World record progression 400 metres freestyle

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The first world record in the men's 400 metres freestyle in long course (50 metres) swimming was recognised by the International Swimming Federation (FINA) in 1908. In the short course (25 metres) swimming events the world's governing body recognizes world records since 3 March 1991.

Men[edit]

Long course[edit]

# TIME SWIMMER DATE EVENT PLACE
011 5:36.85:36.8 Taylor, HenryUnited Kingdom Henry Taylor 16 Jul 1908 1908 Summer Olympics United Kingdom London, United Kingdom ?
022 5:35.85:35.8 Battersby, ThomasUnited Kingdom Thomas Battersby 21 Sep 1911 ? United Kingdom London, United Kingdom ?
033 5:29.05:29.0 Kenyery, AlajosHungary Alajos Kenyery 21 Apr 1912 ? Germany Magdeburg, Germany ?
044 5:28.45:28.4 Las-Torres, BélaHungary Béla Las-Torres 5 Jun 1912 ? Hungary Budapest, Hungary ?
055 5:24.45:24.4 Hodgson, GeorgeCanada George Hodgson 14 Jul 1912 1912 Summer Olympics Sweden Stockholm, Sweden ?
066 5:21.65:21.6 Hatfield, JackUnited Kingdom Jack Hatfield 26 Sep 1912 ? United Kingdom London, United Kingdom ?
077 5:14.65:14.6 Ross, NormanUnited States Norman Ross 9 Oct 1919 ? United States Los Angeles, USA ?
088 5:14.45:14.4 Ross, NormanUnited States Norman Ross 25 Sep 1921 ? United States Brighton Beach, USA [1]
099 5:11.85:11.8 Borg, ArneSweden Arne Borg 9 Apr 1922 ? Sweden Stockholm, Sweden ?
1010 5:06.65:06.6 Weissmuller, JohnnyUnited States Johnny Weissmuller 22 Jun 1922 ? United States Honolulu, USA ?
1111 4:57.04:57.0 Weissmuller, JohnnyUnited States Johnny Weissmuller 6 Mar 1923 ? United States New Haven, USA ?
1212 4:54.74:54.7 Borg, ArneSweden Arne Borg 9 Dec 1924 ? Sweden Stockholm, Sweden ?
1313 4:50.34:50.3 Borg, ArneSweden Arne Borg 11 Sep 1925 ? Sweden Stockholm, Sweden ?
1414 4:47.04:47.0 Taris, JeanFrance Jean Taris 16 Apr 1931 ? France Paris, France ?
1515 4:46.44:46.4 Makino, ShozoJapan Shozo Makino 14 Aug 1933 ? Japan Tokyo, Japan ?
1616 4:38.74:38.7 Medica, JackUnited States Jack Medica 30 Aug 1934 ? United States Honolulu, USA ?
1717 4:38.54:38.5 Smith, BillUnited States Bill Smith 13 May 1941 ? United States Honolulu, USA ?
1818 4:35.24:35.2 Jany, AlexFrance Alex Jany 12 Sep 1947 ? Monaco Monte Carlo, Monaco ?
1919 4:34.64:34.6 Furuhashi, HironoshinJapan Hironoshin Furuhashi 24 Jul 1949 ? Japan Tokyo, Japan ?
2020 4:33.34:33.3 Furuhashi, HironoshinJapan Hironoshin Furuhashi 18 Aug 1949 ? United States Los Angeles, USA ?
2121 4:33.14:33.1 Marshall, JohnAustralia John Marshall 11 Mar 1950 ? United States New Haven, USA ?
2222 4:29.54:29.5 Marshall, JohnAustralia John Marshall 1 Apr 1950 ? United States New Haven, USA ?
2323 4:26.94:26.9 Marshall, JohnAustralia John Marshall 24 Mar 1951 ? United States New Haven, USA ?
2424 4:26.74:26.7 Konno, FordUnited States Ford Konno 3 Apr 1954 ? United States New Haven, USA ?
2625 4:27.04:27.0 Rose, MurrayAustralia Murray Rose 27 Oct 1956 ? Australia Melbourne, Australia ?
2526 4:25.94:25.9 Rose, MurrayAustralia Murray Rose 12 Jan 1957 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
2727 4:25.94:25.9 Konrads, JohnAustralia John Konrads 15 Jan 1958 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
2828 4:21.84:21.8 Konrads, JohnAustralia John Konrads 12 Jan 1959 ? Australia Melbourne, Australia ?
2929 4:19.04:19.0 Konrads, JohnAustralia John Konrads 7 Feb 1959 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
3030 4:16.64:16.6 Yamanaka, TsuyoshiJapan Tsuyoshi Yamanaka 26 Jul 1959 ? Japan Osaka, Japan ?
3131 4:15.94:15.9 Konrads, JohnAustralia John Konrads 23 Feb 1960 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
3232 4:13.44:13.4 Rose, MurrayAustralia Murray Rose 17 Aug 1962 ? United States Chicago, USA ?
3333 4:12.74:12.7 Schollander, DonUnited States Don Schollander 31 Jul 1964 USA Summer Nationals United States Los Altos, USA [2]
3434 4:12.24:12.2 Schollander, DonUnited States Don Schollander 15 Oct 1964 1964 Summer Olympics Japan Tokyo, Japan ?
3535 4:11.84:11.8 Nelson, JohnUnited States John Nelson 18 Aug 1966 ? United States Lincoln, USA ?
3636 4:11.64:11.6 Schollander, DonUnited States Don Schollander 18 Aug 1966 ? United States Lincoln, USA ?
3737 4:11.14:11.1 Wiegand, FrankEast Germany Frank Wiegand 25 Aug 1966 ? Netherlands Utrecht, The Netherlands ?
3838 4:10.64:10.6 Spitz, MarkUnited States Mark Spitz 25 Jun 1967 ? United States Haywood, USA ?
3939 4:09.24:09.2 Mosconi, AlainFrance Alain Mosconi 4 Jul 1967 ? Monaco Monaco, Monaco ?
4040 4:08.84:08.8 Spitz, MarkUnited States Mark Spitz 7 Jul 1967 Santa Clara International Invitation Swim Meet United States Santa Clara, USA [3]
4141 4:08.24:08.2 Charlton, GregUnited States Greg Charlton 28 Aug 1967 ? Japan Tokyo, Japan ?
