Wyomissing Area School District

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Wyomissing Area School District
Map of Berks County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
map of public school districts Berks County showing Wyomissing Area School District
Address
630 Evans Ave
Wyomissing, Pennsylvania, Berks County, 19610-2636
United States
Information
School board 9 locally elected members
Superintendent Mrs Julia R Vicente salary $137,500. (2012)[1]
School number (610) 374-0739
Administrator Matthew S Stem, Asst Superintendent

Christine L Stafford, Business Manager
Wilson, Victoria, Psychologist, $85,400

Principal Jones, Corey, $105,000
Vice principal Stoltzfus, Corbin, $90,000
Head of school Julia, Vicente
Staff 184 non teaching staff
Faculty 105 teachers (2012-13)[2]
Grades K-12
Age range 5-19
Pupils 1,858 pupils (2012-13),[3] 1,858 pupils (2009-10) [4]
Kindergarten 126
Grade 1 124
Grade 2 137
Grade 3 138
Grade 4 138
Grade 5 153
Grade 6 156
Grade 7 170
Grade 8 155
Grade 9 143
Grade 10 157
Grade 11 140
Grade 12 167
Other Enrollment projected to be 1,685 pupils in 2020[5]
Newspaper The Chariot
Budget $30,795,088 (2013-14)[6]

$29,800,473 (2012-13)[7]
$30,083,748 (2011-12)[8]
$30,351,798 (2010-11)[9]
$30,145,567 (2009-10)[10]
$28,775,018 (2008-09)[11]
$1,106349 (1966-67)[12]

Per pupil spending $14,714 (2008)
Per pupil spending $15,400.53 (2010)
Website

Wyomissing Area School District is a diminutive, suburban, public school district located in Berks County, Pennsylvania. The Wyomissing Area School District encompasses approximately 4 square miles (10 km2). The District is the smallest one operating in Berks County. According to 2000 federal census data, it serves a resident population of 12,440. By 2010, the district's population declined to 12,359 people.[13] In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $35,814, while the median family income was $70,875.[14] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [15] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[16] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[17]

According to District officials, in school year 2007-08 the Wyomissing Area School District provided basic educational services to 2,028 pupils through the employment of 171 teachers, 141 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 14 administrators. Wyomissing Area School District received more than $3.4 million in state funding in school year 2007-08.

Wyomissing Area School District operates three schools: Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School, West Reading Elementary Center, and Wyomissing Hills Elementary Center. The Districts is one of 19 public school districts operating in Berks County, Pennsylvania. The District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania. The West Reading School District and Wyomissing School District officially merged into the Wyomissing Area School over several years finalizing the process in 1969.

Governance[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve without compensation for a term of four years), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[18] The federal government controls programs it funds like: Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regrading renewal of the employment contract.

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the school board and district administration a "B-" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information and more.[19]

Academic achievement[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District was ranked 47th out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts by the Pittsburgh Business Times in 2013.[20] The ranking was based on student academic achievement as demonstrated on the last three years of the PSSAs for: reading, writing, math and science.[21] The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th and the 11th grade in high school. Adapted examinations are given to children in the special education programs.

  • 2012 - 50th [22]
  • 2008 - 61st[23]
  • 2007 - 53rd out of 501 school districts.[24]
Overachiever statewide ranking

In 2013, the Pittsburgh Business Times also reported an Overachievers Ranking for 498 Pennsylvania school districts. Wyomissing Area School District ranked 85th. In 2012, the District was 117th. [25] The editor describes the ranking as: "a ranking answers the question - which school districts do better than expectations based upon economics? This rank takes the Honor Roll rank and adds the percentage of students in the district eligible for free and reduced-price lunch into the formula. A district finishing high on this rank is smashing expectations, and any district above the median point is exceeding expectations."[26]

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Wyomissing Area School District achieved AYP status.[27] In 2011, Wyomissing Area School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[28] Wyomissing Area School District achieved AYP status each year since 2003.[29]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2012, Wyomissing Area District’s graduation rate was 92.7%.[30] In 2011, the graduation rate was 92.3%.[31] In 2010, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate. Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School's rate was 90% for 2010.[32]

