 8
6  GM Viktor Korchnoi (Switzerland) 2630 =31 +33 =7 =15 +28 =30 +29 =2 =11 =13 =1 =4 =10 8
7  GM Robert Hübner (West Germany) 2585 =38 +62 =6 =16 =17 =18 −4 +19 +48 +21 =10 =11 =5 8
8  GM Predrag Nikolić (Yugoslavia) 2600 +13 +58 +12 −5 −2 =19 +40 +4 −1 =17 =21 =14 +25 8
9  GM Leonid Yudasin (Soviet Union) 2615 =45 +49 −29 +55 +25 =14 +48 =5 −21 +16 =12 =1 =11 8
10  GM Sergey Dolmatov (Soviet Union) 2615 =24 =23 +27 =11 +39 =29 +30 −12 +15 =2 =7 =5 =6 8
11  GM Alexey Dreev (Soviet Union) 2615 =44 =32 +22 =10 =21 +13 +14 =1 =6 =5 =4 =7 =9 8
12  GM Mikhail Gurevich (Soviet Union) 2640 +43 +36 −8 +37 =14 +34 =5 +10 =2 =1 =9 −3 −4
13  GM Branko Damljanovic (Yugoslavia) 2515 −8 +53 +4 =51 +3 −11 +34 +16 =5 =6 −17 =19 =15
14  GM Kiril Georgiev (Bulgaria) 2580 +57 =16 +17 =1 =12 =9 −11 =31 =3 =15 +28 =8 =20
15  GM Ljubomir Ljubojević (Yugoslavia) 2600 +40 =29 =16 =6 =18 =17 =21 +22 −10 =14 +36 =25 =13
16  GM Jaan Ehlvest (Soviet Union) 2655 +56 =14 =15 =7 =30 =23 +19 −13 +31 −9 +22 +21 −1
17  GM Alexander Khalifman (Soviet Union) 2615 =33 +31 −14 +24 =7 =15 +23 =21 =29 =8 +13 −2 =19
18  GM Yasser Seirawan (United States) 2635 =42 =26 =30 +56 =15 =7 =31 =3 +40 −4 =27 =24 +22
19  GM Alexei Shirov (Soviet Union) 2580 =55 =35 =23 =33 +42 =8 −16 −7 +32 +50 +29 =13 =17
20  GM Jóhann Hjartarson (Iceland) 2520 −4 +61 −37 −40 +38 −36 +45 =47 +54 =39 +42 +34 =14
21  GM Nick de Firmian (United States) 2560 +61 +4 =48 −2 =11 +37 =15 =17 +9 −7 =8 −16 =28 7
22  GM Gad Rechlis (Israel) 2505 =5 =28 −11 +27 =47 =25 +46 −15 +41 +48 −16 +37 −18 7
23  IM Vasil Spasov (Bulgaria) 2495 =34 =10 =19 +36 =51 =16 −17 =44 −39 +43 =35 =26 +49 7
24  IM Igor Štohl (Czechoslovakia) 2525 =10 −34 +45 −17 +58 −4 +43 +39 =50 −37 +44 =18 =27 7
25  GM Michael Adams (England) 2590 +46 =63 +50 −29 −9 =22 =39 =49 +44 =27 +30 =15 −8 7
26  GM Roman Dzindzichashvili (United States) 2560 =1 =18 +38 −30 =31 =46 =63 =34 =36 =42 =39 =23 +41 7
27  GM Ľubomír Ftáčnik (Czechoslovakia) 2550 −51 +59 −10 −22 +64 =32 +57 =37 +34 =25 =18 =36 =24 7
28  GM Boris Gulko (United States) 2600 =64 =22 =32 +58 −6 =47 =41 =36 =33 +31 −14 +45 =21 7
29  GM Joël Lautier (France) 2570 +60 =15 +9 +25 −1 =10 −6 +50 =17 −3 −19 =39 =35
30  GM Smbat Lputian (Soviet Union) 2575 +59 =51 =18 +26 =16 =6 −10 =48 −4 +33 −25 =41 =36
31  GM Miguel Illescas (Spain) 2535 =6 −17 =64 +38 =26 +51 =18 =14 −16 −28 =32 +44 =37
32  GM Božidar Ivanović (Yugoslavia) 2520 =3 =11 =28 −50 =36 =27 =53 =54 −19 +55 =31 =48 +56
33  GM Eugenio Torre (Philippines) 2530 =17 −6 +62 =19 −4 =49 =42 +46 =28 −30 −45 +51 +48
34  GM Simen Agdestein (Norway) 2600 =23 +24 +63 −48 +50 −12 −13 =26 −27 +52 +40 −20 =39
