World Vision International
|Founder||Rev. Bob Pierce|
|Type||501(c)(3) religious non-profit corporation under the laws of the State of California, US.|
|Focus||Well being of all people, especially children.|
|Method||Transformational Development through emergency relief, community development and policy and advocacy|
|Kevin Jenkins (International President)
Josef Stiegler (Chairperson Int'l Board
|Revenue||US$2.79 billion (2011)|
|Slogan||Our vision for every child, life in all its fullness; our prayer for every heart, the will to make it so.|
Since Robert Pierce founded World Vision in 1950, it has grown into one of the largest relief and development organizations in the world with a total revenue including grants, product and foreign donations of $2.79 billion (2011).
- 1 History
- 2 Organizational structure
- 3 Spirituality
- 4 Activities
- 5 Child sponsorship
- 6 Criticism
- 7 Notable affiliated persons
- 8 Affiliated organizations
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
|1950||Reverend Robert Pierce forms World Vision.|
|1953||Pierce begins the World Vision sponsorship program with photographs of needy children.|
|1967||Pierce resigns from World Vision.|
|1970s||World Vision's international structure is established.|
|1979||World Vision operates offices in 40 countries.|
|1989||World Vision operates offices in 55 countries.|
|1996||Dean Hirsch is appointed president.|
|1999||Richard Stearns is appointed US group president.|
|2004||After tripling during the previous eight years, World Vision's budget reaches $1.5 billion.|
|2007||World Vision ends its 57th year with 26,000 employees and a budget of $2.6 billion.|
|2010||Kevin Jenkins is appointed president.|
The original organisation, World Vision Inc., was founded by Pierce in 1950 to provide humanitarian aid. It initially operated in the United States, and soon expanded to other countries; in 1966, it operated under the name of "World Vision International". World Vision International was founded in 1977 as an organization, by Walter Stanley Mooneyham the president of World Vision, as the result of a restructuring process that had begun in the early 1970s  World Vision International was founded as an organisation took over most international functions which were previously fulfilled by World Vision Inc.; it was headquartered in Monrovia, California, in the same building as World Vision Inc., which was reorganized as World Vision United States for operations in that country. Mooneyham became also president of World Vision International until 1982 when he resigned after criticism within the International Board, where the accusations ranged from a dictatorial leadership style to an ethnocentric American communication style.
In 1967, the Mission Advanced Research and Communication Center (MARC) was founded by Ed Dayton as a Division of World Vision International. It became the organizational backbone of the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization, collected and published data about "unreached people" and also published the "Mission Handbook: North American Protestant Ministries Overseas".
During the 1970s, World Vision began training families to build small farms by teaching agricultural skills aiming towards making lasting effects in the communities they were helping by promoting self-reliance. The organization also began installing water pumps for clean water in communities which caused infant mortality rates to drop. Volunteers now use the fresh water to teach communities gardening and irrigation and promote good health.
During the 1990s, it began focusing on the needs of children who had been orphaned in Uganda, Romania, and Somalia in response to AIDS, neglect, and civil war, respectively. They began educating other African communities on AIDS after realizing its impact. They also joined the United Nations peacekeeping efforts to help those affected by civil war. World Vision also started to openly promote the international ban on land mines.
Today, World Vision are working in partnership in nearly 100 countries around the world, assisting more than 100 million people to struggle against poverty, hunger and injustice, irrespective of their religious beliefs. They are now focusing on larger issues of community development and advocacy for the poor towards the end of helping poor children and their families build a sustainable future.
World Vision as an overall organisation is one of the world's leading relief and development agencies. In the UK, it is one of the members of the Disasters Emergency Committee. It employs over 40,000 people and well over 90% of staff works from their own home country.
Kevin Jenkins is the current president of World Vision International.
World Vision International is the organizational structure of the World Vision Partnership which operates today as a federation of interdependent national offices with three different levels of central control. The three categories of national offices are:
- national offices, under strong central control by World Vision International, registered in the host country as a branch of the main organization.
- intermediate stage national offices, with their own board, but which seek approval from World Vision International for critical management decisions.
