World War I casualties

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British and German wounded, Bernafay Wood, 19-July 1916. Photo by Ernest Brooks
Douaumont French military cemetery seen from Douaumont ossuary, which contains remains of French and German soldiers who died during the Battle of Verdun in 1916

The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million. There were over 16 million deaths and 20 million wounded ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.

The total number of deaths includes about 10 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians. The Entente Powers (also known as the Allies) lost about 6 million military personnel while the Central Powers lost about 4 million. At least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead. This article lists the casualties of the belligerent powers based on official published sources. About two-thirds of military deaths in World War I were in battle, unlike the conflicts that took place in the 19th century when the majority of deaths were due to disease. Nevertheless, disease, including the Spanish flu and deaths while held as prisoners of war, still caused about one third of total military deaths for all belligerents.

Classification of casualty statistics[edit]

Estimates of casualty numbers for World War I vary to a great extent; estimates of total deaths range from 9 million to over 15 million.[1] The figures listed here are from official secondary sources, whenever available. Military casualty statistics reported in official sources list deaths due to all causes, including an estimated 6.8 million[2] combat related deaths as well as 3 million military deaths caused by disease and deaths while prisoners of war. First World War civilian deaths are "hazardous to estimate" according to Michael Clodfelter who maintains that "the generally accepted figure of noncombatant deaths is 6.5 million."[3] The figures listed below include about 6 million excess civilian deaths due to war related privations, that are often omitted from other compilations of World War I casualties. The war brought about malnutrition and disease caused by a disruption of trade resulting in shortages of food; the mobilization for the war took away millions of men from the agricultural labor force cutting food production. The civilian deaths in the Ottoman Empire include the Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide and Greek Genocide. Civilian deaths due to the Spanish flu have been excluded from these figures, whenever possible. Furthermore, the figures do not include deaths during the Turkish War of Independence and the Russian Civil War.

Casualties by 1914 borders[edit]

Nation Population
(millions)
Military deaths
(from all causes)
Civilian deaths
(military action and
crimes against humanity)
Civilian deaths
(malnutrition, disease)
Total deaths Deaths as
% of population
Military wounded
Allies of World War I
 Australia b 4.5 59,330[4]
to 62,081[5]
59,330
to 62,081
1.32%
to 1.38%
152,171 [4]
 Canada d 7.2 56,639[4]
to 64,990[5]
2,000[6][7]Civilians killed in Halifax
by accidental explosion
of munitions in December 1917.
58,639
to 66,990
0.81%
to 0.93%
149,732[4]
 India g 315.1 64,449[4]
to 74,191[5]
64,449
to 74,191
0.02%
to 0.02%
69,214 [4]
 New Zealand l 1.1 16,711[4]
to 18,166 [8]
16,711
to 18,166
1.52%
to 1.65%
41,317[4]
 Newfoundland m 0.2 1,204[4]
to 1,570[9]
1,204
1,570
0.6%
to 0.79%
2,314[4]
 South Africa r 6.0 7,121[4]
to 9,516[5]
7,121
to 9,516
0.12%
to 0.16%
12,029[4]
 United Kingdom s 45.4 702,917[4]
to 888,246[5]
16,829[10][11]

[12]

107,000[13] 826,746
to 1,012,075
1.79%
to 2.2%
1,663,435 [4]
Sub-total for British Empire 379.5 908,371
to 1,118,760
18,829 109,000 1,034,200
to 1,244,589
0.27%
to 0.32%
2,090,212
East Africaa See footnote
 Belgium c 7.4 13,716[14]
to 58,637[15]
23,700[15] 62,000[16] 99,416
to 144,337
1.34%
to 1.95%
44,686[17]
France France e 39.6 1,357,000[14]
to 1,397,800[18]
40,000.[3][19][20] 300,000[16] 1,697,000
to 1,737,800
4.29%
to 4.39%
4,266,000[17]
 Greece f 4.8 5,000[21]
to 26,000[22]
150,000[23] 155,000
to 176,000
3.23%
to 3.67%
21,000[17]
 Italy h 35.6 460,000[14]
to 651,000[24]
3,400[25] 589,000[26] 1,052,400
to 1,243,400
2.96%
to 3.49%
947,000[17]
 Empire of Japan i 53.6 300[17]
to 4,661[27]
300
to 4,661
0%
to 0.01%
907[17]
 Montenegro k 0.5 3,000[17]
to 13,325 [27]
3,000
to 13,325
0.6%
to 2.67%
10,000[17]
 Portugal n 6.0 7,222[14][17] 82,000[28] 89,222 1.49% 13,751[14]
 Romania o 7.5 250,000[27]
to 335,706[21]
130,000[29] 200,000[29] 580,000
to 665,706
7.73%
to 8.88%
120,000 [17]
 Russian Empire p 175.1 1,700,000[17] to
2,254,369[30]
410,000[31] 730,000[31] 2,840,000 to
3,394,369
1.62% to 1.94% 3,749,000[30] to
4,950,000[17]
 Serbia q 4.5 45,000[17][21]
to 365,164[27]
150,000[32][33] 300,000[32][33] 495,000
to 815,164
11%
to 18.11%
133,148[17]
 United States t 92.0 116,708[34][35] 757[36] 117,465 0.13% 204,002[34]
Total (Entente Powers) 806.1 4,866,317
to 6,349,352
776,686 2,520,000 8,163,003
to 9,646,038
1.01%
to 1.15%
11,599,706
to 12,800,706
Central Powers
 Austria-Hungary u 51.4 1,200,000.[17][37]
to 1,494,200 [38][39]
120,000.[32] 467,000.[40] 1,787,000
to 2,081,200
3.48%
to 4.05%
3,620,000 [41]
 Bulgaria v 5.5 87,500[17][42] 100,000[43] 187,500 3.41% 152,390 [17][44]
 German Empire w 64.9 1,773,700[17]
to 2,037,000[45][46]
720[47] 424,000.[48]
to 763,000 [49][50]
2,198,420
to 2,800,720
3.39% to
4.32%
4,216,058 [17]
to 4,247,143.[51]
 Ottoman Empire x 21.3 325,000[17]
to 771,844[52]
1,500,000.[53] 1,000,000[54] 2,825,000
to 3,271,844
13.26%
to 15.36%
400,000[17]
to 763,753[52]
Total (Central Powers) 143.1 3,386,200
to 4,390,544
1,620,720 1,991,000
to 2,330,000
6,997,920
to 8,341,264
4.89%
to 5.82%
8,419,533
Neutral nations
 Denmark y 2.7 700[55] 700 0.03%
 Luxembourg j 0.3 See footnote
 Norway z 2.4 1,180.[27] 1,180 0.08%
 Sweden az 5.6 800.[27] 800 0.02%
Grand total 960.2 8,252,517
to 10,739,896
2,400,086 4,511,000
to 4,850,000
15,163,603
to 17,989,982
1.58%
to 1.87%
22,078,366
to 23,674,204

