World Zionist Organization

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world zionist organization

The World Zionist Organization (Hebrew: הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית הָעוֹלָמִית; HaHistadrut HaTsionit HaOlamit), or WZO, was founded at the initiative of Theodor Herzl at the First Zionist Congress, which took place in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.

When it was founded, the goals of the Zionist movement were stated in a resolution that came of that Congress and came to be known as the “Basel Program.”

Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a legally assured home in Eretz Yisrael. To achieve this purpose, the following means shall be employed:

Promoting the settlement of Jewish farmers, artisans, and tradesmen in Palestine. Organizing and uniting the whole of Jewry through effective local and international means in accordance with the laws of each country. Strengthening of the Jewish national sentiment and national consciousness. Preparatory steps toward obtaining the consent of governments, where necessary, in order to achieve the goals of Zionism. The WZO consists of the following bodies: The World Zionist Unions, international Zionist federations; and international organizations that define themselves as Zionist, such as WIZO, Hadassah, Bnai-Brith, Maccabi, the International Sephardic Federation, the three streams of world Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform), delegation from the CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), the World Union of Jewish Students (WUJS), and more.


Founded as the Zionist Organization (Hebrew: הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית; HaHistadrut HaTsionit), or ZO, in 1897 at the First Zionist Congress, held from August 29 to August 31 in Basel, Switzerland.[1] It changed its name to World Zionist Organization in January 1960.

The ZO served as an umbrella organization for the Zionist movement, whose objective was the creation of a Jewish homeland in Canaan - at that time under the Ottoman Empire and following the First World War The British Mandate of Palestine. When the State of Israel was declared 51 years later on May 14, 1948, many of its new administrative institutions were already in place, having evolved during the regular Zionist Congresses of the previous decades. Some of these institutions remain to this day.

Membership and delegations[edit]

Membership in the ZO was open to all Jews, and the right to vote for delegates to the Congresses was secured by the purchase of the Zionist Shekel. Delegations from all around the world, and from many different political backgrounds and religious traditions, took part in each Congress; delegations/parties were mainly grouped by ideology, rather than by geography.[citation needed]

In 1960 the ZO changed its name to the World Zionist Organization and adopted a new constitution under which individuals are ineligible for membership, which is reserved for organizations.

Presidents of World Zionist Organization[edit]

Chairs of the Executive of World Zionist Organization (and the Jewish Agency for Israel)[edit]

In 2009, the positions were separated again. Natan Sharansky was elected as the head of the Jewish Agency and Avraham Duvdevani was elected as the new Chairman of the WZO at the 36th Zionist Congress, on 15 June 2010.

Sister organizations[edit]

The finances of the WZO were conducted by the Jewish Colonial Trust (founded in 1899), and acquisition of land was conducted by the Jewish National Fund (founded in 1901).[5] Keren Hayesod (founded 1920) funded Zionist and Yishuv activities prior to the creation of the state of Israel through enterprises such as the Palestine Electric Company, the Palestine Potash Company and the Anglo-Palestine Bank.

World Zionist Congress[edit]

Jerusalem Program[edit]

Main article: Jerusalem Program

The platform of the WZO is the Jerusalem Program. The Zionist Council, meeting in Jerusalem in June 2004, adopted this text as the latest version.[6]

Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, brought about the establishment of the State of Israel, and views a Jewish, Zionist, democratic and secure State of Israel to be the expression of the common responsibility of the Jewish people for its continuity and future.

The foundations of Zionism are:

  • The unity of the Jewish people, its bond to its historic homeland Eretz Yisrael, and the centrality of the State of Israel and Jerusalem, its capital, in the life of the nation;
  • Aliyah to Israel from all countries and the effective integration of all immigrants into Israeli Society.
  • Strengthening Israel as a Jewish, Zionist and democratic state and shaping it as an exemplary society with a unique moral and spiritual character, marked by mutual respect for the multi-faceted Jewish people, rooted in the vision of the prophets, striving for peace and contributing to the betterment of the world.
  • Ensuring the future and the distinctiveness of the Jewish people by furthering Jewish, Hebrew and Zionist education, fostering spiritual and cultural values and teaching Hebrew as the national language;
  • Nurturing mutual Jewish responsibility, defending the rights of Jews as individuals and as a nation, representing the national Zionist interests of the Jewish people, and struggling against all manifestations of anti-Semitism;
  • Settling the country as an expression of practical Zionism.

Herzl Award[edit]

Since 2004, Department for Zionist Activities of the World Zionist Organization bestows the Herzl Award annually upon outstanding young men and women in recognition of their exceptional volunteer efforts on behalf of Israel and the Zionist cause.[7]

Settlement controversy[edit]

A document which was brought before Israel's Supreme Court, showed that private Palestinian land was taken and given to Israeli settlers by the World Zionist Organization. The land in question had been ruled off-limits by Israel. The World Zionist Organization had been acting as an agent of the government in assigning land to Jewish settlers in the Israeli-occupied territories. The Israeli government, to avoid responsibilities under international law, used the World Zionist Organization to settle its citizens in the territory occupied in 1967. The document concerns several homes in the Israeli settlement of Ofra, approximately 15 miles north of Jerusalem in the West Bank. The Israeli Justice Ministry confirmed that the land in question was owned by Palestinians and that the nine houses in question had been ordered demolished. Dror Etkes of Yesh Din said "It's an international organization that is, simply put, stealing land."[8]


  1. ^ See Chapter 2: The Seven Years of Herzl of Zionism – The First 120 Years by the Jewish Agency.
  2. ^ "ZIONISM- Timeline of Events". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  3. ^ Marvine Howe (July 28, 1993). "Obituary:Dr. Simon Greenberg, 92, Rabbi And Conservative Jewish Leader". New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2011. 
  4. ^ Jerusalem Post: WZO gets 1st religious-Zionist chairman
  5. ^ "Chapter Two The Seven Years of Herzl". Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  6. ^ "Jerusalem Program 2004". Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  7. ^ "The Herzl Award 2004-2005". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  8. ^ Teibel, Amy (21 June 2009). "Lawsuit brings murky West Bank land deals to light". Associated Press. 

External links[edit]