- interdependently national registered offices that are autonomous in internal decision but are expected to coordinate with World Vision International and are bound to the Covenant of Partnership.
The Covenant of Partnership is a document that all national members of the World Vision Partnership have to sign. According to this document all national offices have to accept policies and decisions established by the International Board and must not establish an office or program outside their own national borders without the consent of World Vision International and the host country. Furthermore, with the exception of direct project founding, all funds intended for outside their national borders have to be remitted through World Vision International. Also the financial planning and budget principles adopted by the International Board have to be accepted as well as an examination of the financial affairs of the national offices by Partnership representatives.
The president of World Vision International has a seat on all national offices with own national board. Normally he sends a representative. World Vision International is registered in the United States as a charitable organization and described by the Internal Revenue Service as a church and is therefore as a religious charity not obligated to disclose its finances to the tax authorities.
The partnership offices – located in Geneva, Bangkok, Nairobi, Cyprus, Los Angeles, and San José, Costa Rica – coordinate operations of the organization and represent World Vision in the international arena. For making large scale decisions, the international organization considers opinions from each national office, whether in the developed or developing world.
An international board of directors oversees the World Vision partnership. The full board meets twice a year to appoint senior officers, approve strategic plans and budgets, and determine international policy. The current chairperson of the international board is Denis St. Armour of Canada. The international president is Kevin J. Jenkins.
In A Declaration of Internationalization (1978) World Vision declares a Statement of Faith that corresponds to the Statement of Faith put forward by the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) as the theological frame in which the organization as a whole must operate.
World Vision aims to incorporate its Christian belief into its development work, as well as its organization. Vice President of Advocacy and Government Relations at World Vision Canada Linda Tripp wrote, "In Christ, we have a role model who healed the sick, fed the hungry, clothed the naked, and comforted the outcast, and whose message was about restoring relationships and reconciliation." This directly relates to World Vision's mission to provide emergency relief and development, promote justice, and spread awareness to countries in need.
World Vision staff are not affiliated with one specific church; its staff includes members from Protestantism, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Staff participates in daily and weekly services. They stress that one can be a Christian in any culture. However, World Vision also respects other religions that they encounter, stating that "to promote a secular approach to life would be an insult to them". Richard Stearns, president of World Vision US, stated that World Vision has a strict policy against proselytizing, which he describes as "...using any kind of coercion or inducement to listen to a religious message before helping someone".
The World Vision Partnership and all its national members are committed to the concept of transformational development, which is cast in a biblical framework and in which evangelization is an integral part of development work.
The activities of the World Vision organization are divided into five major areas: emergency relief, education, health care, economic development, and promotion of justice. World Vision activities include transformational development, emergency relief, strategic initiatives, public awareness campaigns and promoting Christianity. The organization has consultative status with UNESCO and partnerships with UN agencies like UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR and ILO, and financial records reveal that it has funded evangelical activities all over the world.
Its approach to aid is to first help people and their communities recognize the resources that lie within them. With support from World Vision, it claims communities transform themselves by carrying out their own development projects in health care, agriculture production, water projects, education, micro-enterprise development, advocacy and other community programs.
It provides emergency relief to people whose lives are endangered by disasters or conflict and who need immediate assistance. It attempts to respond to all major emergencies around the world themselves or in cooperation with their partner agencies. For example, World Vision responded to famine in Ethiopia and North Korea, hurricanes in Central America, the tsunami in the Indian Ocean nations, earthquakes in El Salvador, India, Taiwan, Turkey and the Sichuan earthquake in China, Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar and war refugees in Kosovo, Chechnya, Sierra Leone, Angola, and East Timor.
It also addresses factors that perpetuate poverty by what it describes as promoting justice. It supports community awareness of the collective ability to address unjust practices and begin working for change. It claims to speak out on issues such as child labor, debt relief for poor nations, and the use of children as combatants in armed conflict. World Vision International has endorsed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It claims to foster opportunities to help reduce conflict levels and to contribute to the peaceful resolution of hostilities and reconciliation of disputes.