Casualties by 1924 Post War Borders[edit]

Europe 1914 and 1924

The war involved multi-ethnic empires such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungary and Turkey. The diverse ethnic groups in these multi-ethnic empires were conscripted for military service. The casualties listed by modern borders are also included in the above table of figures for the countries that existed in 1914.

The following estimates of Austrian deaths, within contemporary borders, were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Total dead 175,000: including military losses 120,000 with the Austo-Hungarian forces and POW deaths in captivity of 30,000. Civilian dead due to famine and disease were 25,000.[56]

The Belgian Congo) was part of the Kingdom of Belgium during the war. A Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century based on sources published in the Soviet Union and Russia estimated a total of 155,000 deaths in the Belgian Congo during the war.[57]

Czechoslovakia was part of Austro-Hungary during the war. The estimates of Czechoslovak deaths within 1991 borders were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Total dead 185,000: including military losses 110,000 with the Austro-Hungarian forces and POW deaths in captivity of 45,000. Civilian dead due to famine and disease were 30,000.[58] The Czechoslovak Legions fought with the armies of the Allies during the war.

Austrian memorial commemorating soldiers from the village of Obermillstatt who died in World War I.

Estonia was part of the Russian Empire during the war and about 100,000 Estonians served in the Russian Army. Of them about 10,000 were killed.[59]

From 1809 Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire until the end of 1917. In 1924 the Finnish government in a reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office, an agency of the League of Nations, reported 26,517 were dead and missing in World War I.[27]

The following estimates of deaths, within contemporary borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Erlikman's estimates are based on sources published in the Soviet Union and Russia.[57]

 Algeria (1914 known as French Algeria): 26,000
 Vietnam (1914 known as French Indochina): 12,000
 Mali (1914 part of French West Africa): 60,000
 Morocco (1914 known as the French protectorate of Morocco): 8,000
 Senegal (1914 part of French West Africa): 36,000
 Guinea (1914 part of French West Africa): 14,500
 Madagascar: 2,500 military
 Benin (1914 part of French West Africa): 27,000
 Burkina Faso (1914 part of French West Africa): 17,000
 Republic of the Congo (1914 part of French Equatorial Africa):32,000
 Ivory Coast (1914 part of French West Africa): 12,000
 Tunisia (1914 known as French Tunisia): 2,000
 Chad (1914 part of French Equatorial Africa): 1,500
 Central African Republic (1914 known as French Oubangui-Chari): 1,000
 Niger (1914 part of French West Africa): 1,000
 Gabon (1914 part of French Equatorial Africa): 10,500

The following estimates of deaths, within contemporary borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Erlikman's estimates are based on sources published in the Soviet Union and Russia.[60]

 Tanzania (1914 part of German East Africa): 50,000
 Namibia (1914 known as German South-West Africa): 1,000
 Cameroon (1914 known as Kamerun): 5,000 military and 50,000
 Togo (1914 known as German Togoland): 2,000
 Rwanda (1914 part of German East Africa) 15,000

The following estimates of Hungarian deaths, within contemporary borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Total dead 385,000: including military losses 270,000 with the Austro-Hungarian forces and POW deaths in captivity of 70,000. Civilian dead due to famine and disease were 45,000.[61]

Ireland was a part of the UK during World War I. Five sixths of the island left to form the Irish Free State, now the Republic of Ireland, in 1922. A total of 206,000 Irishmen served in the British forces during the war.[62] The number of Irish deaths in the British Army recorded by the registrar general was 27,405.[63] A significant number of these casualties were from what, in 1920, became Northern Ireland. While 49,400 soldiers died serving in Irish Divisions (the 10th, 16th and 36th),[64] not all of the men serving in these divisions were natives of Ireland: for example, 29% of the casualties in the 16th Division were not natives of Ireland.[63]

The losses of Portuguese Mozambique were estimated by a Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Erlikman's estimates are based on sources published in the Soviet Union and Russia.[57] 52,000

Poland was an annexed territory of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, from 1795 to 1918. By late 1915 Germany had complete control over modern-day Poland. A 2005 Polish study estimated 3,376,800 Poles were conscripted into the armed forces of the occupying powers during World War I, an additional 300,000 were conscripted for forced labor by the Germans. The Russians and Austrians forcibly resettled 1.6 to 1.8 million persons from the war zone in Poland.[65] According to Michael Clodfelter Polish war dead were 1,080,000; 200,000 Polish civilians were killed in the fighting on the Eastern Front and 870,000 men serving in the German, Austrian and Russian armies.[3] Another estimate made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century put total Polish war dead at 640,000, including military losses of 270,000 Poles conscripted and civilian losses of 120,000 due to military operations and 250,000 caused by famine and disease.[66] The ethnic Polish Blue Army served with the French Army. The ethnic Polish Legions fought as part of the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Eastern Front.

