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X-Men (film series)

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Cover of X-Men: The Cerebro Collection, the 2014 Blu-ray box set of the first seven films
Produced by Lauren Shuler Donner
Starring See below
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1,025,000,000 (7 films)
Box office $3,053,047,399 (7 films)

The X-Men film series consists of superhero films based on the Marvel Comics superhero team of the same name. 20th Century Fox obtained the film rights to the characters in 1994, and after numerous drafts, Bryan Singer was hired to direct X-Men (2000) and its sequel, X2 (2003). Singer left the potential third and fourth films, leaving Brett Ratner to direct X-Men: The Last Stand (2006).

After each film earned higher box-office grosses than its predecessor, several spin-off films were released. X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009), directed by Gavin Hood, features Wolverine's origin story. X-Men: First Class (2011), directed by Matthew Vaughn, focuses on the origins of Professor X and Magneto. The Wolverine (2013), directed by James Mangold, follows Wolverine after the events of The Last Stand. The seventh film, X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014), featured the return of the original trilogy cast and Singer as director, serving as a sequel to both X-Men: The Last Stand and X-Men: First Class.

X-Men, X2, X-Men: First Class, and The Wolverine were met with positive reviews. In the cases of the former two, critics especially highlighted their dark, realistic tones, and subtexts dealing with discrimination and intolerance. X-Men: The Last Stand and X-Men Origins: Wolverine were met with mixed and negative reviews from critics, respectively, while X-Men: Days of Future Past was met with positive reviews and became the highest-grossing film in the series.

With seven films released, the X-Men film series is the 12th highest-grossing film franchise of all-time, having grossed over US$3 billion worldwide. It is set to continue in 2016 with a spin-off film, Deadpool, a sequel to X-Men: Days of Future Past, entitled X-Men: Apocalypse, and a spin-off film, Gambit; and in 2017 with a third Wolverine spin-off film.


X-Men (2000)[edit]

Main article: X-Men (film)

The film introduces Wolverine and Rogue into the conflict between Professor Xavier's X-Men, and the Brotherhood of Mutants, led by Magneto. Magneto intends to mutate world leaders at a United Nations summit with a machine he has built, to bring about acceptance of mutantkind, but Xavier realizes this forced mutation will only result in their deaths.

In 1994, 20th Century Fox and producer Prawan Singh bought the film rights to the X-Men.[1] Andrew Kevin Walker was hired to write and James Cameron expressed interest in directing.[2] Eventually, Bryan Singer signed on to direct in July 1996. Though not a fan of the comic-books, Singer was fascinated by the analogies of prejudice and discrimination it offered.[1] John Logan, Joss Whedon, Ed Solomon, Christopher McQuarrie and David Hayter wrote the script, with Hayter receiving sole credit.[1][3] Principal photography began in September 1999 in Toronto, Canada and ended in March 2000.[4] The film was released on July 14, 2000.

X2: X-Men United (2003)[edit]

Main article: X2 (film)

In the film, Colonel William Stryker brainwashes and questions the imprisoned Magneto about Professor Xavier's mutant-locating machine, Cerebro. Stryker attacks the X-Mansion, and brainwashes Xavier into locating every mutant on the planet to kill them. The X-Men must team up with the Brotherhood and prevent Stryker's worldwide genocide.

Hayter and Zak Penn were hired to write their own scripts for the sequel which Singer would pick, with an aim to release the film in December 2002.[5][6] Michael Dougherty and Dan Harris were hired to re-write the script in February 2002, writing around 26 drafts and 150 on set.[7] Principal photography began in June 2002 in Vancouver, Canada and ended in November 2002. The film was released on May 2, 2003.[5]

X-Men: The Last Stand (2006)[edit]

Main article: X-Men: The Last Stand

In the film, a pharmaceutical company has developed a suppressor of the mutant gene, provoking controversy in the mutant community. Magneto declares war on the humans and retrieves his own weapon: Phoenix, who is the resurrected former X-Man, Jean Grey. A final battle between the X-Men and the Brotherhood ensues, and Wolverine must accept that in order to stop Grey, he will have to kill her.

Singer initially intended to shoot the film back-to-back with a fourth film, though he left in 2004 to direct Superman Returns.[8][9] Penn and Simon Kinberg were hired the following month. Whedon's Astonishing X-Men story "Gifted", featuring a mutant cure was suggested for the primary story. Matthew Vaughn came on board as director in February 2005,[10] but left due to the rushed production schedule.[11] Brett Ratner was later hired as director in June.[12] Principal photography began in August 2005 in Vancouver, Canada and ended in January 2006.[13] The film was released on May 26, 2006.

X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009)[edit]

The film is a prequel and a spin-off focusing on the character Wolverine and his relationship with his half-brother Victor Creed, as well his time with Stryker's Team X, before and shortly after his skeleton was bonded with the indestructible metal adamantium.

