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The library is a single large room built over an open colonnade on the ground floor of Nevile's Court. The floor of the library proper within the upper storey lies several feet below the external division between the two storeys, reconciling the demands of use with the harmony of architectural proportion. It is credited as being one of the first libraries to be built with large windows to give comfortable light levels to aid readers.
The book stacks are arranged in rows perpendicular to the walls under the intervals between the windows. At the end of each stack is a fine limewood carving by Grinling Gibbons, and above these are plaster cast busts of notable writers through the ages. Other marble busts standing on plinths depict notable member of the college and are mostly carved by Louis-François Roubiliac. A later addition is a full size statue of Lord Byron carved by Bertel Thorvaldsen, originally offered to Westminster Abbey for inclusion in Poets' Corner, but refused due to the poet's reputation for immorality.
The library contains many notable rare books and manuscripts, many bequeathed by past members of the college.
Included in the collection are
- Isaac Newton's first edition copy of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica with handwritten notes for the second edition.
- An eighth-century copy of the Epistles of St Paul
- About 1250 medieval manuscripts including the great 12th-century Eadwine Psalter from Christ Church, Canterbury and the 13th-century Anglo-Norman Trinity Apocalypse 
- A. A. Milne's manuscript of Winnie-the-Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner.
- The Capell collection of early Shakespeare editions
- A collection of autograph poems by John Milton
- A 14th-century manuscript of The Vision of Piers Plowman
- Several works printed by William Caxton, including the first book printed in English and the first dated printed book produced in England
- Several notebooks written by Ludwig Wittgenstein
- Handwritten notes by Robert Oppenheimer describing the "Trinity" atomic bomb test in New Mexico, U.S.
- Ramanujan's "lost notebook"
- 1620 edition of William Morgan's translation of the bible into Welsh
The library is open to the public, but opening times  are limited. There is no admission charge for the Wren Library.
- Newton, Isaac. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)".
- The Western manuscripts in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge by M.R. James, Cambridge University Press, 1900, 3 vols.
- Trinity College pages for the Wren Library
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