According to traditional graduation rate calculations

High School[edit]

In 2013, Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School was recognized by US News and World Report as a Gold level high school in a nation wide school ranking.[37] The study was conducted by American Institutes for Research which examined how many students attained performance levels that exceed statistical expectations given the school's relative level of student poverty, as measured by state accountability test scores for all the school's students in the core subjects of reading and math. The study also examined the success rate for the school's least advantaged student groups (e.g., black, Hispanic, and economically disadvantaged students) that exceed state averages. The study included 752 high schools in Pennsylvania including traditional public schools, public charter schools and public magnet schools.[38] In Pennsylvania, 136 public high schools achieved a Bronze rating in 2012; 49 achieved a silver rating and 7 received a gold rating. The highest ranking went to Julia R. Masterman Laboratory and Demonstration School in the School District of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.

Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School is located at 630 Evans Avenue, Wyomissing. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011, the school reported an enrollment of 890 pupils in grades 7th through 12th, with 216 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. The school employed 52 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 17:1.[39] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 4 teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[40]

AYP History

In 2012, Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School declined to Corrective Action I AYP status due to chronic, low student achievement in both reading and math, in three subgroups (special education students, Latino students, low income students). In 2011, Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School declined to School Improvement II AYP status due to lagging reading achievement in subgroups.[41]

  • 2010 - Making Progress School Improvement level I[42]
  • 2009 - School Improvement level I due to low students achievement in subgroups in reading and math[43]
  • 2008 - declined to School Improvement level I AYP status due to lagging student achievement reading[44]
  • 2007 - declined to Warning status due to lagging student achievement[45]
  • 2003 to 2006 - achieved AYP status
PSSA results

11th Grade Reading:

  • 2012 - 80% on grade level, (9% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[46]
  • 2011 - 81% (5% below basic). State - 69.1% [47]
  • 2010 - 80% (11% below basic). State - 66% [48]
  • 2009 - 75% (12% below basic). State - 65% [49]
  • 2008 - 80% (9% below basic). State - 65% [50]
  • 2007 - 75% (10% below basic). State - 65% [51]

11th Grade Math:

  • 2012 - 70% on grade level (16% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[52]
  • 2011 - 72% (12% below basic). State - 60.3%[53]
  • 2010 - 78% (12% below basic). State - 59% [54]
  • 2009 - 65% (17% below basic). State - 56%[55]
  • 2008 - 62% (16% below basic). State - 56%[56]
  • 2007 - 61% (16% below basic). State - 53%[57]

11th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 54% on grade level (9% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[58]
  • 2011 - 57% (10% below basic). State - 40% [59]
  • 2010 - 65% (10% below basic). State - 39%
  • 2009 - 57% (9% below basic). State - 40% [60]
  • 2008 - 54% (7% below basic). State - 39% [61]

Science in Motion Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School does not took advantage of a state program called Science in Motion which brought college professors and sophisticated science equipment to the school to raise science awareness and to provide inquiry-based experiences for the students. The Science in Motion program was funded by a state appropriation and cost the school nothing to participate.[62] Elizabethtown College provides the science enrichment experiences to schools in the region.

College Remediation Rate[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 40% of the Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[63] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[64] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

Dual Enrollment The Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School does not offer the Pennsylvania Dual Enrollment program which permits students to earn deeply discounted college credits while still enrolled in high school. The program is offered through over 400 school districts.[65] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[66] Under state rules, other students that reside in the district, who attend a private school, a charter school or are homeschooled are eligible to participate in this program.[67] In 2010, Governor Edward Rendell eliminated the grants to students, from the Commonwealth, due to a state budget crisis.