World Vision encourages public awareness about the needs of others, the causes of poverty, and the nature of compassionate response. These efforts include collaboration with media and community participation in fundraising. In areas of the world that are considered too dangerous for news organizations to send their crews, World Vision’s own videographers supply newscasters with footage of events from these areas.
In its communications, the organization claims to uphold the dignity of children and families in presenting explanations of the causes and consequences of poverty, war, neglect, and abuse.
World Vision spends a considerable amount of time advocating to the U.S. government. In 2010, director of advocacy and government relations Robert Zachritz gave a testimony on global hunger to the human rights caucus. In his speech Zachritz states that in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights it lays the foundation for food as a right by saying in article 25 that "everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food..." He went on to state specific statistics on the issue such as 1 in 6 people currently suffer from hunger. Zachritz even proposes that out of the major global challenges addressing malnutrition and hunger would offer the most cost effective solutions. "The January 2007 Lancet series reviewing the literature on child development showed that beyond the short-term consequences of increased mortality, morbidity and disability, childhood malnutrition has debilitating long-term consequences of stunted physical and cognitive development, lower economic productivity, and greater susceptibility to disease." Currently 1/3 of children are stunted. Zachritz stressed the importance of a proper diet for children, especially under the age of two, to avoid stunting.
As a Christian organization, World Vision participates in what it labels strategic initiatives[clarification needed] with people it identifies as Christian leaders and lay people of all denominations through conferences, consultations, training programs and various educational opportunities. World Vision claims to be an ecumenical organization willing to partner with all Christian churches while claiming to be respectful of other faiths.
World Vision believes missionary work is a fundamental part of its relief work. The organization believes in the Christian God, claiming the "person of Jesus offers hope of renewal, restoration, and reconciliation". It says it seeks to express this message through "life, deed, word, and sign". It claims its programs and services are provided without regard to race, ethnic origin, gender, or religion.
The organization was one of the founding members of global IT nonprofit NetHope. With more than 50 years of experience in India, World Vision India works in 24 states across the country through development that is community based, sustainable and transformational emergency response and disaster mitigation, advocacy initiatives that are grassroots based. World Vision India is a national NGO in partnership with a network of over 100 other entities within World Vision International. World Vision India is registered as a society under the Tamil Nadu Societies Act with its National Office based in Chennai. Governed by an autonomous Board of Directors, World Vision's programmes are facilitated by close to 1700 staff.
World Vision India provided relief supplies to people affected by earth quake that jolted north,northeast and east India.
Helping create lasting positive change in the lives of children, families and communities living in poverty, World Vision serves everyone irrespective of religion, caste, race, ethnicity or gender. The humanitarian organisation has a sponsorship program that helps needy children, their families and communities. Focused primarily on Child Sponsorship, World Vision’s child sponsorship programs help needy children get access to clean drinking water, sanitation, education, skills for future livelihood, nutrition, health care and participate in an age-appropriate in development processes. By changing the lives of children, the child sponsorship programs also facilitate overall growth and development in the community, as it helps communities to build a better future through empowerment, education, income generation, and self-sufficiency. Child Sponsorship programs seek equitable, just, peaceful, productive and inclusive relationships within households and communities, responsible relationship with the environment, a culture of participation with families and whole communities empowered to influence and shape their situation through coalitions and networks addressing systemic issues towards ensuring access to basic needs in a sustainable manner. Sponsorship amount per month is Rs. 800/-.(in India) It is different than donation and anybody interested to be part of this sponsorship process can be involved.
In a 2008 report on famine in Ethiopia, reporter Andrew Geoghegan, from Australian TV programme Foreign Correspondent, visited his 14 year old sponsor child. The girl has "been part of a World Vision program all her life" yet says (in translated subtitle) "Until recently, I didn't know I had a sponsor." and when asked about her knowledge of World Vision sponsorship says "Last time they gave me this jacket and a pen." Geoghegan was disconcerted to find that despite being "told by World Vision that [the girl] was learning English at school, and was improving...she speaks no English at all".
In response World Vision states that they take a community approach where the money is not directly provided to the family of the sponsored child. The 'direct benefit' approach would result in jealousy among other community members without children and would not work.