4242 4:07.74:07.7 Spitz, MarkUnited States Mark Spitz 23 Jun 1968 16th Annual Swimming Relays United States Haywood, USA ?
4343 4:06.54:06.5 Hutton, RalphCanada Ralph Hutton 1 Aug 1968 AAU National Swimming Championships United States Lincoln, USA ?
4444 4:04.04:04.0 Fassnacht, Hans-JoachimWest Germany Hans-Joachim Fassnacht 14 Aug 1969 AAU National Swimming Championships United States Louisville, USA ?
4545 4:02.84:02.8 Kinsella, JohnUnited States John Kinsella 20 Aug 1970 AAU National Swimming Championships (elec. 4:02.81) United States Los Angeles, USA ?
4646 4:02.64:02.6 Larsson, GunnarSweden Gunnar Larsson 7 Sep 1970 European Swimming Championships Spain Barcelona, Spain ?
4747 4:02.14:02.1 McBreen, TomUnited States Tom McBreen 25 Aug 1971 AAU Nationals (elec. 4:02.08) United States Houston, USA ?
4848 4:01.74:01.7 Cooper, BradAustralia Brad Cooper 12 Feb 1972 AUS Nationals & Olympic Trials Australia Brisbane, Australia ?
4949 4:00.114:00.11 Krumpholz, KurtUnited States Kurt Krumpholz 4 Aug 1972 USA Olympic Trials United States Chicago, USA ?
5050 3:58.183:58.18 DeMont, RickUnited States Rick DeMont 9 Sep 1973 FINA World Championships Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Belgrade, SFR Yugoslavia ?
5151 3:56.963:56.96 Shaw, TimUnited States Tim Shaw 22 Aug 1974 AAU National Swimming Championships United States Concord, USA [4]
5252 3:54.693:54.69 Shaw, TimUnited States Tim Shaw 22 Aug 1974 AAU National Swimming Championships United States Concord, USA [4]
5353 3:53.953:53.95 Shaw, TimUnited States Tim Shaw 19 Jun 1975 USA World Championship Trials United States Long Beach, USA ?
5454 3:53.313:53.31 Shaw, TimUnited States Tim Shaw 20 Aug 1975 AAU National Swimming Championships United States Kansas City, USA ?
5555 3:53.083:53.08 Goodell, BrianUnited States Brian Goodell 18 Jun 1976 USA Olympic Trials United States Long Beach, USA [5]
5656 3:51.933:51.93 Goodell, BrianUnited States Brian Goodell 22 Jul 1976 1976 Summer Olympics Canada Montreal, Canada ?
5757 3:51.563:51.56 Goodell, BrianUnited States Brian Goodell 27 Aug 1978 USAvGDR Dual Meet West Berlin West Berlin ?
5858 3:51.413:51.41 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 6 Apr 1979 URSvGDR Junior meet East Germany Potsdam, East Germany ?
5959 3:51.403:51.40 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 19 Aug 1979 URSvCAN Duel Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union ?
6060 3:51.203:51.20 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 29 Feb 1980 URS Winter Nationals East Germany Potsdam, East Germany ?
6161 3:50.493:50.49 Szmidt, PeterCanada Peter Szmidt 15 Jul 1980 Canadian Nationals & Olympic Trials Canada Etobicoke, Canada ?
6262 3:49.573:49.57 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 12 Mar 1982 URSvGDR Duel Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union ?
6262= 3:49.573:49.57 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 14 Jul 1982 URS Nationals Soviet Union Kiev, Soviet Union ?
6363 3:48.323:48.32 Salnikov, VladimirSoviet Union Vladimir Salnikov 19 Feb 1983 URS Winter Nationals Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union ?
6464 3:47.803:47.80 Groß, MichaelWest Germany Michael Groß 27 Jun 1985 FRG Nationals & European Championship Trials West Germany Wuppertal, West Germany ?
6565 3:47.383:47.38 Wojdat, ArturPoland Artur Wojdat 25 Mar 1988 USA Spring Nationals United States Orlando, USA [6]
6666 3:46.953:46.95 Dassler, UweEast Germany Uwe Dassler 23 Sep 1988 1988 Summer Olympics South Korea Seoul, South Korea ?
6767 3:46.473:46.47 Perkins, KierenAustralia Kieren Perkins 3 Apr 1992 Australian Olympic Trials Australia Canberra, Australia ?
6868 3:45.003:45.00 Sadovyi, Yevgeny
Olympic flag.svg
Yevgeny Sadovyi
29 Jul 1992 1992 Summer Olympics Spain Barcelona, Spain ?
6969 3:43.803:43.80 Perkins, KierenAustralia Kieren Perkins 11 Sep 1994 1994 World Championships Italy Rome, Italy ?
7070 3:41.833:41.83 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 22 Aug 1999 1999 Pan Pacific Championships Australia Sydney, Australia ?
7171 3:41.333:41.33 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 13 May 2000 Australian Olympic Trials Australia Sydney, Australia ?
7272 3:40.593:40.59 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 16 Sep 2000 2000 Summer Olympics Australia Sydney, Australia ?
7373 3:40.173:40.17 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 22 Jul 2001 2001 World Championships Japan Fukuoka, Japan ?
7474 3:40.083:40.08 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 30 Jul 2002 2002 Commonwealth Games United Kingdom Manchester, United Kingdom ?
7575 3:40.073:40.07 Biedermann, PaulGermany Paul Biedermann 26 Jul 2009 2009 World Aquatics Championships Italy Rome, Italy ?