Graduation requirements[edit]

Among Pennsylvania's 500 public school districts, graduation requirements widely vary. The Wyomissing Area School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 26.5 credits to graduate, including: math - 3 credits, English - 4 credits, social studies - 4 credits, science - 3 credits, Applied computers - 0.5 credits, Physical Education - 2 credits, Health - 0.25 credits, Family and Consumer science - 0.25 credits and electives 9.5 credits.[68]

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students were required to complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[69] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[70]

By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the Keystone Exams.[71] The exam is given at the end of the course. Keystone Exams replace the PSSAs for 11th grade.[72]

Students have several opportunities to pass the exam, with those who do not able to perform a project in order to graduate.[73][74] For the class of 2019, a Composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[75] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[76] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

AP Courses[edit]

The AP® participation rate at Wyomissing Area Junior/Senior High School is 66 percent. Wyomissing students who enroll in AP courses must pay for and take the exam. Students may take any AP exam without taking the AP course. Taking an AP test, however, cannot be substituted for course credit towards graduation.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2012, 135 Wyomissing Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 533. The Math average score was 534. The Writing average score was 526. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 106 Wyomissing Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 553. The Math average score was 554. The Writing average score was 549.[77] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[78] In the United States, 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[79]

Junior High School[edit]

PSSA Results:

8th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 61% on grade level (12% below basic). State - 59%
  • 2011 - 60% (21% below basic). State – 58.3%
  • 2010 - 68% (15% below basic). State – 57% [84]
  • 2009 - 68% (19% below basic). State - 55% [85]
  • 2008 - 77% (11% below basic). State - 52% [86]
  • 2007 - tested, but results not made public.

West Reading Elementary Center[edit]

West Reading Elementary Center is located at 421 Chestnut Street, West Reading. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011, the school reported an enrollment of 306 pupils in grades fifth and sixth, with 70 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price lunch due to family poverty. The school is a federally designated Title I school. The school employed 16.5 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 18.5:1.[87] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[88] The attendance rate was 96% in 2012. The attendance rate was 95% in 2011.[89]

In 2011 and 2012, West Reading Elementary Center achieved AYP status, even though 5 subgroups did not achieve AYP status including: low income students, special education students, and minority students (black, Latino & Asian). Just 50% of Latino students were on grade level in reading and mathematics.[90]

PSSA results

Wyomissing Hills Elementary Center[edit]

Wyomissing Hills Elementary Center is located at 110 Woodland Road, Wyomissing. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011, the school reported an enrollment of 682 pupils in grades kindergarten through 4th, with 139 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price lunch due to family poverty. The school is a federally designated Title I school. The school employed 36 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 18:1.[97] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[98] The attendance rate was 96% in 2011 and 2012. The school provides full day kindergarten to 100% of its students since 2004.

In 2012, Wyomissing Hills Elementary Center declined to Warning AYP status due to low reading achievement. In 2011, Wyomissing Hills Elementary Center achieved AYP status.[99]

PSSAs Results
4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 86% (3% below basic). State - 82%
  • 2011 - 92% (1% below basic). State - 82.9%
  • 2010 - 90% (4% below basic). State - 81%
  • 2009 - 94% (0% below basic). State - 83%
  • 2008 - 90% (8% below basic). State - 81%

Special education[edit]

In December 2011, Wyomissing Area School District administration reported that 297 pupils or 15.9% of the District's pupils received Special Education services, with 49% of the identified students having a specific learning disability.[107] In December 2009, the District administration reported that 291 pupils or 15.6% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 44.7% of the identified students having a specific learning disability. In December 2006, the District administration reported that 267 pupils or 13.9% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 57.7% of the identified students having a specific learning disability. Special education services in the Commonwealth are provided to students from ages three years to 21 years old. In the 2010-11 school year, the total student enrollment was more than 1.78 million students with approximately 275,000 students eligible for special education services. Among these students 18,959 were identified with mental retardation and 21,245 students with autism.[108] The largest group of students are identified as Specific Learning Disabilities 126,026 students (46.9 percent) and Speech or Language Impairments with 43,542 students (16.2 percent).

In order to comply with state and federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act rules and regulations, Wyomissing Area School District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress .[109] To identify students who may be eligible for special education services, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Special Education administration. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the district's Special Education Department.[110][111] The IDEA 2004 requires each school entity to publish a notice to parents, in newspapers or other media, including the student handbook and website regarding the availability of screening and intervention services and how to access them.