David Benioff was hired to write the screenplay for the spin-off film Wolverine in October 2004.[14] Hugh Jackman became producer as well as star, and worked with Benioff on the script.[15] Ratner was negotiated by the studio to take the helm of Wolverine after directing X-Men: The Last Stand, but no agreement was made.[16] In July 2007, Gavin Hood was hired as director. Principal photography began in January 2008 in Queenstown, New Zealand and ended in May.[17] The film was released on May 1, 2009.

X-Men: First Class (2011)[edit]

Main article: X-Men: First Class

The film is a prequel set primarily in 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and focuses on the relationship between Charles Xavier and Erik Lensherr, and the origin of their groups — the X-Men and the Brotherhood, respectively.[18]

Producer Lauren Shuler Donner first thought of a prequel based on the young X-Men during the production of X2, and later producer Kinberg suggested to 20th Century Fox an adaptation of the comic-book series X-Men: First Class.[19][20] Singer signed on to direct the film in December 2009, however, in March 2010 it was announced that Singer would be producing instead of directing.[21] Vaughn, who was previously attached to direct X-Men: The Last Stand became the director, and wrote the final script with his writing partner Jane Goldman.[20] The film superseded a planned X-Men Origins: Magneto. Despite the script for the film not being used by any of the screenwriters as inspiration, the Writer's Guild of America arbitration still credited Magneto writer Sheldon Turner for the film's story.[22] Principal photography began in August 2010 in London, England and ended in December. The film was released on June 3, 2011

The Wolverine (2013)[edit]

Main article: The Wolverine (film)

Set after the events of X-Men: The Last Stand, the film features Wolverine heading to Japan for a reunion with a soldier named Ichirō Yashida whose life he saved years before. Wolverine must defend the man's granddaughter Mariko Yashida from all manner of ninja and Yakuza assassin.[23][24]

Christopher McQuarrie, who went uncredited for his work on X-Men, was hired to write the screenplay for the second Wolverine film in August 2009.[25] Darren Aronofsky was chosen to direct the film, though bowed out, stating the project would keep him out of the country for too long.[26] James Mangold was later chosen to direct the film.[27] Mark Bomback was then hired to rewrite McQuarrie's script.[28] Principal photography began in August 2012 in Sydney, Australia and ended in November.[29] The film was released on July 26, 2013.[30]

X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014)[edit]

Set after the events of The Wolverine, the film features the cast of the original X-Men trilogy and X-Men: First Class.[31] The story, inspired by Chris Claremont and John Byrne's X-Men comic book storyline "Days of Future Past", features Wolverine going back in time to 1973 to prevent an assassination that, if carried out, will lead to the creation of a new weapons system called the Sentinels that threatens the existence of mutants — and potentially, all of humanity.[32]

Vaughn was attached to the film as director but left the director duties in October 2012 to focus on the film Kingsman: The Secret Service.[33] Singer, who directed the first two X-Men films and produced X-Men: First Class replaced Vaughn as the director of the film.[34] The screenplay was written by Kinberg.[35] Principal photography began in April 2013 in Montreal, Canada and ended in August.[36] The film was released on May 23, 2014.[37]


In 2013, Simon Kinberg and his Genre Films banner signed a three year first-look deal with 20th Century Fox, and will create a shared film universe similar to the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[38] In 2014, Mark Millar was brought on as a creative consultant for Fox's Marvel Comics based films such as the X-Men and the Fantastic Four.[39]

Deadpool (2016)[edit]

Main article: Deadpool (film)

In May 2000, Marvel Studios attempted to produce a Deadpool film as part of a long-term distribution agreement with Artisan Entertainment.[40] The project would have been one of Marvel's first major independent releases as an equity owner, whereby it contributes characters and creative support in exchange for a financial stake in the negative cost of the film.[41] However, by 2004, Marvel was developing the film with New Line Cinema. David S. Goyer was set to write and direct and courted actor Ryan Reynolds for the lead role,[42][43] but lost interest within months in favor of other projects.[44] 20th Century Fox acquired Deadpool the following year after New Line placed it in turnaround,[45] and was still considering the spin-off early in the development of X-Men Origins: Wolverine, with Reynolds being cast for the role.[42] After the opening weekend success of X-Men Origins: Wolverine in May 2009, Fox announced that it was lending Deadpool out to writers with Donner acting as a producer.[46] Donner stated that Deadpool will have the attributes that the character has in the comics, such as strong language and breaking the fourth wall.[47] Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick were hired to write the script in January 2010.[48] Robert Rodriguez was sent an early draft of the screenplay the following June,[49] but did not pursue it, and Adam Berg emerged as a top contender to direct.[50] In April 2011, visual effects specialist Tim Miller was hired as director.[51] Principal photography began in March 2015 in Vancouver, Canada, for a February 12, 2016 release.[52][53]