Short course[edit]

# TIME SWIMMER DATE EVENT PLACE
011 3:40.463:41.74 Lamberti, GiorgioItaly Giorgio Lamberti 13 Feb 1988 German Invitational Germany Bonn, Germany ?
012 3:40.463:40.81 Holmertz, AndersSweden Anders Holmertz 4 Feb 1990 Paris Open France Paris, France ?
013 3:40.463:40.46 Loader, DanyonNew Zealand Danyon Loader 11 Feb 1995 World Cup United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom ?
024 3:39.823:39.82 Thorpe, IanAustralia Ian Thorpe 25 Sep 1998 AUS SC Nationals Australia Perth, WA, Australia ?
035 3:35.013:35.01 Hackett, GrantAustralia Grant Hackett 2 Apr 1999 World SC Championships Hong Kong Hong Kong ?
046 3:34.583:34.58 Hackett, GrantAustralia Grant Hackett 18 Jul 2002 Grand Prix Australia Sydney, Australia ?
057 3:34.583:32.77 Biedermann, PaulGermany Paul Biedermann 14 Nov 2009 World Cup Germany Berlin, Germany [7]
068 3:32.773:32.25 Agnel, YannickFrance Yannick Agnel 15 Nov 2012 French Nationals France Angers, France [8]

Women[edit]

Long course[edit]