35  IM Mihail Marin (Romania) 2485 =37 =19 =36 −39 =49 =42 −56 +55 +47 =40 =23 =50 =29
36  GM Mikhail Tal (Soviet Union) 2580 +52 −12 =35 −23 =32 +20 =37 =28 =26 +56 −15 =27 =30
37  GM Tony Miles (England) 2595 =35 =55 +20 −12 +43 −21 =36 =27 +49 +24 −3 −22 =31
38  GM Jaime Sunye Neto (Brazil) 2465 =7 =39 −26 −31 −20 =60 =59 +58 =53 +47 =48 =42 +50
39  GM Andrei Sokolov (Soviet Union) 2570 =62 =38 =54 +35 −10 =41 =25 −24 +23 =20 =26 =29 =34
40  GM Petar Popović (Yugoslavia) 2520 −15 =60 =42 +20 +63 =50 −8 +56 −18 =35 −34 =49 =45 6
41  IM Goran Cabrilo (Yugoslavia) 2485 −48 −2 =59 +60 +56 =39 =28 =42 −22 +49 =50 =30 −26 6
42  GM Kevin Spraggett (Canada) 2540 =18 −1 =40 +64 −19 =35 =33 =41 +51 =26 −20 =38 =46 6
43  GM Alonso Zapata (Colombia) 2545 −12 +52 −2 +53 −37 =57 −24 −51 +61 −23 +58 =54 +55 6
44  GM Ye Rongguang (China) 2525 =11 −3 −49 +62 −55 +58 +51 =23 −25 +57 −24 −31 +54 6
45  GM Eric Lobron (West Germany) 2535 =9 −50 −24 =59 +52 −56 −20 =57 +60 +54 +33 −28 =40 6
46  GM Stuart Rachels (United States) 2475 −25 +47 =58 =4 =54 =26 −22 −33 −57 +62 =56 +52 =42 6
47  GM Margeir Petursson (Iceland) 2550 −63 −46 +57 +52 =22 =28 −3 =20 −35 −38 +60 =56 +59 6
48  GM Lajos Portisch (Hungary) 2590 +41 +54 =21 +34 =5 −2 −9 =30 −7 −22 =38 =32 −33
49  GM Ian Rogers (Australia) 2535 =50 −9 +44 −3 =35 =33 +55 =25 −37 −41 +53 =40 −23
50  GM Rafael Vaganian (Soviet Union) 2630 =49 +45 −25 +32 −34 =40 +54 −29 =24 −19 =41 =35 −38
51  Gata Kamsky (United States) 2650 +27 =30 −5 =13 =23 −31 −44 +43 −42 =53 =52 −33 +60
52  IM Lin Ta (China) 2435 −36 −43 +61 −47 −45 +64 +62 =53 =56 −34 =51 −46 +58
53  GM Vasily Smyslov (Soviet Union) 2570 −58 −13 +60 −43 −57 +59 =32 =58 =38 =51 −49 =62 +61
54  GM Murray Chandler (New Zealand) 2560 +2 −48 =39 =63 =46 =3 −50 =32 −20 −45 +61 =43 −44 5
55  IM Rico Mascariñas (Philippines) 2465 =19 =37 =56 −9 +44 −63 −49 −35 +59 −32 +62 =61 −43 5
56  IM Walter Arencibia (Cuba) 2555 −16 +57 =55 −18 −41 +45 +35 −40 =52 −36 =46 =47 −32 5
57  IM Herman Claudius van Riemsdijk (Brazil) 2440 −14 −56 −47 +61 +53 =43 −27 =45 +46 −44 =59 −60 =62 5
58  IM Farou El Taher (Egypt) 2375 +53 −8 =46 −28 −24 −44 =60 −38 =62 =61 −43 +59 −52 4
59  IM Carlos Armando Juárez Flores (Guatemala) 2425 −30 −27 =41 =45 =62 −53 =38 =61 −55 +60 =57 −58 −47 4
60  IM Leon David Piasetski (Canada) 2410 −29 =40 −53 −41 =61 =38 =58 =62 −45 −59 −47 +57 −51
61  IM Slaheddine Hmadi (Tunisia) 2335 −21 −20 −52 −57 =60 =62 +64 =59 −43 =58 −54 =55 −53
62  IM Assem Afifi (Egypt) 2400 =39 −7 −33 −44 =59 =61 −52 =60 =58 −46 −55 =53 =57
63  GM Valery Salov (Soviet Union) 2655 +47 =25 −34 =54 −40 +55 =26 - - - - - -
64  IM Praveen Thipsay (India) 2490 =28 −5 =31 −42 −27 −52 −61 - - - - - - 1

