World Confederation of Labour
|Full name||World Confederation of Labour|
|Date dissolved||31 October 2006|
|Members||26 million in 116 countries|
|Office location||Brussels, Belgium|
The World Confederation of Labour (WCL) was an international labour organization founded in 1920 and based in Europe. Totalitarian governments of the 1930s repressed the federation and imprisoned many of its leaders, limiting operations until the end of World War II. In 2006 it became part of the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), ending its existence as an independent organization.
- 1 History
- 2 Areas of activity
- 3 See also
- 4 Further reading
- 5 Notes
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The WCL was founded at The Hague in 1920 under the name of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU) as a confederation of trade unions associated with the Christian Democratic parties of Europe. Originally catering to Roman Catholic constituencies, the IFCTU was designed to provide an alternative to the secular trade unions in Europe at the time, basing its foundation on the Rerum novarum and the Quadragesimo anno.
The first statutes adopted by the group proclaimed its intention to struggle not only for workers' labour rights, but also values like human dignity, democracy, and international solidarity. Jos Serrarens became the first secretary-general of the IFCTU; Joseph Scherrer was its first president.
Rise of fascism and World War II
In the late 1920s, global economic tumult compounded the growth of authoritarian governments in Europe, which the IFCTU opposed. In response, German officials of the 1930s sent the group's leaders to Nazi concentration camps, and Benito Mussolini banned its Italian affiliate.
During World War II, German forces occupying The Netherlands destroyed the organization's secretariat, and it became inactive until 1945. The federation had difficulty renewing ties with most of its affiliates in Eastern Europe after the end of the war.
Cold War era
When the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was founded in September 1945, it invited the IFCTU to join. Delegates to an October congress in Brussels voted to reject the invitation, on the grounds that the WFTU's global unity was "too artificial".
The matter of affiliation with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) is in dispute. The website of the WCL reports that it "preferred to remain independent," particularly in order to criticize both capitalist and communist abuses. However, according to the International Institute of Social History, member unions of the ICFTU were opposed to affiliating with the Christian organization.
In the late 1950s, the IFCTU found itself working more frequently with Muslim and Buddhist workers in Asia and Africa. In 1959, the IFCTU convened a seminar in Saigon to determine the possibilities for points of unity among world religions in matters of social behaviour.
In 1968, delegates to the organization's 16th congress in Luxembourg voted to transform it into the World Confederation of Labour (WCL). Breaking with the federation's strictly Christian ideology of the past, the newly adopted Declaration of Principles stated it would henceforth be guided by "either a spiritual concept based on the conviction that man and universe are created by God, or other concepts that lead together with it to a common effort to build a human community united in freedom, dignity, justice and brotherhood."
Globalization and ITUC merger
As globalization became more of a threat to union membership throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the WCL increased its efforts to carry out a similar global unification of labour leadership. Its 1993 congress in Mauritius attempted to lay out a concrete strategy for responding to business attacks on organized labour around the world. The WCL soon obtained consultative status within the International Labour Organisation and joined the International Council of the World Social Forum.
Since the time of merger, many trade unions especially in the Global South have become disillusioned with the ITUC. The dominant affiliates of the ITUC are not independent of their ruling classes, even if they organisationally seem to be, but they are politically tied to the ruling establishment. The junior employees of ITUC are paid minimally and the trade union uses ineffective retired people to save costs, whereas the management leads a lavish lifestyle.
Areas of activity
The WCL had nine areas of labour activity where it focused work.
Human rights and international labour standards
The WCL worked to enforce respect for international law, especially as codified by the ILO. The organization also sought to introduce labour standards into international trade policies.
The World Women's Committee of the WCL convened "representatives from the continents" annually to advocate for women workers and address problems specific to female labourers.
The WCL worked in support of the Global March Against Child Labour and advocated for ILO Convention 182, which addressed serious forms of child labour. The organization also assisted with the First World Congress of Child Workers.
The rights of migrants — as humans and as workers — was a particular focus of the WCL's work, especially given its increased presence in a globalized economy.
Economics and society
Pursuant to the rise of globalization and interest in taking a larger view of macroeconomic policy, the WCL set up a socio-economic programme to address issues of such a scope. In addition to advocacy around matters at the World Trade Organization, the federation sought to reform the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
Workers in a society's informal economy — 60 to 90% of the active work population of Africa, according to the ILO — function outside of regulatory and government oversight. The WCL worked to help train local advocates and provide relief to workers in need, including a recycling program for informal economy workers in Brazil.
The information clearinghouse of the WCL, Trade Action served to promote training; facilitate exchange of knowledge and advice; and support members' participation at meetings of international institutions. It also produced a newsletter, The World of Trade Action.
International solidarity foundation
The WCL created the International Solidarity Foundation (ISF) to promote cross-country worker unity and provide emergency assistance (from a Solidarity Fund, established in 1958) to organizations in need. After the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the ISF launched a solidarity campaign to assist workers and organizers in the region. The foundation worked in partnership with a variety of other groups, including the Confederation of Christian Trade Unions, the Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond, and the National Trade Union Confederation (Romania).
- ICTUR et al.,, ed. (2005). Trade Unions of the World (6th ed.). London, UK: John Harper Publishing. ISBN 0-9543811-5-7.
- "History." Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "World Confederation of Labour Archives". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- www.cmt-wcl.org - official site.
- "New global realities demand a new kind of unionism" co-authored by Willy Thys, WCL secretary-general, in 1996
- Report on Trade Union Rights Worldwide - 1996-1997 issued by WCL
- The World of Trade Action - WCL newsletter archive (2004-2006).
- "Human Rights & International Labour Standards". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Women Workers". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "ICFTU and Global March strategy meeting outcomes on combating child labour". Global March Against Child Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Child labour". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Migration: one of the faces of globalisation". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "WCL relations with IMF and World Bank Group: Evaluation and Recommendations". Online in PDF format. Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Informal Economy". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Brazil: trade union launches recycling project for informal economy workers". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Capacity Building". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
- "Jointly with the WCL, the ISF launches a solidarity campaign in Asia". Conféderation Mondiale du Travail/World Confederation of Labour. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.