Wright R-1820

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R-1820
Wright R-1820 G.jpg
Curtiss-Wright R-1820 Cyclone Radial Engine
Type Radial engine
National origin United States
Manufacturer Wright Aeronautical
First run 1930's
Major applications B-17 Flying Fortress
Variants Shvetsov M-25
Developed into Wright R-2600
Wright R-3350

The Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 was an American radial engine developed by Curtiss-Wright, widely used on aircraft in the 1930s through 1950s.

Design and development[edit]

The R-1820 Cyclone 9 represented a further development of the Wright P-2 engine dating back to 1925. Featuring a greater displacement and a host of improvements, the R-1820 entered production in 1931. The engine remained in production well into the 1950s.

The R-1820 was built under licence by Lycoming, Pratt & Whitney Canada, and also, during World War II, by the Studebaker Corporation. The Soviet Union had purchased a license for the design, and the Shvetsov OKB was formed to produce the engine as the M-25. In Spain the R-1820 was license-built as the Hispano-Suiza 9V or Hispano-Wright 9V.[1]

The R-1820 was at the heart of many famous aircraft including the early Douglas airliners (prototype DC-1, the DC-2, earliest civilian versions of the DC-3, and the limited-production DC-5), B-17 Flying Fortress, and SBD Dauntless bombers, the early versions of the Polikarpov I-16 fighter (as M-25), and the Piasecki H-21 helicopter.

The R-1820 also found limited use in armored vehicles in two forms. The G-200 was a nine-cylinder gas-burning radial that developed 900 hp (670 kW) @ 2,300 rpm and powered the M6 Heavy Tank. The Wright RD-1820 was converted to a diesel by Caterpillar Inc. as the D-200 and produced 450 hp (340 kW) @ 2,000 rpm in the M4A6 Sherman.

Variants[edit]

Unit numbers ending in/with W indicate engines fitted with water-methanol emergency power boost systems.

R-1820-04
700 hp (522 kW)
R-1820-1
575 hp (429 kW)
R-1820-4
770 hp (574 kW)
R-1820-19
675 hp (503 kW)
R-1820-22
950 hp (708 kW)
R-1820-25
675 hp (503 kW) , 750 hp (559 kW), 775 hp (578 kW)
R-1820-32
1,000 hp (750 kW)
XR-1820-32
800 hp (596 kW)
R-1820-33
775 hp (578 kW)
R-1820-34
940 hp (701 kW) , 950 hp (708 kW)
R-1820-34A
1,200 hp (895 kW)
R-1820-40/42
1,100 hp (820 kW), 1,200 hp (895 kW)
R-1820-41
850 hp (634 kW)
R-1820-45
800 hp (596 kW) , 930 hp (694 kW)
R-1820-50
850 hp (634 kW)
R-1820-52
1,000 hp (750 kW)
R-1820-53
930 hp (694 kW), 1,000 hp (750 kW)
R-1820-56
1,200 hp (895 kW), 1,350 hp (1,007 kW)
R-1820-57
1,060 hp (790 kW)
R-1820-60
1,200 hp (895 kW)
R-1820-62
1,350 hp (1,007 kW)
R-1820-66
1,200 hp (895 kW), 1,350 hp (1,007 kW)
R-1820-67/69
1,200 hp (895 kW), Fitted with turbosupercharger
R-1820-72W
1,350 hp (1,007 kW) , 1,425 hp (1,063 kW)
R-1820-74W
1,500 hp (1,118 kW)
R-1820-76A,B,C,D
1,425 hp (1,063 kW)
R-1820-78
700 hp (522 kW)
R-1820-80
700 hp (522 kW), 1,535 hp (1,145 kW)
R-1820-82WA
1,525 hp (1,137 kW)
R-1820-86
1,425 hp (1,063 kW)
R-1820-97
1,200 hp (895 kW), Fitted with turbosupercharger
R-1820-103
1,425 hp (1,063 kW)
SGR-1820-F3
710 hp (529 kW) , 720 hp (537 kW)
SGR-1820-F2
720 hp (537 kW)
R-1820-F53
770 hp (574 kW)
R-1820-F56
790 hp (589 kW)
GR-1820-G2
1,000 hp (750 kW)
R-1820-G3
840 hp (626 kW)
R-1820-G5
950 hp (708 kW)
R-1820-G101
1,100 hp (820 kW)
R-1820-G102
775 hp (578 kW)
GR-1820-G102A
1,100 hp (820 kW)
R-1820-G102A
1,100 hp (820 kW)
R-1820-G102A
1,100 hp (820 kW)
R-1820-G202A
1,200 hp (895 kW)
R-1820-G103
1,000 hp (750 kW)
R-1820-G105
1,000 hp (750 kW)
R-1820-G205A
1,200 hp (895 kW)

Hispano-Suiza 9V[edit]

Hispano-Suiza 9V
licence-built R-1820[2]
Hispano-Suiza 9Vr
9V with reduction gear
Hispano-Suiza 9Vb
Hispano-Suiza 9Vbr
variant of the 9Vb with reduction gear[2]
Hispano-Suiza 9Vbrs
variant of the 9Vb with reduction gear and supercharger
Hispano-Suiza 9Vbs
variant of the 9Vb with supercharger[2]
Hispano-Suiza 9Vd
variant of the 9V[2]
Hispano-Suiza 9V-10
429 kW (575 hp) driving fixed-pitch propeller
Hispano-Suiza 9V-11
as -10 but RH rotation
Hispano-Suiza 9V-16
480 kW (650 hp) driving variable-pitch propeller, LH rotation
Hispano-Suiza 9V-17
as -16 but RH rotation

Applications[edit]

Vehicles[edit]

Engines on display[edit]

Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 engine of restored Douglas DC-3 "Flagship Knoxville" at American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum[3]

Preserved Wright R-1820 engines are on display at the following museums:

Specifications (GR-1820-G2)[edit]

Data from [4]

General characteristics

  • Type: Nine-cylinder single-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine
  • Bore: 6 18 in (155.6 mm)
  • Stroke: 6 78 in (174.6 mm)
  • Displacement: 1,823 in³ (29.88 L)
  • Length: 47.76 in (1,213 mm)
  • Diameter: 54.25 in (1,378 mm)
  • Dry weight: 1,184 lb (537 kg)

Components

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Comparable engines
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lage(2004) pp.157-162
  2. ^ a b c d Hartmann, Gustave. Hispano-Suiza, Les moteurs de tous les Records.pdf (in French). 
  3. ^ May, Joseph (8 January 2013). "Flagship Knoxville — an American Airlines Douglas DC-3". Hearst Seattle Media. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  4. ^ Tsygulev (1939). Aviacionnye motory voennykh vozdushnykh sil inostrannykh gosudarstv (Авиационные моторы военных воздушных сил иностранных государств) (in Russian). Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe voennoe izdatelstvo Narkomata Oborony Soyuza SSR.