Salov and Thipsay withdrew after seven rounds.

1991–93 Candidates Tournament[edit]

The final four players from the 1988–90 Candidates tournament—Karpov, Timman, Yusupov and Speelman—were seeded directly into the Candidates. They were joined by the top 11 finishers from the Interzonal. These 15 players played a series of Candidates matches.[2] If matches were tied after the allotted games, extra pairs of rapid chess games were played until one player had the lead.[3]

The preliminary matches were played in Sarajevo (Timman-Hübner and Gelfand-Nikolić), Wijk aan Zee (Korchnoi-Sax and Yusupov-Dolmatov), Riga (Ivanchuk-Yudasin), London (Short-Speelman), and Madras (Anand-Dreev) in January and February 1991. All four quarterfinals were played in Brussels in August 1991, both semifinals in Linares in April 1992, and the final in San Lorenzo del Escorial in January 1993.

Round of 16 (best of 8) Quarterfinals (best of 8) Semifinals (best of 10) Final (best of 14)
                       
Netherlands Jan Timman
Germany Robert Hübner
Netherlands Jan Timman
Switzerland Victor Korchnoi
Switzerland Victor Korchnoi
Hungary Gyula Sax
Netherlands Jan Timman 6
Germany Artur Yusupov 4
Germany Artur Yusupov
Soviet Union Sergey Dolmatov
Germany Artur Yusupov
Soviet Union Vassily Ivanchuk
Soviet Union Vassily Ivanchuk
Soviet Union Leonid Yudasin ½
Netherlands Jan Timman
England Nigel Short
England Nigel Short
England Jon Speelman
England Nigel Short 5
Soviet Union Boris Gelfand 3
Soviet Union Boris Gelfand
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Predrag Nikolić
England Nigel Short 6
Russia Anatoly Karpov 4
India Viswanathan Anand
Soviet Union Alexei Dreev
India Viswanathan Anand
Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov
(bye)
Soviet Union Anatoly Karpov

1993 PCA match[edit]

The Kasparov–Short final was best of 24 games, played in London in September and October 1993.[4]

PCA World Chess Championship Match 1993
Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total
 Garry Kasparov (Russia) 2815 1 ½ 1 1 ½ ½ 1 ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 1 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ 12½
 Nigel Short (England) 2665 0 ½ 0 0 ½ ½ 0 ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ ½ ½ 0 1 ½ ½ ½ ½

After the actual match, the players filled out the last four days of the playing schedule by playing a series of seven exhibition games that Kasparov won 5–2 (+4−1=2).

1993 FIDE match[edit]

As a result of the unauthorized PCA match, FIDE stripped Kasparov of his title, removed him and Short from their rating lists, and arranged an "official" match between Timman and Karpov, who Short had beaten in the Candidates final and semifinal, respectively. The FIDE match was played in Zwolle, Arnhem, Amsterdam, and Jakarta in November and December 1993.

FIDE World Chess Championship Match 1993
Rating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total
 Jan Timman (Netherlands) 2620 0 1 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ ½ ½ 0 0 0 ½ ½ ½ 1 ½
 Anatoly Karpov (Russia) 2760 1 0 ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ 1 ½ ½ ½ 1 1 1 ½ ½ ½ 0 ½ 12½

Karpov won the best-of-24 match and thus regained the FIDE championship title that he had previously held from 1975 to 1985 before losing it to Kasparov.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1990 Manila Interzonal Tournament, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages
  2. ^ 1991–93 Candidates Matches, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages
  3. ^ World Championships 1/4-finals, round 8, Usenet rec.games.chess, August 24, 1991
  4. ^ 1993 Kasparov–Short PCA Title Match, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages
  5. ^ 1993 Karpov–Timman FIDE Title Match, Mark Weeks' Chess Pages