# TIME SWIMMER DATE EVENT PLACE
011 6:30.26:30.2 Bleibtrey, EtheldaUnited States Ethelda Bleibtrey 16 Aug 1919 ? United States New York, USA ?
022 6:16.66:16.6 James, HildaUnited Kingdom Hilda James 29 Jul 1921 ? United Kingdom Leeds, United Kingdom ?
033 5:53.25:53.2 Ederle, GertrudeUnited States Gertrude Ederle 4 Aug 1922 ? United States Indianapolis, USA ?
044 5:51.45:51.4 Norelius, MarthaUnited States Martha Norelius 23 Jan 1927 ? United States Coral Gables, USA ?
055 5:49.65:49.6 Norelius, MarthaUnited States Martha Norelius 30 Jun 1928 ? United States New York City, USA ?
066 5:42.85:42.8 Norelius, MarthaUnited States Martha Norelius 6 Aug 1928 Olympic Games Netherlands Amsterdam, The Netherlands ?
077 5:39.25:39.2 Norelius, MarthaUnited States Martha Norelius 27 Aug 1928 ? Austria Vienna, Austria ?
088 5:31.05:31.0 Madison, HeleneUnited States Helene Madison 3 Feb 1931 ? United States Seattle, USA ?
099 5:28.55:28.5 Madison, HeleneUnited States Helene Madison 13 Aug 1932 ? United States Los Angeles, USA ?
1010 5:16.05:16.0 den Ouden, WillyNetherlands Willy den Ouden 12 Jul 1934 ? Netherlands Rotterdam, The Netherlands ?
1111 5:14.25:14.2 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 10 Feb 1937 ? Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark ?
1212 5:14.05:14.0 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 3 Oct 1937 ? Belgium Ghent, Belgium ?
1313 5:12.45:12.4 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 14 Nov 1937 ? Germany Magdeburg, Germany ?
1414 5:11.05:11.0 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 12 Dec 1937 ? Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark ?
1515 5:08.25:08.2 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 16 Jan 1938 ? Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark ?
1616 5:06.15:06.1 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 1 Aug 1938 ? Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark ?
1717 5:05.45:05.4 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 8 Sep 1940 ? Denmark Svendborg, Denmark ?
1818 5:00.15:00.1 Hveger, RagnhildDenmark Ragnhild Hveger 15 Sep 1940 ? Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark ?
1919 4:50.84:50.8 Crapp, LorraineAustralia Lorraine Crapp 25 Aug 1956 ? Australia Townsville, Australia ?
2020 4:47.24:47.2 Crapp, LorraineAustralia Lorraine Crapp 20 Oct 1956 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
2121 4:45.44:45.4 Konrads, IlsaAustralia Ilsa Konrads 9 Jan 1960 ? Australia Sydney, Australia ?
2222 4:44.54:44.5 von Saltza, ChrisUnited States Chris von Saltza 5 Aug 1960 USA Olympic Trials United States Detroit, USA [9]
2323 4:42.04:42.0 Ramenofsky, MarilynUnited States Marilyn Ramenofsky 11 Jul 1964 ? United States Los Altos, USA ?
2424 4:41.74:41.7 Ramenofsky, MarilynUnited States Marilyn Ramenofsky 1 Aug 1964 USA Summer Nationals United States Los Altos, USA [2]
2525 4:39.54:39.5 Ramenofsky, MarilynUnited States Marilyn Ramenofsky 31 Aug 1964 ? United States New York City, USA ?
2626 4:39.24:39.2 Randall, MarthaUnited States Martha Randall 14 Aug 1965 ? United States Maumee, USA ?
2727 4:38.04:38.0 Randall, MarthaUnited States Martha Randall 26 Aug 1965 ? Monaco Monaco, Monaco ?
2828 4:36.84:36.8 Kruse, PamUnited States Pam Kruse 30 Jun 1967 ? United States Fort Lauderdale, USA ?
