World Trade Center cross

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The cross installed on a pedestal at Ground Zero (c. 2003)

The World Trade Center cross, also known as the Ground Zero cross, is a group of steel beams found among the debris of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City, following the September 11 attacks in 2001. This set of beams is so named because it resembles the proportions of a Christian cross.

History[edit]

The World Trade Center was built using prefabricated parts which were bolted or welded together at the site.[1] This process dramatically reduced construction time and costs. Using this process, t-beams and other types of cross beams were created and used in each of the World Trade Center buildings.[2] When the Twin Towers collapsed, it sent debris down onto Six World Trade Center, and gutted the interior of that building; the intact cross beam later found in 6 World Trade Center's debris is believed to have come from the North Tower.[3][4]

Following the terrorist attacks, a massive operation was launched to clear the site and attempt to find any survivors amongst the rubble. On September 13 a worker at the site named Frank Silecchia discovered a 20 foot (6.1 meter)[5] cross of two steel beams amongst the debris of 6 World Trade Center.[6] Those with access to the site used the cross as a shrine of sorts, leaving messages on it or praying before it.[7][8] After a few weeks within the cleanup site the cross was an impediment to nearby work, so Silecchia and others working on the project received an expedited approval from the office of New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani to erect it on a pedestal on a portion of the former plaza on Church Street near Liberty. It was moved by crane on October 3 and installed on October 4,[9][10] where it continued as a shrine and tourist attraction.[2] The cross has remained during reconstruction, but in the 2004 and 2005 filings of its site plan, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey indicated that "additional remnants" of the original World Trade Center might require removal and storage during construction of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub.[11]

Fr. Jordan has been trying to preserve the cross since April 2006.[12] St. Peter's Church, which faces the World Trade Center site, was proposed as a temporary spot for relocation during construction of the new PATH station and office tower at the site.[13] The cross was eventually moved to St. Peter's on October 5, 2006 and sat on the Church Street side of the building, between Barclay and Vesey Streets bearing a plaque which reads "The Cross at Ground Zero – Founded September 13, 2001; Blessed October 4, 2001; Temporarily Relocated October 15, 2006. Will return to WTC Museum, a sign of comfort for all."[14] On July 23, 2011, the cross was blessed by Rev. Brian Jordan during a short ceremony before being loaded on a flatbed truck and moved back to Ground Zero and lowered into the National September 11 Memorial & Museum due to being a large scale artifact, before filling in the rest of the museum displays.[15]

Cultural response[edit]

Many saw the crossed metal as a Christian cross and felt its survival was symbolic. Fr. Brian Jordan OFM, a Roman Catholic Franciscan priest, spoke over it and declared it to be a "symbol of hope... [a] symbol of faith... [a] symbol of healing".[7] One minister at the site says that when a family of a man who died in the attacks came to the cross shrine and left personal effects there, "It was as if the cross took in the grief and loss. I never felt Jesus more."[16]

A replica has been installed at the gravesite of Father Mychal Judge, a New York City Fire Department chaplain who was killed in the collapse of WTC 1 on September 11.[17] Other surviving crossbeams were salvaged from the rubble; one was given to a Far Rockaway, New York chapter of the Knights of Columbus in 2004.[18] Another replica cross was fashioned by ironworkers from Trade Center steel and installed at Graymoor, the Upper West Side headquarters of the Society of the Atonement, a religious institute of Franciscan friars.[19]

The nearby St. Paul's Chapel, which survived the destruction and was a refuge for survivors and site laborers, sells various replicas of the cross including lapel pins and rosaries.[20] The cross even inspired laborers on "The Pile" to get tattoos.[21]

In addition, a documentary film titled The Cross and The Towers, which was released in 2006, tells the story of the 9/11 World Trade Center Cross. It has won a "number of awards, including the Audience Choice Award at Palm Beach International Festival, Best Film at Gloria Film Festival, Crystal Heart at Heartland Film Festival and finalist in the USA FilmFestival.[22][23][24]

In 2013, the "U.S. District Judge Deborah Batts concluded Thursday that the 17-foot-high cross, which became a spiritual symbol for workers at ground zero, does not amount to an endorsement of Christianity." Joseph Daniels, the President and CEO of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center Foundation, welcomed the court decision to continue the display of the cross, stating "is in fact a crucial part of the 9/11 Memorial Museum's mission."[25] Furthermore, Mark Alcott, the lawyer of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center Foundation, which fought the court case against the American Atheists stated that "The museum is gratified by the decision."[26]