Foreign Correspondent replied to World Vision concerning child sponsorship. In part, that response reads: "Foreign Correspondent sought answers from World Vision representatives on why the organisation's literature creates the impression that donated money goes directly to the sponsor child. The World Vision representative failed to adequately respond to the questions and instead outlined the community projects where sponsor money is spent. Foreign Correspondent does not dispute the integrity of World Vision projects but questions the way sponsorship is promoted to the public. In its response, World Vision has ignored the reporter's surprise at finding his sponsor child speaks no English, yet he has been receiving regular reports from the organisation that she's learning English at school and has a good command of the language..., Andrew Geoghegan has sponsored Tsehaynesh Delago for a decade and yet she claims she was unaware, until recently, that she had a sponsor and says the only benefit she has ever received directly from World Vision is a pen and the denim jacket she wore on the day of filming."
In 1999 the academic journal, Development in Practice published an overview of World Vision's history focusing on the evolution of its global architecture. `Pursuing Partnership: World Vision and the Ideology of Development' was notable for being written by then World Vision staff person Alan Whaites, who went on to become a respected development political scientist. Whaites offered a picture of an organization that was often spurred to innovate and change as a result of internal reflection on external criticism.
In 2007, British animal rights group Animal Aid criticized World Vision, Christian Aid, Oxfam, and other aid groups for sending farm animals to families in developing countries. Animal Aid argued that farm animals drink water and eat the food that could otherwise be used to feed families more efficiently. Such criticisms, however, do not acknowledge that the provision of animals to families in developing countries is an important part of building (or re-building) livelihoods for poor, rural families around the world. Organizations that provide such resources work closely with recipient communities in order to assess the ability to raise livestock and poultry - including veterinary care and natural resource management, for example.
Corruption in some national offices
"In February 2007...World Vision received an anonymous tip that lower level World Vision Liberia employees in key positions...were diverting food deliveries and building supplies for personal gain. World Vision immediately launched an investigation into the allegations, sending auditors to [their] field sites. Through this extensive internal audit, World Vision uncovered the nature and extent of the alleged violations and furnished detailed documentation that assisted the U.S. Government’s subsequent investigation."
On October 25, 2013 World Vision Malawi cancelled a visit and fact-finding trip by a dozen United States Christians from San Antonio, Texas. A fear of danger and instability resulted from the dismissal of World Vision Malawi staff due to corruption. At the same time, the Malawi government fired the president's cabinet because of corruption.
World Vision India has been accused of spending money on Christian evangelism in India. The political weekly Tehelka has cited World Vision India's involvement with AD2000 as proof of proselytizing. Radhakant Nayak, a leader of World Vision's local chapter in Orissa, was also accused by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh of being involved in the murder of Swami Lakshmanananda. World Vision India condemned the murder and denied any involvement, pointing out its anti-proselytizing policy.
In February 2012, based on information provided by the Israel Law Center, World Vision Australia allegedly provided "financial aid to a Gaza-based terrorist group", the Union of Agricultural Work Committees (UAWC), which they also alleged is a "front for terror group the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine". WV had "suspended its dealings" with UAWC until the outcome of the investigation. WV resumed working with UAWC after AusAID and World Vision found the allegations were unfounded. The Israel Law Center considers World Vision's response to be a whitewash and maintains that the allegations have not been refuted.
On March 24, 2014, the United States branch of World Vision announced that it would hire what it defined as Christians in same-sex marriages. Facing protests from donors and the larger evangelical community after the announcement, World Vision reversed the policy change two days later.
Notable affiliated persons
- Hugh Jackman
- Kris Allen
- Bethany Hamilton
- Brooke Fraser
- Patricia Heaton
- Karl von Habsburg
- Efren Peñaflorida
- Guy Sebastian
- Sigrid Thornton
- Alex Trebek
- Lights (musician)
- Alex Day
- Sarah McLachlan
- Shane Feldman
- "World Vision International - History". World Vision International. 10 Feb 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Group exempt letters from IRS to World Vision International and World Vision, Inc. Feb. 13, 2009, (accessed on Aug. 11, 2011)
- see also entry "World Vision International" in California Secretary of State Business Database
- Kristof, Nicholas D. (February 28, 2010). "Learning From the Sin of Sodom". The New York Times.