2929 4:36.44:36.4 Kruse, PamUnited States Pam Kruse 7 Jul 1967 Santa Clara International United States Santa Clara, USA [3]
3030 4:32.64:32.6 Meyer, DebbieUnited States Debbie Meyer 27 Jul 1967 Pan American Games Canada Winnipeg, Canada ?
3131 4:29.04:29.0 Meyer, DebbieUnited States Debbie Meyer 18 Aug 1967 USA Nationals United States Philadelphia, USA ?
3232 4:26.74:26.7 Meyer, DebbieUnited States Debbie Meyer 1 Aug 1968 USA Nationals United States Lincoln, USA ?
3333 4:24.54:24.5 Meyer, DebbieUnited States Debbie Meyer 25 Aug 1968 USA Olympic Trials (elec. 4:24.55) United States Los Angeles, USA [10]
3434 4:24.34:24.3 Meyer, DebbieUnited States Debbie Meyer 20 Aug 1970 USA Nationals (elec. 4:24.24) United States Los Angeles, USA ?
3535 4:22.64:22.6 Moras, KarenAustralia Karen Moras 30 Apr 1971 Coca Cola International United Kingdom London, United Kingdom ?
3636 4:21.24:21.2 Gould, ShaneAustralia Shane Gould 9 Jul 1971 Santa Clara Invitational United States Santa Clara, USA ?
3737 4:19.044:19.04 Gould, ShaneAustralia Shane Gould 30 Aug 1972 Olympic Games West Germany Munich, West Germany ?
3838 4:18.074:18.07 Rothhammer, KeenaUnited States Keena Rothhammer 22 Aug 1973 USA Nationals United States Louisville, USA ?
3939 4:17.334:17.33 Greenwood, HeatherUnited States Heather Greenwood 28 Jun 1974 Santa Clara Invitational United States Santa Clara, USA ?
4040 4:15.774:15.77 Babashoff, ShirleyUnited States Shirley Babashoff 22 Aug 1974 USA Nationals United States Concord, USA ?
4141 4:14.764:14.76 Babashoff, ShirleyUnited States Shirley Babashoff 20 Jun 1975 USA World Championships Trials United States Long Beach, USA ?
4242 4:11.694:11.69 Krause, BarbaraEast Germany Barbara Krause 3 Jun 1976 GDR Olympic Trials East Germany East Berlin, East Germany ?
4343 4:09.894:09.89 Thümer, PetraEast Germany Petra Thümer 20 Jul 1976 Olympic Games Canada Montreal, Canada ?
4444 4:08.914:08.91 Thümer, PetraEast Germany Petra Thümer 17 Aug 1977 European Championships Sweden Jönköping, Sweden ?
4545 4:07.664:07.66 Linehan, KimUnited States Kim Linehan 2 Aug 1978 USA Summer Nationals United States The Woodlands, USA [11]
4646 4:06.284:06.28 Wickham, TraceyAustralia Tracey Wickham 24 Aug 1978 World Championships West Berlin West Berlin ?
4747 4:05.454:05.45 Evans, JanetUnited States Janet Evans 20 Dec 1987 US Open United States Orlando, USA ?
4848 4:03.854:03.85 Evans, JanetUnited States Janet Evans 22 Sep 1988 Olympic Games South Korea Seoul, South Korea ?
4949 4:03.034:03.03 Manaudou, LaureFrance Laure Manaudou 12 May 2006 French Championships France Tours, France ?
5050 4:02.134:02.13 Manaudou, LaureFrance Laure Manaudou 6 Aug 2006 European Championships Hungary Budapest, Hungary ?
5151 4:01.534:01.53 Pellegrini, Federica Italy Federica Pellegrini 24 Mar 2008 European Championships Netherlands Eindhoven, Netherlands ?
5252 4:00.664:00.66 Jackson, Joanne United Kingdom Joanne Jackson 16 Mar 2009 British Championships United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom [12]
5353 4:00.414:00.41 Pellegrini, Federica Italy Federica Pellegrini 27 Jun 2009 Mediterranean Games Italy Pescara, Italy [13]
5454 3:59.153:59.15 Pellegrini, Federica Italy Federica Pellegrini 26 Jul 2009 World Championships Italy Rome, Italy ?

