World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition
The World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was an open, international memorial contest, initiated by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), as per the specifications of architect Daniel Libeskind, to design a World Trade Center Site Memorial (later renamed the National September 11 Memorial) on a portion of the World Trade Center site. The Competition began April 28, 2003 and the winner—Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence—was revealed January 14, 2004 in a press conference at Federal Hall in New York City. The contest garnered 5,201 entries from 63 nations and 49 US states out of 13,683 registrants from all 50 US states and 94 nations, making it the largest design competition in history.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2009)|
On March 5, 2002, Governor George Pataki, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) jointly announced plans for an interim memorial to the victims September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993 World Trade Center attacks.
On January 2, 2003, LMDC and Port Authority announced that a series of public meetings would take place to discuss a future World Trade Center Site Memorial.
The Selection Jury for the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition were announced on April 10. The Competition began on April 28, when the Guidelines were released, Registration was opened. The LMDC accepted questions from competitors between April 28 and May 18, which were answered on its website on May 23 and removed at the end of the competition. Potential entrants were given until May 29 to register for the stated purpose of gauging the volume of entires. On May 15, the LMDC announced that it had received registrants from all 50 US states and 70 other nations; on May 30, the LMDC announced that 13,683 competitors had registered from 94 nations.
Submissions were accepted from registered entrants between June 9 and 30. On July 17, the LMDC accounced that 5,201 submissions had been received, representing competitors from 49 U.S. states and 63 nations. The LMDC displayed the 8 finalists in the Winter Garden on November 19.
On February 19, all 5,201 entries on its website were made available on the LMDC's website. On April 8, the LMDC announced the creation of an Advisory Committee to ensure that the Competition Guidelines are incorporated into the final design, which had undergone revision since January 14. On April 13, the LMDC announced that associate architect Davis Brody Bond would assist Arad and Walker with their final design.
There were five required "program elements":
- Recognize each individual who was a victim of the September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993 attacks
- Provide an area for quiet visitation and contemplation
- Provide an area for the families and loved ones of victims
- Provide a separate accessible space to serve as the final resting-place for the unidentified remains from the World Trade Center Site
- Make visible the footprints of the original World Trade Center Towers
In addition, entrants were expected to conform to the following "guiding principles":
- Embody the goals and spirit of the mission statement
- Convey the magnitude of personal and physical loss at this location
- Acknowledge all those who aided in rescue, recovery, and healing
- Respect and enhance the sacred quality of the overall site and the space designed for the memorial
- Encourage reflection and contemplation
- Evoke the historical significance of the worldwide impact of September 11, 2001
- Create an original and powerful statement of enduring and universal symbolism
- Inspire and engage people to learn more about the events and impact of September 11, 2001 and February 26, 1993
- Evolve over time
Entries were examined by "LMDC staff" prior to jury review to determine whether they met the competition requirements. Although the Jury was allowed to review the list of ineligible submissions, the LMDC itself was to make the final determination.
The jury was selected by the LMDC in consultation with the mayor and governor. It consisted mostly of architects and artists but also individuals with other affiliations:
- Paula Grant-Berry, victim family member, LMDC Families Advisory Council
- Susan K. Freedman, President of the Public Art Fund
- Vartan Gregorian, PhD, President of the Carnegie Corporation of New York
- Patricia Harris, Deputy Mayor for Administration for the City of New York
- Maya Lin, artist/architect, winner of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Design Competition
- Michael McKeon, Governor Pataki's Director of Communications, the Governor's chief liaison on September 11 issues to City Hall and family groups
- Julie Menin, President and Founder of Wall Street Rising
- Enrique Norten, architect
- Martin Puryear, artist
- Nancy Rosen, public artist
- Lowery Stokes Sims, PhD, Executive Director of the Studio Museum in Harlem
- Michael Van Valkenburgh, architect
- James E. Young, PhD, Professor & Chair of the Department of Judaic & Near Eastern Studies at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
- David Rockefeller philanthropist
The jury selected 8 finalists:
- Norman Lee and Michael Lewis's Votives in Suspension
- Joseph Karadin and Hsin-Yi Wu's Suspending Memory
- Bradley Campbell and Matthias Neumann's Lower Waters
- Pierre David, Sean Corriel, and Jessica Kmetovic's Garden of Lights
- Gisela Baurmann, Sawad Brooks and Jonas Coersmeier's Passages of Light : Memorial Cloud
- Toshio Sasaki's Inversion of Light
- Brian Strawn and Karla Sierralta's Dual Memory
- Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence
Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence consists of a field of trees interrupted by two large voids containing recessed pools, marking the footprints of the Twin Towers. The deciduous trees (swamp white oaks) are arranged in rows, forming informal clusters, clearings and groves. The park is at street level, sitting above the Memorial Museum. The World Trade Center site is a bathtub, as the area was excavated to construct the original World Trade Center and the earth was used to build Battery Park City, a neighboring residential community.
The names of the victims of the attacks (including those from the Pentagon, American Airlines flight 77, and United Airlines flight 93) and the 1993 bombing are inscribed on the parapets surrounding the waterfalls, in an arrangement based on "meaningful adjacencies".
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2006)|
Some have argued that the competition allowed very little room for creativity and that the 8 finalists chosen exhibited very little deviation from the design elements dictated in the guidelines. Many who disputed the selection of Daniel Libeskind, whose design (Memory Foundations) was announced by Governor Pataki and Mayor Bloomberg on February 27, 2003 as the master plan for the World Trade Center site, felt that the limited competition was designed to grant legitimacy to the overall site memorial plan although only 4.7 of the 16 acres (65,000 m2) to be reconstructed were opened to the competition.
Some have also claimed that the stringent guidelines, shortened time period for the competition, and/or the influence of political and economic elites have marginalized local discourses and imposes a specific interpretation of the events of September 11, 2001 onto the memorial site. Those under the age of 18 were excluded from entering the competition on the grounds that they could not enter into agreements with the LMDC.
- World Trade Center Memorial
- September 11, 2001 attacks
- Daniel Libeskind
- World Trade Center
- World Trade Center site
- "World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition Guidelines". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition Finalists". Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- 9/11 Memorial – Selecting Trees
- 9/11 Memorial – Plaza Details
- 9/11 Memorial – Names Arrangement
- The New Yorker – Dept. of Remembering – The Names
- New York – Disappearing Act
- Renew NYC – World Trade Center Site Overview
- Greenspan, Elizabeth (2003). "Spontaneous Memorials, Museums, and Public History: Memorialization of September 11, 2001 at the Pentagon". Public Historian 25 (2): 129–132. doi:10.1525/tph.2003.25.2.129.
- Low, Setha M. (2004). "The Memorialization of September 11: Dominant and local discourses on the rebuilding of the World Trade Center site". American Ethnologist 31: 326–339. doi:10.1525/ae.2004.31.3.326.
- Mitchell, K. (2003). "Monuments, memorials, and the politics of memory". Urban Geography 24 (5): 442–459. doi:10.2747/0272-3618.104.22.1682.
- Rybczynski, Witold (2004). "Less is Less: Was minimalism the proper design response to commemorate September 11?.". Landscape Architecture 94 (3): 20–23.
- Sturken, Marita (2004). "The aesthetics of absence: Rebuilding Ground Zero". American Ethnologist 31: 311–325. doi:10.1525/ae.2004.31.3.311.
- National September 11 Memorial & Museum official website
- World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition's Official Website
- Lower Manhattan Development Corporation's Official Website
- The Competition Guidelines
- Jury Statement
- Jury Members
- Arad and Walker's Reflecting Absence Statement
- Michael Arad's Entry
- Peter Walker's Entry