X-Men: Apocalypse (2016)[edit]

In December 2013, Singer announced the upcoming X-Men film, titled X-Men: Apocalypse. Acting as a sequel to X-Men: Days of Future Past, Singer is attached to direct the film from a script by Simon Kinberg, Dan Harris, and Michael Dougherty.[54] According to Singer, it will focus on the origin of the mutants.[55] Kinberg said that it will take place in 1983 and will complete a trilogy that began with X-Men: First Class.[56][57] The film will star James McAvoy, Michael Fassbender, Nicholas Hoult, Jennifer Lawrence, Evan Peters, Oscar Isaac, Tye Sheridan, Sophie Turner, Alexandra Shipp, Rose Byrne, Ian McKellen, Kodi Smit-McPhee, Ben Hardy and Lana Condor.[58][59][60] Principal photography is scheduled to commence in April 2015 in Montreal, Canada, for a May 27, 2016 release.[61]

Gambit (2016)[edit]

In October 2014, Josh Zetumer was hired to write the screenplay for Gambit based from the treatment of comic-book writer Chris Claremont. The film will star Channing Tatum in the lead role. Donner, Kinberg, Tatum and Reid Carolin are attached as producers.[62] It is scheduled to be released on October 7, 2016.[63]

Untitled Wolverine film (2017)[edit]

By November 2013, 20th Century Fox had begun negotiations for the treatment for another solo film starring Wolverine with director James Mangold while Donner is attached to produce.[64] Mangold has said that it will be inspired by other Wolverine stories from the comic books and it will be made after X-Men: Apocalypse.[65][66] In March 2014, David James Kelly was hired to write the script.[67] The film will star Hugh Jackman. Principal photography will commence in early 2016 for a March 3, 2017 release.[68]


In July 2013, 20th Century Fox hired Jeff Wadlow to write the script for the X-Men spin-off comic-book series X-Force. Lauren Shuler Donner is attached to produce.[69] Creative consultant for 20th Century Fox's Marvel Comics based films, Mark Millar stated that the film will feature five characters as protagonists.[70]

Recurring cast and characters[edit]

List indicator(s)
  • This table only includes characters which have appeared in more than two films in the series.
  • A dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's presence in the film has not yet been announced.
  • A Y indicates a minor role as a younger version of the character
  • An O indicates a minor role, sometimes uncredited, as an older version of the character
  • A C indicates a cameo role
  • An A indicates a minor appearance through archival footage
Character Film
X-Men X2 X-Men:
The Last Stand
X-Men Origins:
First Class
The Wolverine X-Men:
Days of Future Past
Deadpool X-Men:
Gambit Untitled Wolverine sequel
James "Logan" Howlett
Hugh Jackman Hugh Jackman,
Troye SivanY
Hugh JackmanC Hugh Jackman Hugh Jackman
Charles Xavier
Professor X
Patrick Stewart Patrick StewartC James McAvoy,
Laurence BelcherY
Patrick StewartC Patrick Stewart,
James McAvoy,
Laurence BelcherYA
James McAvoy
Erik Lensherr
Ian McKellen,
Brett MorrisY
Ian McKellen Michael Fassbender,
Bill MilnerY
Ian McKellenC Ian McKellen,
Michael Fassbender
Ian McKellen,
Michael Fassbender
Scott Summers
James Marsden Tim Pocock James MarsdenC Tye Sheridan
Jean Grey
Famke Janssen Famke Janssen,
Haley RammY
Famke Janssen Famke JanssenC Sophie Turner
Ororo Munroe
Halle Berry Halle Berry Alexandra Shipp
Bobby Drake
Shawn Ashmore Shawn Ashmore
Anna Paquin Anna PaquinC
Raven Darkhölme
Rebecca Romijn Jennifer Lawrence,
Morgan LilyY,
Rebecca RomijnO
Jennifer Lawrence,
Morgan LilyYA
Jennifer Lawrence
Kitty Pryde Sumela KayC Katie StuartC Ellen Page Ellen Page
John Allerdyce
Alexander BurtonC Aaron Stanford
Jubilation Lee
Katrina FlorenceC Kea WongC Lana Condor
Henry "Hank" McCoy
Steve BacicC Kelsey Grammer Nicholas Hoult Nicholas Hoult,
Kelsey GrammerOC
Nicholas Hoult
Peter Rasputin
Daniel Cudmore Daniel Cudmore TBA
William Stryker Brian Cox Danny Huston Josh Helman,
Brian CoxA
Moira MacTaggert Olivia Williams Rose Byrne Rose Byrne