Short course[edit]

# TIME SWIMMER DATE EVENT PLACE
011 4:02.054:02.05 Strauss, AstridEast Germany Astrid Strauss 1984 ? ? [14]
022 4:00.034:00.03 Poll, ClaudiaCosta Rica Claudia Poll 18 Apr 1997 World Championships Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden [14]
033 3.59.533:59.53 Benko, LindsayUnited States Lindsay Benko 26 Jan 2003 World Cup Germany Berlin, Germany
044 3.56.793:56.79 Manaudou, LaureFrance Laure Manaudou 10 Dec 2005 European Championships Italy Trieste, Italy
055 3.56.093:56.09 Manaudou, LaureFrance Laure Manaudou 9 Dec 2006 European Championships Finland Helsinki, Finland
066 3.54.923:54.92 Jackson, JoanneUnited Kingdom Joanne Jackson 8 Aug 2009 British Grand Prix United Kingdom Leeds, UK
077 3:54.85 3:54.85 Muffat, CamilleFrance Camille Muffat 24 Nov 2012 European Championships France Chartres, FRA [15]
088 3:54.52 3:54.52 Belmonte, MireiaSpain Mireia Belmonte 11 Aug 2013 World Cup Germany Berlin, GER [16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "3 Eight Swimming Records Are Set". The New York Times. 1921-11-26. p. 20. 
  2. ^ a b Results from 1964 US Summer Nationals
  3. ^ a b "3 World Records Set in Coast Swim". The New York Times. 1967-07-08. p. S20. 
  4. ^ a b "3 Swim Marks Set By Shaw, Babashoff". The New York Times. 1974-08-23. p. 26. 
  5. ^ Results from 1976 US Olympic Trials
  6. ^ Results from 988 US Spring Nationals
  7. ^ "Word Cup 2009 Berlin Results Men's 400m Freestyle". omegatiming.com. 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  8. ^ "Flash! Yannick Agnel Downs World Record in 400 Free at French Nationals". Swimming World Magazine. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  9. ^ Results from 1960 US Olympic Trials
  10. ^ Results from 1968 US Olympic Trials
  11. ^ Results from 1978 US Summer Nationals
  12. ^ "Jackson claims new world record". BBC News. 2009-03-16. 
  13. ^ Federica Pellegrini Edges World Record in 400 Free
  14. ^ a b More Records Fall In Short-course Swimn by Jim Harding, 1997-04-20.
  15. ^ "Flash! Camille Muffat Downs 400 Free World Record; Vlad Morozov Posts Textile Best". Swimming World Magazine. 24 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "Women's 400m Freestyle Result". Omega Timing. 11 August 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.