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[112] The Special Education funding structure is through the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds and state appropriations. IDEA funds are appropriated to the state on an annual basis and distributed through intermediate units (IUs) to school districts, while state funds are distributed directly to the districts. Total funds that are received by school districts are calculated through a formula. The Pennsylvania Department of Education oversees four appropriations used to fund students with special needs: Special Education; Approved Private Schools; Pennsylvania Chartered Schools for the Deaf and Blind; and Early Intervention. The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[113] Over identification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[114] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[115] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive that schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[116]

Wyomissing Area School District received a $742,988 supplement for special education services in 2010.[117] For the 2011-12, 2012–13 and 2013-14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[118][119] Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

Gifted education[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District Administration reported that 73 or 3.93% of its students were gifted in 2009. In 2014 that percentage grew, having the acceptable IQ be 130 or more. The average IQ of a gifted Wyomissing student was 133. Among Berks County school districts Oley Valley School District reported the highest gifted population percentage - 7.07%, while Schuylkill Valley School District reported the lowest gifted rate 1.55% of student population. The highest percentage of gifted students reported among all 500 school districts and 100 public charter schools in Pennsylvania was North Allegheny School District with 15.5% of its students identified as gifted.[120] By law, the District must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[121][122]

Wellness policy[edit]

Wyomissing Area School Board established a district wellness policy in May 2006.[123] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 – 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006." Most districts identified the superintendent and school foodservice director as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation.[124]

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[125] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Wyomissing Area School District offers a free school breakfast and free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[126] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[127]

In 2013, the USDA issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[128] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of the lunch.[129]

Wyomissing Area School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. Nurses are available in each building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day. Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[130] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.

Highmark Healthy High 5 grant[edit]

In 2011, Wyomissing Area School District received funding through a Highmark Healthy High 5 grant. Wyomissing Area Junior Senior High School received $7,440 which was used to purchase equipment to enhance the cardio and strength training curriculum.[131] Beginning in 2006, Highmark Foundation engaged in a 5 year, $100 million program to promote lifelong healthy behaviors in children and adolescents through local nonprofits and schools.

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[132]

In 2011, the average teacher salary in Wyomissing Area School District was $58,955 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers received was $19,044 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $77,999.[133] The District employed 169 teachers with an average salary of $59,500 and a top salary of $171,000.[134] According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[135]

In February 2013, the Wyomissing Area School Board and Wyomissing Area School Teachers Union agreed to a retroactive three-year contract which ends in 2013-14. Both parties agree to accept a Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board fact-finder's report and recommendations.[136]

In 2009, Wyomissing Area School District reported employing 176 teachers and administrators with a median salary of $56,381 and a top salary of $127,296 to an assistant superintendent.[137] The teacher’s work day is 7 hours 30 minutes with 180 student days in the contract year. In addition to salary, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance (district pays 100% of the costs), dental insurance, vision insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, professional development reimbursement, 2 paid personal days which accumulate, 10 paid sick days which infinitely accumulate, 3 paid bereavement days and other benefits. Departing employees receive a severance payment of $150 per year to $300 per year depending on longevity.[138]

In 2012, Reading Hospital and the Wyomissing Area School District were involved in a contentious tax battle. The resolution was the hospital providing $408,500 worth of health services to the district for four years in lieu of paying property taxes.[139]

Per pupil spending Wyomissing Area School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 was $1,404.50 per pupil. The District ranked 10th in the state for administration spending. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[140] The Pennsylvania School Boards Association collects and maintains statistics on salaries of public school district employees in Pennsylvania. According to the association's report, the average salary for a superintendent, for the 2007-08 school year, was $122,165. Superintendents and administrators receive a benefit package commensurate with that offered to the district's teachers' union.[141] According to PSBA, the median Superintendent salary rose to over $130,000 in 2011.[142] Wyomissing hired David P Krem as superintendent on July 1, 2010. He had served as the superintendent of the Pottstown School District. Krem's starting $164,000 salary made him the highest paid superintendent in Berks County. Krem retied in June 2012 with a salary of $174,000. The Board appointed then Assistant Superintendent of elementary and secondary education, Julia R. Vicente as the new Superintendent for five years, with a starting salary of $137,500 and an extensive benefits package.[143] The Board was cited by the Pennsylvania Auditor General in 2010, for paying a $148,450 buyout to former Superintendent Helen D. Larson. She left the District after serving 2 years and months of her lengthly contract.[144][145]