The territory of Transylvania was part of Austria-Hungary during World War I. The following estimates of Romanian deaths, within contemporary borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Total dead 748,000: including military losses 220,000 with the Romanian forces and 150,000 with the Austro-Hungarian forces and POW deaths in captivity of 48,000. Civilian dead were as follows due to famine and disease 200,000, killed in military operations 120,000 and 10,000 dead in Austrian prisons. [29]

Britain recruited Indian, Chinese, native South African, Egyptian and other overseas labour to provide logistical support in the combat theatres.[67] Included with British casualties in East Africa are the deaths of 44,911 recruited labourers.[68] The CWGC reports that nearly 2,000 workers from the Chinese Labour Corps are buried with British war dead in France.[69]

The following estimates of British Empire colonial military deaths, within contemporary borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist Vadim Erlikman in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Erlikman's estimates are based on sources published in the Soviet Union and Russia.[70]

 Ghana (1914 known as the Gold Coast): 16,200
 Kenya (1914 known as British East Africa): 32,000
 Malawi (1914 known as Nyasaland): 3,000
 Nigeria (1914 part of British West Africa): 85,000
 Sierra Leone (1914 part of British West Africa): 1,000
 Uganda (1914 known as the Uganda Protectorate): 1,500
 Zambia (1914 known as Northern Rhodesia): 2,000
 Zimbabwe (1914 known as Southern Rhodesia): 5,716 persons of European origin served in the war, 700 were killed, died of wounds or other causes. In Rhodesian units,127 were killed, 24 died of wounds, 101 died of disease or other causes and 294 were wounded. 31 Africans were killed in action, 142 died of other causes and 116 were wounded.[71]

The following estimates are for Yugoslavia within the 1991 borders.

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Vojvodina (Now part of Serbia) were part of Austria-Hungary during World War I. Serbia, which included Macedonia, and Montenegro were independent nations. The Yugoslav historian Vladimir Dedijer put the total losses of the Yugoslav lands at 1.9 million of which 43% were from Serbia.[72] The following estimates of Yugoslav deaths, within 1991 borders, during World War I were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century. Total dead 996,000: including military losses 260,000 with the Serbian forces, 80,000 with the Austro-Hungarian forces 13,000 with Montenegro forces and POW deaths in captivity of 93,000. Civilian dead were as follows due to famine and disease 400,000, killed in military operations 120,000 and 30,000 dead in Austrian prisons or executed.[73]

During WW1, the Nepalese army was expanded and six new regiments, totaling more than 20,000 troops—all volunteers—were sent to India, most of them to the North-West Frontier Province, to release British and Indian troops for service overseas. Simultaneously, the Nepalese government agreed to maintain recruitment at a level that both would sustain the existing British Gurkha units and allow the establishment of additional ones. The battalions were increased to thirty-three with the addition of 55,000 new recruits, and Gurkha units were placed at the disposal of the British high command for service on all fronts. Many volunteers were assigned to noncombat units, such as the Army Bearer Corps and the labour battalions, but they also were in combat in France, Turkey, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. The Rana prime ministers urged Nepalese males to fight in the war. Of the more than 200,000 Nepalese who served in the British Army, there were some 20,000 Gurkha casualties included above with the British Indian Army.[74]

Footnotes[edit]

Deaths by alliance and military/civilian. Most of the civilian deaths were due to war-related famine
Deaths of the Allied powers
Deaths of the Central powers

^a East Africa

  • The conflict in East Africa caused enormous civilian casualties. The Oxford History of World War One notes that "In east and central Africa the harshness of the war resulted in acute shortages of food with famine in some areas, a weakening of populations, and epidemic diseases which killed hundreds of thousands of people and also cattle."[75] The following estimates of civilian deaths in East Africa during World War I were made by a Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century: Kenya 30,000; Tanzania 100,000; Mozambique 50,000; Rwanda 15,000; Burundi 20,000; and the Belgian Congo 150,000.[57]
  • The military casualties of the UK, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal include Africans who served with their armed forces, the details are noted above in the list of the various colonies.
Fallen British and Australian soldiers in a mass grave, dug by German soldiers, 1916 or 1917

^b Australia

  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 59,330 Army war dead, 152,171 wounded and 4,084 taken prisoner.[4]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total military deaths are 54,000 killed and died of wounds[78]

^c Belgium:

  • Belgian government figures for military losses in Europe were 40,367(26,338 killed, died of wounds or accidents and 14,029 died of disease or missing). In Africa: 2,620 soldiers were killed and 15,650 porters died. The combined total for Europe and Africa is 58,637[15]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Belgium are: Total mobilized force 267,000; Total casualties 93,061 including Killed and died 13,716; wounded 44,686; Prisoners and missing 34,659[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 93,061 casualties up until November 11, 1918 including 13,716 killed and died; 24,456 missing; 44,686 wounded and 10,208 POW. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete."[14]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Belgian military deaths are 35,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • Civilian deaths according to Belgian government statistics were 23,700 (6,000 killed in the 1914 German massacres and 17,700 victims in prisons, deportations and by military tribunals)[15] According to a demographic study there were 92,000 indirect deaths in Belgium (62,000 deaths due to wartime privations and 30,000 in the Spanish Flu pandemic[16] John Horne estimated that 6,500 Belgian and French civilians were killed in German reprisals.[79]

^d Canada

  • The Canadian War Museum lists close to 61,000 killed in the war, including 1,305 from Newfoundland and 172,000 wounded. The Canadian Expeditionary Force lost 59,544 in the war, including 51,748 due to enemy action, the Royal Canadian Navy reported 150 deaths from all causes and 1,388 Canadians died while serving with the British Flying Services.[80]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 56,639 Canadian war dead, 149,732 wounded and 3,729 taken prisoner.[4]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Canadian military deaths are 53,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • The Canadian Virtual War Memorial[81] contains a registry of information about the graves and memorials of Canadians and Newfoundlanders who served valiantly and gave their lives for their country.

