World Meteorological Organization
|المنظمة العالمية للأرصاد الجوية
World Meteorological Organization
Organisation météorologique mondiale
Organización Meteorológica Mundial
Всемирная Метеорологическая Организация
|Head||Michel Jarraud (Secretary-General)
David Grimes (President)
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The current Secretary-General is Michel Jarraud. The current president is David Grimes.
- 1 The organization
- 2 Activities
- 3 World Meteorological Day
- 4 Awards and prizes
- 5 WMO conference on climate prediction and information for decision-making
- 6 Membership
- 6.1 Current member states
- 6.2 Historical member states
- 6.3 Member territories
- 6.4 Membership by regional associations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
WMO has a membership of 191 member states and territories (as of 1 January 2013). The Convention of the World Meteorological Organization was signed 11 October 1947 and established upon ratification in 1950. WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations in 1951 for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873.
The WMO hierarchy:
- The World Meteorological Congress determines the policy of WMO and meets every four years. Each Member country is represented by a Permanent Representative with WMO. The Permanent Representative should be the director of the National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Service.
- The Executive Council (EC) implements Congress decisions and meets once a year.
- Six regional associations for addressing regional concerns (see the section on regional associations, below)
- Eight technical commissions provide technical recommendations for WMO and the national services.
- The secretariat headed by the Secretary-General coordinates the activities of WMO with a regular staff of more than 250 employees.
As weather, climate and the water cycle know no national boundaries, international cooperation at a global scale is essential for the development of meteorology and operational hydrology as well as to reap the benefits from their application. WMO provides the framework for such international cooperation.
Since its establishment, WMO has played a unique and powerful role in contributing to the safety and welfare of humanity. Under WMO leadership and within the framework of WMO programs, National Meteorological and Hydrological Services contribute substantially to the protection of life and property against natural disasters, to safeguarding the environment and to enhancing the economic and social well-being of all sectors of society in areas such as food security, water resources and transport.
The WMO and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It is also directly responsible for the creation of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The IPCC has received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007 "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."
WMO promotes cooperation in the establishment of networks for making meteorological, climatological, hydrological and geophysical observations, as well as the exchange, processing and standardization of related data, and assists technology transfer, training and research. It also fosters collaboration between the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services of its Members and furthers the application of meteorology to public weather services, agriculture, aviation, shipping, the environment, water issues and the mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters.
WMO facilitates the free and unrestricted exchange of data and information, products and services in real- or near-real time on matters relating to safety and security of society, economic welfare and the protection of the environment. It contributes to policy formulation in these areas at national and international levels.
In the specific case of weather-, climate and water-related hazards, which account for nearly 90% of all natural disasters, WMO's programs provide vital information for the advance warnings that save lives and reduce damage to property and the environment. WMO also contributes to reducing the impacts of human-induced disasters, such as those associated with chemical and nuclear accidents, forest fire and volcanic ash. Studies have shown that, apart from the incalculable benefit to human well-being, every dollar invested in meteorological and hydrological services produces an economic return many times greater, often ten times or more.
WMO plays a leading role in international efforts to monitor and protect the environment through its programs. In collaboration with other UN agencies and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, WMO supports the implementation of a number of environmental conventions and is instrumental in providing advice and assessments to governments on related matters. These activities contribute towards ensuring the sustainable development and well-being of nations.
In keeping with its mandate to promote the standardization of meteorological observations, the WMO maintains numerous code forms for the representation and exchange of meteorological, oceanographical, and hydrological data. The traditional code forms, such as SYNOP, CLIMAT and TEMP, are character-based and their coding is position-based. Newer WMO code forms are designed for portability, extensibility and universality. These are BUFR, CREX, and, for gridded geo-positioned data, GRIB.
World Meteorological Day
- World Meteorological Day is held annually on 23 March.
Awards and prizes
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2013)|
- International Meteorological Organization Prize
- Vilho Väisälä Award
- Norbert Gerbier-Mumm International Award
- WMO Research Award for Young Scientists
WMO conference on climate prediction and information for decision-making
World Climate Conference-3 (WCC-3) was held from 31 August to 4 September 2009 in Geneva, Switzerland, under the auspices of WMO. Its goal was to address advancements in seasonal to multi-decadal climate predictions and to spur their applications to decision-making in socio-economic sectors, including food, water, energy, health, tourism and development sectors. The Conference aimed to contribute to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and broader UN climate goals through support for climate adaptation.