In 2008, the Wyomissing Area School District administration reported that per pupil spending was $14,714 which ranked 40th among Pennsylvania's then 501 public school districts. In 2010, the District’s per pupil spending had increased to $15,400.53.[146] In 2011, Pennsylvania’s per pupil spending was $13,467, ranking 6th in the United States.[147] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[148]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that Pennsylvania spent $8,191 per pupil in school year 2000-01.[149] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[150] Among the fifty states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-09.[151] Pennsylvania’s total revenue per pupil rose to $16,186 ranking 9th in the nation in 2011.[152]

Reserves In 2008, Wyomissing Area School District reported a balance of $2,602,654.00, in its unreserved-undesignated fund. The unreserved-designated fund balance was reported as zero. [153] In 2011, Wyomissing Area School District Administration reported an increase to $5,504,615 in the reserve fund balance. Pennsylvania public school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[154] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[155]

Audit In June 2010, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the Wyomissing Area School District. Multiple significant findings were reported to the School Board and the District’s administration.[156]

Tuition Students who live in the Wyomissing Area School District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Wyomissing Area School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the Wyomissing Area School District's schools. The 2012 tuition rates are Elementary School - $9,742.64, High School - $11,707.99.[157]

In 2007, based on a state mandate the Wyomissing Area School Board conducted a voter referendum asking about raising the local earned income tax to 1.5% with a lowering of local property taxes to keep the District's revenue the same. The referendum was rejected 1,311 No, 630 Yes.[158] Among the public school districts in Berks County, the tax shift was approved in Reading School District and rejected in all other local districts.

Wyomissing Area School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax 0.5%,[159] a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government.[160] Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. Interest earnings on accounts also provide nontax income to the District. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the level of the individual’s personal wealth.[161] The average Pennsylvania public school teacher pension in 2011 exceeds $60,000 a year plus they receive federal Social Security benefits: both are free of Pennsylvania state income tax and local income tax which funds local public schools.[162]

State basic education funding[edit]

For the 2013-14 school year, Wyomissing Area School District received a 6.3% increase or $1,260,225 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $75,223 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Wyomissing Area School District received $29,854 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Allegheny County, South Fayette Township School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 5.5%. The District has the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[163] The state funded the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[164]

For the 2012-13 school year, the District received $1,185,002.[165] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Wyomissing Area School District received $29,854 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[166] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In 2011-12, Wyomissing Area School District received a $1,184,846 allocation, of state Basic Education Funding.[167][168] Additionally, Wyomissing Area School District received $29,854 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget included $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount was a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011.[169] The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District of Allegheny County, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011-12.[170] In 2010, the District's Food Service Department reported that 516 students received free or reduced price lunches, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.[171]

In the 2010-11 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 3.09% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $1,257,216. Among the districts in Berks County, the highest increase went to [Oley Valley [School District]] which got an 8.17% increase. One hundred fifty Pennsylvania school districts received the base 2% increase. The highest increase in 2010-11 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County, which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[172] Fifteen (15) Pennsylvania public school districts received a BEF increase of greater than 10%. The state's hold harmless policy regarding state basic education funding continued where each district received at least the same amount as it received the prior school year, even when enrollment had significantly declined. The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward Rendell and then Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal given each February. This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some public school districts at a far greater rate than others.[173]

In the 2009-10 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 7.39% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $1,219,514. Ninety (90) Pennsylvania public school districts received the base 2% increase. Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received a 22.31% increase in state basic education funding in 2009.[174] The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward G. Rendell and the Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal.[175]