- Holtzman, Clay, World Vision donors dig deep, Puget Sound Business Journal (Seattle), February 6, 2009
- WVI Accountability Report 2011
- Graeme Irvine: "Best Things in the Worst Times: An Insiders View of World Vision" BookPartners, Inc. (1996) p. 77 ISBN 1-885221-37-1
- "World Vision International : Company Content Page". Manta.com. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- [dead link]
- Ken Waters: "How World Vision Rose From Obscurity To Prominence: Television Fundraising 1972–1982" American Journalism, 15, Nr. 4, 69–93 (1998)
- S.W. Haas: "MARC to Make Transition, Retain Its Mission" MARC Newsletter 03-4, World Vision Publications, Nov. 2003
- World Vision History, retrieved April 26, 2011
- "Country Profiles". World Vision. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Our Mission, World Vision, Retrieved July 21, 2009
- Karen Foreman: Evolving Global Structures and the Challenges Facing International Relief and Development Organizations. In: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 28/4 (1999), S. 178–197
- Appendix D, "A Covenant of Partnership" in Graeme Irvine: "Best Things in the Worst Times: An Insiders View of World Vision" BookPartners, Inc. (1996) ISBN 1-885221-37-1
- Tim Stafford: "The Colossus of Care" Christianity Today, February 24, 2005
- "World Vision – Full 2008 Annual Financial Statement in PDF" (PDF). Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- "International: World Vision names new international president". April 8, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- see e.g. Statement of Faith of World Vision
- Statement of Faith of the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) used as the standard for its evangelical convictions 
- A Declaration of Internationalization (1978) Appendix D in J.R.Hamilton: "An Historical Study of Bob Pierce and World Vision's Development of the Evangelical Social Action Film" Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1980,
- Each national Member of World Vision has also to subscribe to this Statement of Faith by signing the "Covenant of Partnership", see Appendix D, "A Covenant of Partnership" in Graeme Irvine: "Best Things in the Worst Times: An Insiders View of World Vision" BookPartners, Inc. (1996) ISBN 1-885221-37-1
- Tripp, Linda. "Gender and development from a Christian perspective: Experience from World Vision." Gender and Development 7.1 (1999): 62–64. Print.
- Stearns, Richard. "World Vision CEO Richard Stearns Charts Course, Spirit For Nonprofit Sector ." Huffington Post Mar. 3, 2011: 1–2. Print.
- "World Vision Mission Statement." In: Graeme Irvine: "Best Things in the Worst Times: An Insiders View of World Vision", BookPartners, Inc. (1996) ISBN 1-885221-37-1, Appendix C.
- see e.g. Bryant L. Myer: "Walking with the Poor: Principles and Practice of Transformational Development" ISBN 1-57075-275-3 (1999)
- "The People's Paper". Tehelka. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Costello, Tim, et al., Freedom from hunger: the most basic of human rights, Opinion Piece – World Vision Australia, posted: Dec 10, 2008, Authors: Tim Costello (World Vision), Julia Newton-Howes (CARE), Paul O’Callaghan (ACFID), Jack de Groot (Caritas), Andrew Hewett (Oxfam), and Robert Tickner (Red Cross).