As of February 2013, member states of the organisation include 183 of the 193 UN members, the Cook Islands and Niue, for a total of 185 member states. Additionally there are 6 member territories, listed below.
There are 10 states that are members of the United Nations, but not of the WMO. These are: Andorra, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and San Marino; the most populous of these countries is Equatorial Guinea, with nearly 700,000 inhabitants. Non-members of either organisation include the Vatican City and the states with limited recognition.
The six member territories are: the British Caribbean Territories (joint meteorological organisation and membership), French Polynesia, Hong Kong, Macau, Curaçao and Sint Maarten (joint meteorological service and membership), and New Caledonia. Below is a table of all members with admission dates.
Current member states
States that joined the WMO before they joined the UN are marked with a Member states of the United Nations. The dates are the dates of the ratification of the WMO Convention by the member, or the date of accession. The national meteorological services belonging to each member state are also listed.. States that are members of the WMO, but not of the UN are marked with a . For comparison, see
|Member states||National Meteorological Services||Date of admission|
|Afghanistan||Afghanistan Meteorological Authority||11 September 1956|
|Albania||Hydrometeorological Institute of Albania||29 July 1957|
|Algeria||4 April 1963|
|Angola||16 March 1977|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Antigua and Barbuda Meteorological Services||16 November 1988|
|Argentina||2 January 1951|
|Armenia||16 September 1992|
|Australia||Bureau of Meteorology||14 March 1949|
|Austria||Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics||23 February 1955|
|Azerbaijan||27 December 1993|
|Bahamas||Bahamas Meteorology Department||29 November 1973|
|Bahrain||21 April 1980|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh Meteorological Department||24 August 1973|
|Barbados||Barbados Meteorological Services||22 March 1967|
|Belarus||12 April 1948|
|Belgium||Royal Meteorological Institute||2 February 1951|
|Belize||Belize National Meteorological Service||25 May 1982|
|Benin||14 April 1961|
|Bhutan||11 February 2003|
|Bolivia, Plurinational State of||15 May 1954|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1 June 1994|
|Botswana||16 October 1967|
|Brazil||15 March 1950|
|Brunei Darussalam||26 November 1984|
|Bulgaria||12 March 1952|
|Burkina Faso||31 October 1960|
|Burundi||30 October 1962|
|Cambodia||8 November 1955|
|Cameroon||17 December 1960|
|Canada||Meteorological Service of Canada||28 July 1950|
|Cape Verde||21 October 1975|
|Central African Republic||28 June 1961|
|Chad||2 February 1961|
|Chile||9 May 1957|
|People's Republic of China||China Meteorological Administration||25 February 1972|
|Colombia||Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies||5 January 1962|
|Comoros||15 March 1976|
|Congo||21 November 1960|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||5 November 1960|
|Cook Islands||18 October 1995|
|Costa Rica||Instituto Meteorológico Nacional||16 December 1960|
|Cote d'Ivoire ! Côte d'Ivoire||31 October 1960|
|Croatia||Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service||9 October 1992|
|Cuba||4 March 1952|
|Cyprus||11 April 1963|
|Czech Republic||Czech Hydrometeorological Institute||25 January 1993|
|Denmark||Danish Meteorological Institute||10 July 1951|
|Djibouti||30 June 1978|
|Dominica||21 February 1980|
|Dominican Republic||15 September 1949|
|Ecuador||Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (Ecuador)||7 June 1950|
|Egypt||10 January 1950|
|El Salvador||27 May 1955|
|Eritrea||8 July 1993|
|Estonia||Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute||21 August 1992|
|Ethiopia||3 December 1953|
|Fiji||Fiji Meteorological Service||18 March 1980|
|Finland||Finnish Meteorological Institute||7 January 1949|
|France||Météo-France||5 December 1949|
|Gabon||5 June 1961|
|Gambia||2 October 1978|
|Georgia||1 September 1993|
|Germany||Deutscher Wetterdienst||10 June 1954|
|Ghana||6 May 1957|
|Greece||Hellenic National Meteorological Service||20 January 1950|
|Guatemala||Instituto Nacional de Sismología, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrología||21 March 1952|
|Guinea||27 March 1959|
|Guinea-Bissau||15 December 1977|
|Guyana||22 November 1966|
|Haiti||14 August 1951|
|Honduras||10 October 1960|
|Hungary||15 February 1951|
|Iceland||Icelandic Meteorological Office||16 January 1948|
|India||India Meteorological Department||27 April 1949|
|Indonesia||Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics||16 November 1950|
|Iran, Islamic Republic of||30 September 1959|
|Iraq||21 February 1950|
|Ireland||Met Éireann||14 March 1950|
|Israel||Israel Meteorological Service||30 September 1949|
|Italy||Servizio Meteorologico||9 January 1951|