The potential use of the cross in the World Trade Center Memorial has been opposed by atheist groups. Many groups such as families of certain Christian victims want the cross to be included.[27] Other organizations disagree, notably the American Atheists (who have filed suit pertaining to this issue).[28] The Anti-Defamation League, a Jewish NGO, issued a statement that it "fully supports the inclusion in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum of the metal beams in the shape of a cross found in the rubble at Ground Zero in the aftermath of the tragic attacks on 9/11."[29] In the court decision on March 2013, Judge Deborah Batts opined that "the First Amendment separates church from state, but not religion from public life" and that "American Atheists advocates an “absolute separation of church and state,” which would appear to call for a society in which public spaces are entirely religion-free zones. But “separation” taken this far is no friend of religious liberty."[30] In late July 2014, in dismissing a lawsuit filed by the dissenting atheists who did not want the cross displayed at the memorial, the 2nd U.S. Circuit ruled that, being "a symbol of hope" and "historical in nature", the steel beams "did not intentionally discriminate" against the atheists.[31][32][33][34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leslie E. Robertson Associates – Historical project page from engineering firm that designed the center. Accessed April 5, 2006.
  2. ^ a b McKinley, Stephen (August 28 – September 3, 2002). "Priest Wants WTC Cross Memorial Preserved". Gotham Gazette/Irish Echo. 
  3. ^ "Frank Silecchia, a construction worker, and Father Brian Jordan, a Franciscan priest, discuss the metal cross that they found at ground zero and the faith it offers". CBS News, The Early Show (interview). October 5, 2001. 
  4. ^ "Cross Purposes". Snopes. March 8, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2008. 
  5. ^ Careless, Sue (September 11, 2002). "For ten arduous months Frank Silecchia toiled in hell at Ground Zero". Bible Network News. Retrieved November 7, 2008. [dead link]. Article on Frank Silecchia, one year later.
  6. ^ Dreher, Rod (September 23, 2001). "Holy Symbols Of Hope Amid The Rubble". NY Post (Library of Congress September 11 Web Archive): p27. Retrieved November 7, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "WTC Cross", Snopes. September 11, 2003. Retrieved April 3, 2006.
  8. ^ Collins, Glenn (March 23, 2005). "Port Authority Spells Out Efforts to Save Trade Center Remnants". New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2006. 
  9. ^ Mysteries for September 11 News, copyright 2001–2003. Retrieved April 3, 2006.
  10. ^ Letter to Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. Accessed April 5, 2006. Archived December 19, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ PATH restoration plan, final approval received July 2005.
  12. ^ "Fr. Brian Fights For WTC Cross". WileyRein. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Priest tries to safeguard cross at World Trade Center Site". Associated Press. April 14, 2006. 
  14. ^ Steel-beam cross moved from WTC site from the AP by CNN. Retrieved October 5, 2006.
  15. ^ "World Trade Center Cross Moving to Permanent Home". CBSNewYork/AP. Retrieved August 28, 2011. 
  16. ^ Lutheran Disaster Response New York Accessed April 6, 2006.
  17. ^ 9/11 victims remembered at Graymoor from Irish Echo, at Mychal Judge memorial site. Accessed April 5, 2006.
  18. ^ K of C to Dedicate WTC Cross to 9/11 victims for the Rockawave on September 10, 2004. Retrieved April 3, 2006.
  19. ^ Mary Ann Poust (September 2003). "Second anniversary of Sept. 11 attacks to be marked with church bells and prayer". Catholic New York. Retrieved April 6, 2006. [dead link]
  20. ^ St. Paul's Chapel website
  21. ^ "Tattoo unites WTC's laborers; cross a reminder "of all that hell"". From the Laborers Network. Retrieved April 5, 2006. 
  22. ^ Schapiro, Jeff (September 8, 2011). "Documentary Shows How WTC Cross Brought Hope After 9/11 Tragedy". The Christian Post. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  23. ^ "Documentary Shows How WTC Cross Brought Hope After 9/11 Tragedy". CBN. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  24. ^ Moring, Mark (September 6, 2011). "Documentary Examines 9/11 Cross at WTC". Christianity Today. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  25. ^ Kumar, Anugrah (March 30, 2013). "American Atheists Lose Lawsuit Over 9/11 Cross". The Christian Post. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  26. ^ Sgueglia, Kristina (March 30, 2013). "Judge rules 9/11 museum can include World Trade Center cross". CNN. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  27. ^ Celeste Katz (October 5, 2002). "Families want 9/11 cross in memorial". New York Daily News. Retrieved April 6, 2006. 
  28. ^ Kirpalani, Reshma. "American Atheists Sue Over World Trade Center Cross". ABC Newws. Retrieved July 27, 2011. 
  29. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/adl-okays-world-trade-center-cross-1.383957
  30. ^ Haynes, Charles C. "Judge: Atheist group takes separation of church and state too far on ‘Ground Zero Cross’". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  31. ^ Mears, Bill. "Court says ground zero cross can stay". CNN. Retrieved 2014-07-28. 
  32. ^ "McGovern: WTC cross is about history, not religion". Boston Herald. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  33. ^ "Steel ‘cross’ will stay at WTC memorial: court". NY Post. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  34. ^ "Appeals Court Rules Cross Can Stay on Display at WTC Memorial". NY1. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°42′41″N 74°00′44″W / 40.7114°N 74.0122°W / 40.7114; -74.0122