^e France

  • French casualty figures up until June 1, 1919 were listed in a French government report of August 1, 1919 which was published in a demographic study of the French population during World War I.[82] Total Army dead and missing up until November 11, 1918 were 1,357,800 in addition there were 28,600 deaths after November 11, 1918 and 11,400 Navy dead which brings total dead and missing to 1,397,800. These figures include 35,200 French Colonial Forces, 35,900 "north Africans" and 4,600 French Foreign Legion personnel.[83]
  • United States War Dept. figures for French casualties are: Total mobilized force 8,410,000; Total casualties 6,160,800 including Killed and died 1,357,800; wounded 4,266,000; Prisoners and missing 537,000[17]
  • The UK War Office put French dead,killed and missing at 1,385,300 dead and missing, including 58,000 colonial soldiers up until Nov. 1,1918. They noted that a government report of Aug. 1, 1919 listed the number of killed and died at 1,357,000. There were no figures available of the wounded.[14]
  • The names of the soldiers who died for France during World War I are listed on-line by the French government.[84]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total French military deaths are 1,126,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • According to the French encyclopedia Quid 30-40,000 foreign volunteers from about 40 nationalities served in the French army. Including 12,000 with the Czechoslovak Legion and the ethnic Polish Blue Army. 5,000 Italians served in a "Legion" commanded by Colonel Garibaldi. There were also 1,000 Spaniards and 1,500 Swiss in French service, 200 American volunteers served with the French from 1914–16, including the Lafayette Escadrille[85] Luxembourg was occupied by Germany during the war. According to the Mobile Reference travel Guide 3,700 Luxembourg citizens served in the French armed forces, 2,800 gave their lives in the war. They are commemorated at the Gëlle Fra in Luxembourg.[86] The French Armenian Legion served as part of the French Armed forces during the war. French colonies, such as Algeria and Vietnam, also sent troops to fight and serve on the battlefront.
  • According to a demographic study there were 500,000 indirect deaths in France (300,000 deaths due to wartime privations and 200,000 in the Spanish Flu pandemic.[87] Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the France during the war put total excess deaths at 264,000 to 284,000 not including an additional 100,000 to 120,000 Spanish Flu deaths.[88] Civilian dead include 1,509 merchant sailors and 3,357 killed in air attacks and long range artillery bombardments[89]

^f Greece

  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total military dead of 26,000[22] including 15,000[90] deaths due to disease and 11,000 killed and died of wounds [91]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Greek casualties are: Total mobilized force 230,000; Total casualties 27,000 (Killed and died 5,000; wounded 21,000; Prisoners and missing 1,000)[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 27,000 casualties (5,000 killed or died of wounds; 21,000 wounded and 1,000 prisoners and missing.)[21]
  • Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War I listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing [92]
  • According to a demographic study there were 150,000 indirect deaths in Greece due to wartime privations.[23]

^g India (British)

  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 64,449 Army war dead, 69,214 wounded and 11,264 taken prisoner, these figures include British serving in the Indian Army (2,393 dead, 2,325 wounded and 194 taken prisoner)[4]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Indian military deaths are 27,000 killed and died of wounds[91]

^h Italy

  • The Italian government put military war deaths at 651,000 ( Killed in action or died of wounds 378,000; died of disease 186,000 and an additional 87,000 deaths of invalids from 12 Nov. 1918 until 30 April 1920 due to war related injuries.)The figures were published in an Italian study of war losses.[24] A brief summary of data from this study can be found online[93]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Italian casualties are: Total mobilized force 5,615,000; Total casualties 2,197,000 (Killed and died 650,000; wounded 947,000; Prisoners and missing 600,000)[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 1,937,000 casualties up until Nov.11,1918 (460,000 dead; 947,000 wounded and 530,000 prisoners).[14]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Italian military deaths are 433,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • According to a demographic study there were 1,021,000 indirect deaths in Italy (589,000 deaths due to wartime privations and 432,000 in the Spanish Flu pandemic.[26] Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the Italy during the war put total excess deaths at 324,000 not including an additional 300,000 Spanish Flu deaths.[94] Civilian deaths due to military action were 3,400 including (2,293 by attacks on shipping, 965 during air raids and 142 by sea bombardment).[95]

^i Japan

  • In 1924 the Japanese government in a reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office, an agency of the League of Nations, reported 800,000 men mobilized and 4,661 dead and missing in World War I including losses up until 1921.[27]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Japanese casualties are: Total mobilized force 800,000; Total casualties 1,210 (including Killed and died 300; wounded 907; Prisoners and missing 3)[17]
German trench destroyed by a mine explosion, 1917

^k Montenegro:

  • United States War Dept. figures for Montenegrin casualties are: Total mobilized force 50,000; Total casualties 20,000 including Killed and died 3,000; wounded 10,000; Prisoners and missing 7,000[17]

^l New Zealand:

  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 16,711 Army war dead, 41,317 wounded and 498 taken prisoner.[4]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total New Zealand military deaths are 14,000 killed and died of wounds[78]

^m Newfoundland

  • An academic journal published in Newfoundland has given the details of Newfoundland's military casualties. Fatalities totaled 1,570 The Royal Newfoundland Regiment suffered 1,297 dead; there were an additional 171 dead in the Royal Navy and 101 in the Merchant Navy [9]

^n Portugal:

  • United States War Dept. figures for Portuguese casualties are: Total mobilized force 100,000; Total casualties 33,291 (including Killed and died 7,222; wounded 13,751; Prisoners and missing 12,318)[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 33,291 casualties: 7,222 dead(1,689 in Europe and 5,533 in Africa); 13,751 wounded( figure for Europe only); and 12,318 prisoners and missing (6,678 in Europe and "a large number of missing in Mozambique)[14]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Portuguese military deaths are 6,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[78]
  • According to a demographic study there were 220,000 indirect deaths in Portugal (82,000 deaths due to wartime privations and 138,000 in the Spanish Flu pandemic.[98]
Re-educating wounded. Blind French soldiers learning to make baskets, World War I.