|Jamaica||29 May 1963|
|Japan||Japan Meteorological Agency||11 August 1953|
|Jordan||11 July 1955|
|Kazakhstan||5 May 1993|
|Kenya||2 June 1964|
|Kiribati||26 March 2003|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||27 May 1975|
|Republic of Korea||Korea Meteorological Administration||15 February 1956|
|Kuwait||1 December 1962|
|Kyrgyzstan||20 July 1994|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||1 June 1955|
|Latvia||Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre||15 May 1992|
|Lebanon||22 December 1948|
|Lesotho||3 August 1979|
|Liberia||7 February 1974|
|Libya||29 December 1955|
|Lithuania||3 June 1992|
|Luxembourg||29 October 1952|
|Macedonia||1 June 1993|
|Madagascar||15 December 1960|
|Malawi||15 February 1965|
|Malaysia||19 May 1958|
|Maldives||1 June 1978|
|Mali||11 November 1960|
|Malta||28 December 1976|
|Mauritania||23 January 1961|
|Mauritius||17 July 1969|
|Mexico||Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico)||27 May 1949|
|Federated States of Micronesia||20 September 1995|
|Moldova||21 November 1994|
|Monaco||9 April 1996|
|Mongolia||4 April 1963|
|Montenegro||Hydrometeorological Institute of Montenegro||6 December 2006|
|Morocco||3 January 1957|
|Mozambique||Mozambique National Institute of Meteorology||21 June 1976|
|Myanmar||19 August 1949|
|Namibia||6 February 1991|
|Nepal||12 August 1966|
|Kingdom of the Netherlands||Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute||12 September 1951|
|New Zealand||Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited||2 April 1948|
|Nicaragua||27 February 1959|
|Niger||28 October 1960|
|Nigeria||30 November 1960|
|Niue||31 May 1996|
|Norway||Norwegian Meteorological Institute||9 December 1948|
|Oman||3 January 1975|
|Pakistan||Pakistan Meteorological Department||11 April 1950|
|Panama||12 September 1967|
|Papua New Guinea||15 December 1975|
|Paraguay||15 September 1950|
|Peru||30 December 1949|
|Philippines||Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration||5 April 1949|
|Poland||16 May 1950|
|Portugal||Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera||15 January 1951|
|Qatar||4 April 1975|
|Romania||Administraţia Naţionala de Meteorologie||18 August 1948|
|Russian Federation||Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of Russia||2 April 1948|
|Rwanda||4 February 1963|
|Saint Lucia||2 March 1981|
|Samoa||11 July 1995|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||23 November 1976|
|Saudi Arabia||26 February 1959|
|Senegal||1 November 1960|
|Serbia||Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia||21 February 2001|
|Seychelles||15 February 1977|
|Sierra Leone||30 March 1962|
|Singapore||24 January 1966|
|Slovakia||11 February 1993|
|Slovenia||Slovenian Environment Agency||20 August 1992|
|Solomon Islands||6 May 1985|
|Somalia||2 March 1964|
|South Africa||South African Weather Service||17 January 1950|
|South Sudan||14 December 2012|
|Spain||Agencia Estatal de Meteorología||27 February 1951|
|Sri Lanka||23 May 1951|
|Sudan||3 December 1956|
|Suriname||26 July 1976|
|Swaziland||2 November 1982|
|Sweden||Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute||10 November 1948|
|Switzerland||MeteoSwiss||23 February 1949|
|Syrian Arab Republic||16 July 1952|
|Tajikistan||10 August 1993|
|Tanzania, United Republic of||14 September 1962|
|Thailand||11 July 1949|
|Timor-Leste, Democratic Republic of||4 December 2009|
|Togo||28 October 1960|
|Tonga||Tonga Meteorological Service||25 February 1996|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1 February 1963|
|Tunisia||22 January 1957|
|Turkey||Turkish State Meteorological Service||5 August 1949|
|Turkmenistan||4 December 1992|
|Tuvalu||22 September 2012|
|Uganda||15 March 1963|
|Ukraine||12 April 1948|
|United Arab Emirates||17 December 1986|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||Met Office||14 December 1948|
|United States of America||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration||4 May 1949|
|Uruguay||11 January 1951|
|Uzbekistan||23 December 1992|
|Vanuatu||24 June 1982|
|Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of||16 June 1950|
|Vietnam||2 July 1976|
|Yemen||22 May 1990|
|Zambia||28 December 1964|
|Zimbabwe||12 January 1981|
Historical member states
|Member states||Date of admission||Date membership ended||Note|
|Republic of China||2 March 1951||25 February 1972||Seat in the UN transferred to the People's Republic of China (see China and the United Nations for details)|
|East Germany||23 May 1973||3 October 1990||German reunification|
|South Vietnam||2 March 1955||2 July 1976||Reunification of Vietnam|
|North Vietnam||8 July 1975||2 July 1976||Reunification of Vietnam|
|North Yemen||8 June 1971||22 May 1990||Yemeni unification|
|South Yemen||28 January 1969||22 May 1990||Yemeni unification|
|Yugoslavia||7 December 1948||?||Breakup of Yugoslavia|
|Member territories||Meteorological Services||Date of admission|