- – Amnesty International News – Apr 2, 2009, G20 leaders urged to protect the poor, April 2, 2009
- Amnesty International News – Oct 14, 2005 – Uganda: Former child soldiers excluded in adulthood, October 14, 2005, independent journalist Euan Denholm
- Advocacy action center, World Vision, Retrieved July 21, 2009
- – Amnesty International Press Center, Document of Public Statement Issued by CEOs of INGOs on the impact of the global economic downturn – October 2008, Authors: Irene Khan, Secretary General, Amnesty International, Jeremy Hobbs, Executive Director, Oxfam International, Dr. Dean Hirsch, Chief Executive Officer, World Vision International, Tom Miller, Chief Executive Officer, PLAN International, Gerd Leipold, International Executive Director, Greenpeace, Dr Robert Glasser, Secretary General, CARE International
- Shortal, Helen (April 1, 2001), "Showing the Way", AV Video Multimedia Producer: 67–69
- World Vision News – World Vision Houses 70,000 in Somalia In War Torn Area
- "Facing Global Hunger | Food as a Right". World Vision. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "Mission". NetHope. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- "World Vision India: World Vision India:". Worldvision.in. 2011-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Geoghegan, Andrew "Ethiopia – The Endless Famine", Foreign Correspondent, November 25, 2008, series 18, episode 22, © 2008 Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- ABC Material's Foreign Correspondent, World Vision response to Foreign Correspondent story from Ethiopia), broadcast on November 25, 2008, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- ABC Material's Foreign Correspondent, Foreign Correspondent story from Ethiopia broadcast, broadcast on November 25, 2008, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- "Pursuing partnership: World Vision and the ideology of development - a case study". www.developmentinpractice.org. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Christian Today, World Vision, Christian Aid Criticised for Sending Animals to Poor Countries
- World Vision, World Vision, World Vision statement regarding alleged fraud in Liberia
- Attack on Laxmanananda by Christian mob in Orissa-I, V Sundaram, Fri, Dec 28, 2007, newstodaynet.com
- VK Shashikumar '"Preparing for the harvest ..."' Tehelka, Vol 1, Issue 1, Feb 07, 2004
- RSS wing blames Cong MP for triggering communal tension in Kandhamal, June 22, 2011, dailypioneer.com
- Net closes in on Cong MP for Orissa swami’s murder, Debabrata Mohanty, Sat Dec 27, 2008, Bhubaneswar, indianexpress.com.
- Statement by World Vision India on comments made by RSS Spokesperson on CNN-IBN – World Vision India, August 27, 2008.
- J. Paraszuk: "Australian groups accused of aiding PFLP-linked group" The Jerusalem Post, Feb. 17, 2012
- Chip Le Grand: "World Vision to investigate terror link" The Australian, Feb.18, 2012
- Chip Le Grand: "Vision back as AusAID dismisses 'terror' link" The Australian, March 2, 2012
- "World Vision: Shurat HaDin responds". Jwire.com.au. 2013-05-23. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
- Evangelical Christianity: Devils in high places, Sunday, Mar 27, 2011, Yogesh Puwar, Mumbai, DNA
- "Is This the Future of Same-Sex Marriage for Evangelicals?". Aleteia. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "World Vision reverses decision to hire Christians in same-sex marriages". Fox News. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "World Vision Reverses Decision to Hire Christians in Same-Sex Marriages". Christianity Today. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- The Colossus of Care: World Vision has become an international force—and a partner with the poor, Tim Stafford, Christianity Today, March 2005
- Imperfect Instrument: World Vision's founder led a tragic and inspiring life, Tim Stafford, Christianity Today, March 2005
- Our Story – Point Hope, Inc. Delilah Rene recounts working with World Vision, 2005
- Greene, Elizabeth, "Connecting with Generation Y," Chronicle of Philanthropy, July 24, 2003.
- Holt, Shirleen, "Partners Find Real Ambitions Are to Do Good," Seattle Times, August 16, 2005.
- Johnson, Larry, "World Vision's New Weapon," Fund Raising Management, June 1993, p. 22. Highbeam source
- Le Pla, Ruth, "A Matter of Faith: Passion in the Boardroom," New Zealand Management, November 2006, p. S18.
- Whaites, Alan, Pursuing Partnership: World Vision and the Ideology of Development,' Development in Practice, 1999, Volume 9, Number 4 
- Gary F. VanderPol: The Least of These: American Evangelical Parachurch Missions to the Poor, 1947–2005 Boston University School of Theology, 2010, (Dissertation)
- J.R.Hamilton: "An Historical Study of Bob Pierce and World Vision's Development of the Evangelical Social Action Film" Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1980
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- Interhemispheric Ressource Center: Report World Vision, 1991, hier zitiert nach Stephen A. Kent: The French & German vs. American Debate over 'New Religions', Scientology, and Human Rights, in: Marburg Journal of Religion 6/1 (2001), Online-Text.
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