^o Romania:

  • United States War Dept. figures for Romanian casualties are: Total mobilized force 750,000; Total casualties 535,706 (including Killed and died 335,706; wounded 120,000; Prisoners and missing 80,000)[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed military casualties of 335,706 killed or missing. In addition 265,000 civilians were killed or missing.[21]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Romanian military deaths are 177,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • According to a demographic study there were 430,000 indirect deaths in Romania due to wartime privations.[99]
  • A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 330,000 civilian dead (120,000 due to military activity, 10,000 as prisoners and 200,000 caused by famine and disease) [100]

^p Russian Empire

  • According to the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis the sources for Russian casualties are difficult to ascertain. Casualty figures, compiled from the field reports during the war, were published in 1925 by the Soviet Central Statistical office[101] They put Russia's total losses at 775,400 dead and missing, 348,500 disabled and 3,343,900 POW. Those evacuated to the rear area were 1,425,000 sick and 2,844,500 wounded. Included in these figures are battle casualties of 7,036,087. (626,440 killed in action, 17,174 died of wounds, 228,838 missing, 3,409,433 held as prisoners of war and 2,754,202 wounded in action.)[102][103] Urlanis believes that the figures for those killed were considerably underestimated because a large part of the reports were lost in retreats. Urlanis estimated the actual total military war dead at 1,811,000 (Killed 1,200,000, died of wounds 240,000, gassed 11,000, died from disease 155,000, POW deaths 190,000, deaths due to accidents and other causes 15,000).
  • A study by the Russian military historian G.F. Krivosheev estimated the total war dead at 2,254,369 (Killed in action 1,200,000; missing and presumed dead 439,369; died of wounds 240,000, gassed 11,000., died from disease 155,000, POW deaths 190,000, deaths due to accidents and other causes 19,000.) Wounded 3,749,000. POW 3,343,900. Total mobilized force 15,378,000.[30]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Russian casualties are: Total mobilized force 12,000,000. Total casualties 9,150,000 (including Killed and died 1,700,000, wounded 4,950,000, Prisoners and missing 2,500,000)[17]
  • The U.K. War Office Based on a telegram from Petrograd to Copenhagen of 28 December 1918 listed military casualties of 9,150,000 including( 1,700,000 killed, 1,450,000 disabled, 3,500,000 wounded and 2,500,000 POW)[21]
  • According to the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis there were 1,500,000 civilian deaths due to wartime privations up until the end of 1917.[104]
  • A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 1,140,000 war related Russian civilian deaths from 1914-1917 in 1914 borders (410,000 due to military operations and 730,000 caused by famine and disease) [105]

^q Serbia

  • According to the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis regarding Serbia "it is particularly difficult to ascertain the number of killed". The figures for Serbian war dead differ greatly, a study published in 1919 put the total known dead at 707,343,[106] however the reports of the U.S. War Department and the U.K. War Office, which are cited in historical literature, both give a figure of 45,000 Serbian military dead.[17][21]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis made the following estimate for Serbian and Montenegrin casualties,total losses of 728,000 including military dead: 278,000 (140,000 killed in action; 25,000 died of wounds; 50,000 disease; 60,000 POW and 3,000 from other causes); total civilian dead due to the war of 450,000.[107]
  • A demographic study put total the war dead for Serbia and Montenegro at 750,000 (300,000 military and 450,000 civilians). The overall population deficit from 1912-1920, based on the prewar level, was 1,187,000 less 150,000 killed in the Balkan Wars and a decline in the number of births of 336,000, in addition there were 47,000 deaths from 1914-1920 related to the war that were included with deaths by natural causes[33]
  • A study published in 1919 put Serbian losses at 707,343 known dead, 322,000 seriously wounded, 28,000 otherwise wounded and 100,000 prisoners and missing.[106] Regarding the figure of 707,343 war dead Boris Urlanis maintains that "the absurdity of this figure is beyond doubt" [108]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Serbian casualties are: Total mobilized force 707,343; Total casualties 331,106 (including Killed and died 45,000; wounded 133,148; Prisoners and missing 152,958)[17]
  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed military casualties of 331,106 including 45,000 killed, 133,148 wounded and 70,243 prisoners and 82,535 missing.[21]
  • Serbian sources posted on the internet in July 2014 reported that Serbian poet and academic Matija Bećković said "that 402,435 Serbian soldiers have been killed and 845,000 civilians hanged or exterminated in concentration camps during WWI [109]
  • A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 120,000 Serbian civilian deaths due to military activity and 30,000 in Austro-Hungarian prisons. His estimate for total Yugoslav civilian casualties including Austro-Hungarian territory was 550,000.[32]

^r South Africa

  • The report of the U.K. War Office listed 7,121 Army war dead, 12,029 wounded and 1,538 taken prisoner.[4]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total South African military deaths are 5,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
British pilot killed in action, 1917

^s United Kingdom

  • The report of the U.K. War Office for the British Isles and other colonies listed 702,917 war dead, 1,683,435 wounded and 170,539 taken prisoner.[4] These figures include the casualties of the Royal Navy 32,287 dead and missing and 5,135 wounded [111] The figures include RAF casualties[112] These figures do not include an additional 14,661 British Mercantile Marine dead.[113]
  • The official "final and corrected" casualty figures for British Army,including the Territorial Force were issued on 10 March 1921. The losses were for the period 4 August 1914 until 30 September 1919, included 573,507 "killed in action, died from wounds and died of other causes"; 254,176 missing less 154,308 released prisoners; for a net total of 673,375 dead and missing. There were 1,643,469 wounded also listed in the report[114]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total U.K. military deaths are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[78]
  • According to a demographic study there were 292,000 indirect deaths in the UK (109,000 deaths due to wartime privations and 183,000 in the Spanish Flu pandemic.[13] Another estimate of the demographic loss of the civilian population in the UK during the war put total excess deaths at 181,000 not including an additional 100,000 Spanish Flu deaths.[115] The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 1,260 civilians and 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK[116] Losses at sea were 908 UK civilians and 63 fisherman killed by U-Boat attacks[12]

^t United States

  • US Dept. of Defense figures from 2010 list 116,516 war dead for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918, including 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 non combat deaths. Wounded 204,200.[34] The U.S. casualty figures were revised by the US Dept. of Defense in 1957.[17] In addition the US Coast Guard lost 192 dead (111 deaths in action and 81 from other causes).[35][117]
  • United States War Dept. figures from 1924 for U.S. casualties were: Total mobilized force 4,355,000; Total casualties 350,300 (including Killed and died from all causes 126,000; wounded 234,300(including 14,500 died of wounds); Prisoners and missing 4,500)[118]
Fallen German soldier in France, 1917