The state Basic Education Funding to the District in 2008-09 was $1,135,724.29. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 395 district students received free or reduced- price lunches due to low family income in the 2007–2008 school year.[176] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania spent $7,824 Per Pupil in the year 2000. This amount increased up to $12,085 by the year 2008.[177][178]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, All Day Kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11, the district applied for and received $81,031 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district uses the funding to provide Full Day kindergarten.[179][180] In 2009, 100% of the kindergarteners in Area School District attended full-day kindergarten.[181]

Classrooms for the Future grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006 to 2009. The Wyomissing Area School District did not apply to participate in 2006-07 or in 2007-08. The District received $110,962 in 2008-09.[182] Among the public school districts in Berks County the highest award was given to Reading School District which received $1,294,497. The highest funding statewide was awarded to Philadelphia City School District in Philadelphia County - $9,409,073. The grant program was discontinued by Governor Edward Rendell as part of the 2009-10 state budget.

Science It’s Elementary grant[edit]

West Reading Elementary Center successfully applied to participate and received a Science It’s Elementary grant in 2008-09. For the 2008-09 school year, the program was offered in 143 schools reaching 66,973 students across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[183] In 2007, the Pennsylvania Department of Education initiated an effort to improve science instruction in the Commonwealth’s public elementary schools. Called Science: It’s Elementary, the program was a hands on instruction approach for elementary science classes that develops problem-solving and critical thinking skills.[184] To encourage schools to adopt the program’s standards aligned curriculum, the state provided a grant to cover the costs of materials and extensive mandatory teacher training.[185] The District was required to develop a three-year implementation plan for the participating school. The school district administration was required to appoint a district liaison who was paid $3,000 by PDE to serve as the conduit of all information between the district and the Department and its agents along with submitting orders and distributing supplies to implementing teachers. For the 2006-07 state education budget, $10 million was allocated for the program. The grant program was expanded to $14.5 million in the 2008-09 budget. The grant was discontinued in the state’s 2011 budget by Governor Edward G. Rendell.

Other grants[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District did not participate in: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education annual grants, Education Assistance Grants, 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant, nor the federal 21st Century Learning grants.

Federal Stimulus grant[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District received an extra $497,200 in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[186][187] The funding was limited to the 2009-10 and 2010-2011 school years.[188] Due to the temporary nature of the funding, schools were repeatedly advised to use the funds for one time expenditures like: acquiring equipment, making repairs to buildings, training teachers to provide more effective instruction or purchasing books and software.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District officials did not apply for the federal Race to the Top grant which would have provided over one million dollars, in additional federal funding, to improve student academic achievement.[189] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[190] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[191][192][193]

Real estate taxes[edit]

Property tax rates in 2013-14 were set by the Wyomissing Area School Board at 29.0529 mills. A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.[194] Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and all government property (local, state and federal). Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[195] When a Pennsylvania public school district includes municipalities in two counties, each of which has different rates of property tax assessment, a state board equalizes the tax rates between the counties.[196] In 2010, miscalculations by the State Tax Equalization Board (STEB) were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts, including those that did not cross county borders.[197]

The average yearly property tax paid by Berks County residents amounts to about 4.66% of their yearly income. Berks County ranked 112th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[206] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[207] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[208]

Act 1 Adjusted Index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not permitted to raise property taxes above their annual Act 1 Index unless they either: allow Districts voters to approve the increase through a vote by referendum or they receive an exception from the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The base index for the school year is published by the PDE in the fall of each year. Each individual school district’s Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as local property values and the personal income of district residents. Originally, Act 1 of 2006 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[209]

In June 2011, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed legislation eliminating six of the exceptions to the Act 1 Index.[210] Several exceptions were maintained: 1) costs to pay interest and principal on indebtedness incurred prior to September 4, 2004 for Act 72 schools and prior to June 27, 2006 for non-Act 72 schools; 2) costs to pay interest and principal on electoral debt; 3) costs incurred in providing special education programs and services (beyond what is already paid by the State); and 4) costs due to increases of more than the Index in the school’s share of payments to PSERS (PA school employees pension fund) taking into account the state mandated PSERS contribution rate.[211][212] The legislature also froze the payroll amount public school districts use to calculate the pension-plan exception at the 2012 payroll levels. Further increases in payroll cannot be used to raise the district’s exception for pension payments.

