Wuhua dialect

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Wuhua
五華話
Native to Southern China
Region Wuhua
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Wuhua (simplified Chinese: 五华话; traditional Chinese: 五華話; pinyin: Wǔhuá huà) is a major dialect of Hakka Chinese. It is characterized by the pronunciation of many voiced Middle Chinese qu-sheng (4th Tone) syllables of Moiyen dialect in the shang-sheng (3rd Tone). The tone-level of the yang-ping is a rising /13/ instead of the low-level /11/ usually found in Moiyen. In Wuhua-dialect-related areas of Northern Bao'an and Eastern Dongguan the same Moiyen dialect tone level of the yang-ping is found , 2 sets of fricatives and affricates (z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, s / ts’ / s and “see note”) appear, similar to Mandarin. Also distinctive are the "y" rime found in the Yuebei (Northern Guangdong) Hakka group and Sichuan group, and retroflexed initials in (Zhi series) “Knowledge”, (Xiao group) “Dawn”, part of (Xi) “Brook”, poor usage of medials in Grade III and closed rimes. Wuhua dialect exhibits “latter-word” tone sandhi. Phonologically Wuhua exhibits a north–south separation while lexically it also exhibits an east- and middle-Guangdong separation, showing relatedness to inland and coastal Hakka dialects. “Lexically it shows east-west separation in Wuhua, which is quite different from the phonological point of view. And outwardly, lexicons in Wuhua show that Wuhua dialect is on the diglossia that separates east and middle Guangdong, and that distinguishes coast-side dialects from inland ones.” Wuhua dialect is transitional, no matter how we see it historically or geographically. Otherwise the Wuhua Hakka dialect is very similar to the prestige Moiyen (Meixian) Hakka dialect.

Wuhua can be found in Wuhua County, Jiexi County, Northern Bao'An (formerly Xin'An (Sin-On), presently called Shenzhen), Eastern Dongguan, in Yuebei or Northern Guangdong around Shaoguan, in Sichuan and Tonggu, Jiangxi. All of these places have the tonal characteristics of Wuhua.

Wuhua tones
Tone number Hakka Tone name Chinese characters IPA Description
1 yin ping 陰平 ˦ high
2 yang ping 陽平 ˩˧ low rising
3 shang ˧˩ low falling
4 qu ˥˧ high falling
5 yin ru 陰入 ˩ extra low
6 yang ru 陽入 ˥ extra high

Wuhua rimes[edit]

Most rimes are the same with Moiyen, except for:

Moiyen Wuhua
uon on
ian an
ien
i ui
in un
uan has lost the "u" medial, example: "kan"
uai
uon
ien en