^u Austria-Hungary

  • The official history of Austria-Hungary's involvement in the First World War put total military dead at 1,494,200:(1,016,200 killed and 478,000 while prisoners of war) [38][119]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Austro-Hungarian casualties are: Total mobilized force 7,800,000; Total casualties 7,020,000 (including Killed and died 1,200,000; wounded 3,620,000; Prisoners and missing 2,200,000)[17]
  • The U.K. War Office estimate for Austro-Hungarian casualties up to 31 December 1918: Total casualties of 7,020,000 including 1,200,000 killed, 3,620,000 wounded and 2,200,000 prisoners.[120]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Austro-Hungarian military deaths are 900,000 and died of wounds[78]
  • A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 120,000 civilian deaths due to military activity in Austro-Hungarian Galicia.[32]

^v Bulgaria:

  • United States War Dept. figures for Bulgarian casualties are: Total mobilized force 1,200,000; Total casualties 266,919 (including Killed and died 87,500; wounded 152,930; Prisoners and missing 27,029)[17]
  • The U.K. War Office listed casualties reported by the Bulgarian War Office: 87,500 total dead (48,917 killed, 13,198 died of wounds, 888? accidentally killed, 24,497 died of disease); 13,729 missing; 152,390 wounded and 10,623 prisoners. The Bulgarian War Office stated that "losses during the retreat from sickness and privations were much greater than the figures they possess" [121]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Bulgarian military deaths are 62,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • According to the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis there were 100,000 civilian deaths due to wartime privations.[43]
German dead scattered in the wreck of a machine gun post near Guillemont, 1916

^w German Empire

  • In 1934 the official German war history listed 2,037,000[122] military dead. Confirmed dead from all causes 1,936,897 (Army 1,900,876, Navy 34,836, Colonial troops 1,185); wounded 4,215,662; prisoners and missing 974,977 of which an estimated 100,000 were presumed dead.[45]-
  • United States War Dept. figures for German casualties are: Total mobilized force 11,000,000; Total casualties 7,142,558 (including Killed and died 1,773,700; wounded 4,216,058; Prisoners and missing 1,152,800)[17]
  • The UK War Office listed official German figures from 1921 of 1,808,545 killed and 4,247,143 wounded, exclusive of 14,000 African conscript deaths during the war.[123]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total German military deaths are 1,796,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • The UK War Office listed official German figures from 1919 of 720 German civilians who were killed by allied air raids [47]
  • The figures for civilian deaths due to the Blockade of Germany are disputed. The German Board of Public Health in December 1918 maintained that 763,000[49] German civilians died from malnutrition and disease caused by the blockade up until the end of December 1918.[50][124] A German academic study in 1928 put the death toll at 424,000.[125] A study sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1940 estimated the German civilian death toll due to the war at over 600,000. Based on the above-mentioned German study of 1928 they maintained that "A thorough inquiry has led to the conclusion that the number of "civilian" deaths traceable to the war was 424,000, to which number must be added about 200,000 deaths caused by the influenza epidemic" [48]
The remains of Armenians massacred at Erzinjan.[126]

^x Ottoman Empire:

  • The Ottoman official casualty statistics published in 1922 were: Total dead 325,000 including (killed in action 50,000, 35,000 died of wounds, 240,000 died of disease). Wounded 400,000. POWs, sick and missing 1,565,000. Total Mobilized 2,850,000 [127]
  • United States War Dept. figures for Ottoman casualties are: Total mobilized force 2,850,000; Total casualties 975,000 (including Killed and died 325,000; wounded 400,000; Prisoners and missing 250,000)[17]
  • The UK War Office figures for Ottoman casualties were: Total accounted for 725,000 (killed 50,000, died of wounds 35,00, died of disease 400,000, wounded 400,000). Total unaccounted for 1,565,000 (prisoners,deserters,invalides and missing).[128]
  • The Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated that included in total Ottoman military deaths are 318,000 killed and died of wounds[78]
  • Estimates of Ottoman civilian casualties range from 2,000,000[129] to 2,150,000.[20][130][131] Civilian casualties include the Armenian Genocide. The total number of resulting Armenian deaths is generally held to have been 1.5 million.[53] Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks, and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination.[132][133][134]
  • Turkish spokesmen maintain that reports of Armenian massacres were one sided and distorted work of wartime propaganda [135] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide, arguing that those who died were victims of inter-ethnic fighting, famine, or disease during World War I.
  • A Russian journalist in a 2004 handbook of human losses in the 20th century estimated 1,000,000 war related civilian deaths in the Ottoman Empire due to famine and disease.[136]

^y Denmark

  • Denmark was neutral in the war. However, Germany at that time included part of Danish Schleswig. Men from this area were conscripted into theGerman forces. Their losses are included with German casualties. Over 700 Danish merchant sailors and fisherman died, mostly due to vessels torpedoed by German submarines.[55]

^j Luxembourg

^z Norway

  • Norway was neutral in the war but lost ships and merchant sailors in trading through the war zones. In 1924 the Norwegian government in a reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office, an agency of the League of Nations, reported 1,180 persons dead and missing in World War I.[27]

^az Sweden

  • Sweden was neutral in the war but lost ships and merchant sailors in trading through the war zones. In 1924 the Swedish government in a reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office, an agency of the League of Nations, reported 800 persons dead and missing in World War I.[27]

Sources[edit]