|British Caribbean Territories||Caribbean Meteorological Organisation||24 September 1953|
|Curaçao and Sint Maarten||Meteorological Department Curaçao||12 September 1951|
|French Polynesia||Météo-France Polynesie Francaise||5 December 1949|
|Hong Kong, China||Hong Kong Observatory||14 December 1948|
|Macau, China||Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau||24 January 1996|
|New Caledonia||Météo-France Nouvelle-Calédonie||5 December 1949|
Membership by regional associations
The member states of the WMO are divided into six regional associations. The division is as follows:
|Region||Number of member states||Percentage of total||Number of member territories||Percentage of total|
The sum of member states in the regional associations is larger than the total number of member states because some nations are members to more than one regional association.
Region I (Africa)
Region II (Asia)
The member territories are:
- Hong Kong, China
- Macau, China
Region III (South America)
Region III consists of the nations of South America, including France (French Guiana is an overseas region of France in South America). It has a total of 13 member states and no member territories. The member states are:
Region IV (North America, Central America, and the Caribbean)
Region IV consists of the nations of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, including three nations based in Europe with dependencies within the region. It has a total of 25 member states and 2 member territories. The member states are:
The two member territories are:
- British Caribbean Territories
- Curaçao and Sint Maarten
Region V (South-West Pacific)
The Cook Islands and Niue are both member states despite the fact that neither is a member state of the United Nations; both are in free association with New Zealand.
The member territories are:
- French Polynesia
- New Caledonia
Region VI (Europe)
States with membership in more than one region
A total of 9 member states have membership in more than one region. Two nations are members to four different regions, while seven are members of two regions. These nations, with their regions, are as follows:
- France (Regions I, III, IV, and VI)
- United Kingdom (Regions I, IV, V, and VI)
- Colombia (Regions III and IV)
- Kazakhstan (Regions II and VI)
- Netherlands (Regions IV and VI)
- Portugal (Regions I and VI)
- Russian Federation (Regions II and IV)
- Spain (Regions I and VI)
- Venezuela (Regions III and IV)
- Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR)
- Cloud atlas
- Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP)
- International Cloud Atlas
- Maria do Rosàrio Veiga
- Regional Specialized Meteorological Center
||This article uses bare URLs for citations, which may be threatened by link rot. (May 2013)|
- "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "Secretary-General". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "President". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- WMO in Brief – World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Wmo.int (1 January 2013). Retrieved on 22 August 2013.
- Convention of the World Meteorological Organization.
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- WMO membership
- WMO National services
- "Members of the World Meteorological Organization with date of ratification or accession". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services of Members". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- The following statement is given at the WMO official site at the request of the Government of the People's Republic of China: “On 11 October 1947, the representative of the Chinese Government signed the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, her rightful seat in WMO was usurped by the Chiang Kai-shek clique, whose 'ratification' of the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 March 1951 was illegal and null and void. The rightful seat of the People's Republic of China was restored to her on 25 February 1972.” For details, see China and the United Nations.
- Referred to by the United Nations as "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" due to the Macedonia naming dispute.
- Both North and South Vietnam were members of the WMO prior to this date, which is the date of the reunification of Vietnam.
- This is the date of the unification of the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, both of which were WMO members before this date.
- "Members of WMO". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association I (Africa)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association II (Asia)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association III (South America)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association V (South-West Pacific)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Members of Regional Association IV (Europe)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
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