A specific timeline for Act I Index decisions is published annually, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[213]

The School District Adjusted Index history for the Wyomissing Area School District:

For the 2013-14 budget year, Wyomissing Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 89 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[217]

For the 2012-13 budget year, Wyomissing Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. For 2012-2013, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[218]

For the 2011-12 school year, the Wyomissing Area School Board applied for two exception to exceed the Act 1 Index: special education costs and teacher pension costs. Each year, the Wyomissing Area School Board has the option of adopting either: 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index.

According to a state report, for the 2011-2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions: 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only 1 school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while 1 sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[219]

For the 2010-11 school budget, Wyomissing Area School Board did not apply for any exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index.[220]

For the 2009-10 school budget, the Wyomissing Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Index.[221] In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.[222]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2013, Wyomissing Area School District had 2,954 approved homestead properties which received $165 each in tax relief from gambling. In 2012, the District had 2,988 approved homestead properties which each received $162 in relief.[223] The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The amount of property tax relief each Pennsylvania public school district receives is announced by the Pennsylvania Department of Education in May of each year. The amount of tax relief is dependent on the total tax revenue collected on the casino slots in the previous year. Thirty five percent of the slots tax revenues are used for property tax relief. In Berks County, the highest tax relief went to Reading School District which was set at $371.[224] The highest property tax relief provided, among Pennsylvania school districts, went to the homesteads of Chester Upland School District in Delaware County which received $632 per approved homestead in 2010. Chester-Upland School District has consistently been the top recipient since the programs inception.[225] In Berks County, 65% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009.[226]

School safety and bullying[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District administration reported there were nine incidents of bullying in the District in 2012. There were also 18 incidents involving the local police. These included an aggravated assault on student, 15 cases of open lewdness, 7 thefts and two incidents of sexual harassment.[227] Each year the school safety data is reported by the district to the Safe School Center which publishes the reports online.[228]

The Wyomissing Area School Board has provided the district's antibully policy online.[229] All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the District must conduct an annual review of that policy with students.[230] The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.[231][232]

Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.[233]

Enrollment[edit]

According to Pennsylvania Department of Education enrollment reports, there are were 1,887 students enrolled in K-12 in 2007–08 school year at Wyomissing Area School District. There were 158 students in the Class of 2009. The district's class of 2010 had 140 students. The Class of 2013 has134 pupils. Enrollment is projected to decline to 1,6885 students by 2020.<[234] In 2008, the district administrative costs were $1,404.50 per pupil. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[235] A study of Pennsylvania public school spending, conducted by Standard and Poor's, examined the consolidation of small public school districts. The study found that school districts with less than 3000 pupils overspend on administrative services and that consolidation of the administration with an adjacent school district would achieve substantial administrative cost savings which varied by district.[236]

According to a 2009 school district administration consolidation proposal by Governor Edward Rendell, the excessive administrative overhead dollars could be redirected to improve lagging academic achievement, to enrich the academic programs or to reduce property taxes.[237] Consolidation of two central administrations into one would not require the closing of any schools. The Governor's proposal called for the savings to be redirected to improving lagging reading and science achievement, to enriching the academic programs or to reducing residents' property taxes.[238]

In March 2011, the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants released a report finding that the state would save hundreds of millions of tax dollars, by cutting the number of school administrations in half through consolidation, with no impact on programs offered to students.[239]

The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has one of the highest numbers of school districts in the nation. In Pennsylvania, 80% of the school districts serve student populations under 5,000, and 40% serve less than 2,000. This results in excessive school administration bureaucracy and not enough course diversity.[240] In a survey of superintendents of small districts, 42% of the respondents stated that they thought consolidation would save money without closing any schools.[241]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Wyomissing Area School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive, costly sports program. Eligibility for participation is determined by school board policy and in compliance with standards set by the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletics Association (PIAA).

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students residing in the district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[242]

Sports[edit]

The District funds:

Junior High School Sports

According to PIAA directory July 2013 [243]

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