Graves of French soldiers who died on the Ypres Salient, Ypres Necropole National, Ypres, Belgium.
The India Gate in Delhi commemorates the Indian soldiers who died during World War I.
  • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) Annual Report 2011–2012 [137] provides current statistics on the military dead for the British Empire. The war dead totals listed in the report are based on the research by the CWGC to identify and commemorate Commonwealth war dead. The statistics tabulated by The Commonwealth War Graves Commission are representative of the number of names commemorated for all servicemen/women of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth and former UK Dependencies, whose death was attributable to their war service. Some auxiliary and civilian organizations are also accorded war grave status if death occurred under certain specified conditions. For the purposes of CWGC the dates of inclusion for Commonwealth War Dead are 4 August 1914 to 31 August 1921. Total World War I dead were 1,117,077 (UK and former colonies 888,246; Undivided India 74,194; Canada 64,990; Australia 62,081; New Zealand 18,053; South Africa 9,516). The Commonwealth War Graves Commission did not break out the losses by branch of service, their figures also include the Merchant Navy.
  • Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office March 1922.[14] This official report lists 908,371 killed in action, died of wounds, died as prisoners of war and were missing in action from 4 August 1914 to 31 December 1920, (British Isles 702,410; India 64,449; Canada 56,639; Australia 59,330; New Zealand 16,711; South Africa 7,121 and Newfoundland 1,204,other colonies 507).[138] Figures include the Royal Navy war dead and missing of 32,287.[139] These figures do not include the Merchant Navy dead of 14,661.[140] Figures for total Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force and Royal Naval Air Service war dead were included in the figures of total dead and were not listed separately.
    The losses of France, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Greece, Russia, the USA, Bulgaria, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey were also listed in the UK War Office report.[14]
  • The official "final and corrected" casualty figures for British Army,including the Territorial Force (not including allied British Empire forces) were issued on 10 March 1921. The losses were for the period 4 August 1914 until 30 September 1919, included 573,507 "killed in action, died from wounds and died of other causes"; 254,176 missing less 154,308 released prisoners; for a net total of 673,375 dead and missing. There were 1,643,469 wounded also listed in the report[114]
  • Casualties and Medical Statistics published in 1931.[141] was the final volume of the Official Medical History of the War, gives British Empire, including the Dominions, for Army losses by cause of death. Total losses in combat theaters from 1914 to 1918 were 876,084, which included 418,361 killed, 167,172 died of wounds, 113,173 died of disease or injury, 161,046 missing and presumed dead and 16,332 prisoner of war deaths. Total losses were not broken out for the UK and each Dominion. These figures do not include the losses of Dominion forces in the Gallipoli Campaign, since records were incomplete.[68] Figures do not include the Royal Navy.
  • Military Casualties-World War-Estimated," Statistics Branch, General Staff, U.S. War Department, 25 February 1924-This report prepared by the U.S. War Department estimated the casualties of the belligerents in the war. The figures from this report are listed in the Encyclopædia Britannica and often cited in historical literature [17]
  • Huber, Michel La Population de la France pendant la guerre, Paris 1931.[82] This study published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace lists official French government figures for war-related military deaths and missing of France and its colonies.
  • Mortara, Giorgo La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra, New Haven: Yale University Press 1925.[142] The official government Italian statistics on war dead are listed here. A brief summary of data from this report can be found online.go to Vol 13, No. 15
  • The demographer Boris Urlanis an analysis of the military dead for the belligerents in the war including his estimates for the combat related deaths included in total deaths.[143]
  • The Belgian government published statistics on their war losses in the Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du Congo Belge 1915–1919[144]
  • Heeres-Sanitätsinspektion im Reichskriegsministeriums, Sanitätsbericht über das deutsche Heer, (Deutsches Feld- und Besatzungsheer), im Weltkriege 1914–1918, Volume 3, Sec. 1, Berlin 1934. The official German Army medical war history listed German losses.
  • Grebler, Leo and Winkler, Wilhelm The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary This study published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace details the losses of Austria-Hungary and Germany in the war.[145]
  • Hersch, Liebmann, La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7. No 1. This study published in an academic journal detailed the demographic impact of the war on France, the UK, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Serbia, Romania and Greece. The total estimated increase in the number of civilian deaths due to the war was 2,171,000, not including an additional 984,000 Spanish Flu deaths. These losses were due primarily wartime privations.[147]
  • Dumas, Samuel (1923). Losses of Life Caused by War published by Oxford University Press- This study detailed the impact of the war on the civilian population. The study estimated excess civilian deaths at: France(264,000 to 284,000), the UK (181,000), Italy(324,000), and Germany(692,000).[148]

The source of population data is:

  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J., The World War One Source Book Pages 382-383 [150]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matthew White, Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Primary Megadeaths of the Twentieth Century
  2. ^ Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow. p. 85.
  3. ^ a b c d Clodfelter, Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 2nd Ed.. ISBN 978-0-7864-1204-4. Page 479
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office(1922), P.237
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2010-2011, page 45. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  6. ^ a b Halifax Explosion Remembrance Book
  7. ^ Canadian War Museum, The Halifax Explosion
  8. ^ a b Auckland War Memorial Museum
  9. ^ a b Sharpe, Christopher A. "The 'Race of Honour': An Analysis of Enlistments and Casualties in the Armed Forces of Newfoundland: 1914–18," Newfoundland Studies 4.1 (Spring 1988): 27–55.
  10. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.674-676(1,260 civilians killed in air and attacks
  11. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.339(14,661 killed in Merchant Navy
  12. ^ a b Gilbert, Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-521077-4(908 civilians killed in naval attacks)
  13. ^ a b Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.Pages 47–61
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.352
  15. ^ a b c d Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du Congo Belge 1915–1919. Bruxelles. 1922 p.100
  16. ^ a b c Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.P 59–62
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Military Casualties-World War-Estimated," Statistics Branch, GS, War Department, 25 February 1924; cited in World War I: People, Politics, and Power, published by Britannica Educational Publishing (2010) Page 219
  18. ^ Huber, Michel (1931). La Population de la France pendant la guerre. Paris Page 414
  19. ^ a b Ellis, John (1993). World War I–Databook. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-85410-766-4, Page 269
  20. ^ a b c Randal Grey. Chronicle of World War I, Vol2 Facts on File 1991 ISBN 0-8160-2139-2 Page 292
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.353
  22. ^ a b Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow page 209
  23. ^ a b Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.Pages 80–81
  24. ^ a b Mortara, G (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra. New Haven: Yale University Press.P 28–29
  25. ^ Mortara, G (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra. New Haven: Yale University Press.P 56-57
  26. ^ a b Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.Pages 52–59
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n International Labour Office,Enquête sur la production. Rapport général. Paris [etc.] Berger-Levrault, 1923-25. Tom 4 p.29
  28. ^ Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.Pages 61-64
  29. ^ a b c Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow. Page 51 ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1.
  30. ^ a b c Кривошеев Г.Ф. Россия и СССР в войнах XX века. М., 2001 - Потери русской армии, табл. 52, Krivosheeva, G.F. (2001). Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka : poteri vooruzhennykh sil : statisticheskoe issledovanie / pod obshchei redaktsiei. Moscow: OLMA-Press See Tables 52 & 56]
  31. ^ a b Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow. Page 18 ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1.
  32. ^ a b c d e Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow. ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1. Page 49
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  34. ^ a b c Congressional Research Service, American War and Military Operations Casualties:Lists and Statistics
  35. ^ a b United States Coast Guard Coast Guard History
  36. ^ a b American Merchant Marine at War, www.usmm.org
  37. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.357
  38. ^ a b Österreichischen Bundesministerium für Herrswesen (1938). Österreich-Ungarns letzer Kreig, 1914–1918 Vol. 7. Vienna.VII, Beilage 37
  39. ^ John Ellis, The World War I Databook, Aurum Press, 2001 ISBN 1854107666 P.269
  40. ^ a b Grebler, Leo (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary. Yale University Press. Page 147
  41. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.357
  42. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.354
  43. ^ a b Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow Page 268
  44. ^ Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920, The War Office, P.354
  45. ^ a b Heeres-Sanitaetsinspektion im Reichskriegsministeriums (1934) (in German). Sanitaetsbericht über das deutsche Heer, (deutsches Feld- und Besatzungsheer), im Weltkriege 1914–1918. Volume 3, Sec 1. Berlin. Pages 12–14
  46. ^ John Ellis, The World War I Databook, Aurum Press, 2001 ISBN 1854107666 P.269
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  49. ^ a b Vincent, C. Paul (1985). The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany, 1915–1919. Athens (Ohio) and London: Ohio University Press.
  50. ^ a b "The National Archives: The Blockade of Germany
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  55. ^ a b Byarkivet i Horsens
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  64. ^ Dúchas The Heritage Service, Visitors Guide to the Gardens
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  72. ^ Vladimir Dedijer, History of Yugoslavia McGraw-Hill Inc.,US, 1975 ISBN 0-07-016235-2 Page 501
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  81. ^ Canadian Virtual War Memorial
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Further reading[edit]

  • Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow. 
  • Heeres-Sanitaetsinspektion im Reichskriegsministeriums (1934). Sanitaetsbericht über das deutsche Heer, (deutsches Feld- und Besatzungsheer), im Weltkriege 1914–1918 (in German). Volume 3, Sec 1. Berlin. 
  • Dumas, Samuel (1923). Losses of Life Caused by War. Oxford. 
  • Clodfelter, Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts- A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 2nd Ed. ISBN 978-0-7864-1204-4. 
  • The War Office (1922). Statistics of the Military Effort of the British Empire During the Great War 1914–1920. Reprinted by Naval & Military Press. ISBN 978-1-84734-681-0. 
  • Huber, Michel (1931). La Population de la France pendant la guerre. Paris. 
  • Bujac, Jean, Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique, 1918–1922, Paris, 1930
  • Erickson, Edward J., Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood 2001. ISBN 978-0-313-31516-9
  • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Debt of Honour Register
  • Grey, Randal (1991). Chronicle of the First World War, Vol II: 1917–1921. Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-2595-4. 
  • Grebler, Leo (1940). The Cost of the World War to Germany and Austria-Hungary. Yale University Press. 
  • Gilbert, Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford UP. ISBN 978-0-19-521077-4. 
  • Harries, Merion (1991). Soldiers of the Sun-The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-75303-2. 
  • Mortara, G (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  • Mitchell, T.J. (1931). Casualties and Medical Statistics of the Great War. London: Reprinted by Battery Press (1997). ISBN 978-0-89839-263-0. 
  • Gelvin, James L. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85289-0. 
  • Hersch, L., La mortalité causée par la guerre mondiale, Metron- The International Review of Statistics, 1927, Vol 7.
  • Ellis, John (1993). World War I–Databook. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1-85410-766-4. 
  • US War Dept 1924 data listed in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Österreichischen Bundesministerium für Herrswesen (1938). Österreich-Ungarns letzer Kreig, 1914–1918 Vol. 7. Vienna. 
  • The Army Council. General Annual Report of the British Army 1912–1919. Parliamentary Paper 1921, XX, Cmd.1193. 
  • l'Annuaire statistique de la Belgique et du Congo Belge 1915–1919. Bruxelles. 1922. 
  • Horne, John and Kramer, Alan, German Atrocities, 1914 ISBN 978-0-300-08975-2
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip J. (1992). The World War One Sourcebook. Arms and Armour. ISBN 978-1-85409-102-4. 
  • Strachan, Hew (1999). World War I: A History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820614-9. 
  • Krivosheev, G.F. (2001). Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka : poteri vooruzhennykh sil : statisticheskoe issledovanie / pod obshchei redaktsiei. Moscow: OLMA-Press. 
  • Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow. ISBN 978-5-93165-107-1. 
  • Tucker, Spencer C. (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8153-3351-7. 
  • Yalman, Ahmed Emin (1930). Turkey in the World War. Economic and social history of the World War., Turkish series. New Haven: Yale University Press. OCLC 397515. 
  • Bane, S. L.; Lutz R. H., (1942). The Blockade of Germany after the Armistice 1918–1919. Stanford CN: Stanford Iniv. Press. OCLC 876320449. 
  • Gawryszewski, Andrzej (2005). Ludnosc Polski w XX wieku. Monografie / Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania im. Stanisława Leszczyckiego PAN 5. Warsaw: Warszawa: Instytut Geografii. ISBN 8-38795-466-7. 

External links[edit]