Occupation Film
X-Men X2 X-Men:
The Last Stand
X-Men Origins:
First Class
The Wolverine X-Men:
Days of Future Past
Deadpool X-Men:
Director Bryan Singer Brett Ratner Gavin Hood Matthew Vaughn James Mangold Bryan Singer Tim Miller Bryan Singer
Producer(s) Lauren Shuler Donner,
Ralph Winter
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Ralph Winter,
Avi Arad
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Ralph Winter,
Hugh Jackman,
John Palermo
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Bryan Singer,
Simon Kinberg,
Gregory Goodman
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Hutch Parker
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Bryan Singer,
Simon Kinberg,
Hutch Parker
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Simon Kinberg
Lauren Shuler Donner,
Bryan Singer,
Simon Kinberg,
Hutch Parker
Executive producer(s) Avi Arad,
Stan Lee,
Richard Donner,
Tom DeSanto
Avi Arad,
Stan Lee,
Bryan Singer,
Tom DeSanto
Kevin Feige,
Stan Lee,
John Palermo
Richard Donner,
Stan Lee
Stan Lee,
Josh McLaglen,
Tarquin Pack
Stan Lee,
Joe Caracciolo, Jr.
Stan Lee,
Todd Hallowell,
Josh McLaglen
Writer(s) Screenplay by
David Hayter
Story by
Tom DeSanto,
Bryan Singer
Screenplay by
Michael Dougherty,
Dan Harris,
David Hayter
Story by
Zak Penn,
David Hayter,
Bryan Singer
Simon Kinberg,
Zak Penn
David Benioff,
Skip Woods
Screenplay by
Ashley Edward Miller,
Zack Stentz,
Jane Goldman,
Matthew Vaughn
Story by
Sheldon Turner,
Bryan Singer
Mark Bomback,
Scott Frank
Screenplay by
Simon Kinberg
Story by
Simon Kinberg,
Matthew Vaughn,
Jane Goldman
Rhett Reese,
Paul Wernick
Simon Kinberg,
Dan Harris,
Composer Michael Kamen John Ottman John Powell Harry Gregson-Williams Henry Jackman Marco Beltrami John Ottman John Ottman[71]
Director of photography Newton Thomas Sigel Dante Spinotti Donald M. McAlpine John Mathieson Ross Emery Newton Thomas Sigel
Editor(s) Steven Rosenblum,
Kevin Stitt,
John Wright
John Ottman Mark Goldblatt,
Mark Helfrich,
Julia Wong
Nicholas De Toth,
Megan Gill
Eddie Hamilton,
Lee Smith
Michael McCusker John Ottman John Ottman

Home media release[edit]

20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the first seven films on DVD, Blu-ray and digital download.[72] The first two films were also released on VHS.[73] The films were also released on VHS, DVD and Blu-ray box sets:

Title Format Release date Films Reference
X-Men Double Pack VHS November 10, 2003 X-Men, X2 [73]
X-Men Collection DVD November 25, 2003 [74]
X-Men Trilogy October 3, 2006 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand [75]
The Ultimate Heroes Collection October 16, 2007 Daredevil, Elektra, Fantastic Four, X-Men [76]
Marvel Heroes May 13, 2008 Daredevil, Elektra, Fantastic Four, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand [77]
X-Men Trilogy Blu-ray April 29, 2009 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand [78]
X-Men Quadrilogy DVD, Blu-ray October 19, 2009 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, X-Men Origins: Wolverine [79]
X-Men: The Ultimate Collection October 31, 2011 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, X-Men: First Class [80]
X-Men and the Wolverine - Adamantium Collection December 3, 2013 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, X-Men: First Class, The Wolverine [81]
X-Men: The Adamantium Collection December 3, 2013 [82]
X-Men: Experience Collection Blu-ray May 6, 2014 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, X-Men: First Class [83]
X-Men: The Cerebro Collection November 10, 2014 X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, X-Men Origins: Wolverine, X-Men: First Class, The Wolverine, X-Men: Days of Future Past [84]

As of May 2014, the DVD and Blu-ray sales of the first six films in the United States earned more than $620 million.[85]


Box office performance[edit]

Film Release date Box office gross Box office ranking Budget Ref(s)
United States Other territories North America Other territories Worldwide All time
North America
All time
X-Men July 14, 2000 July 13, 2000
$75 million
X2 May 2, 2003 April 30, 2003
$110 million
X-Men: The Last Stand May 26, 2006 May 24, 2006
$210 million
X-Men Origins: Wolverine May 1, 2009 April 29, 2009
$150 million
X-Men: First Class June 3, 2011 June 1, 2011
$160 million
The Wolverine July 26, 2013 July 24, 2013
$120 million
X-Men: Days of Future Past May 23, 2014 May 21, 2014
$200 million
Total $1,299,381,721 $1,753,665,678 $3,053,047,399 $1.025 billion [93]

The first three X-Men films set opening records in North America: X-Men had the highest July opening yet,[94] while X2 and X-Men: The Last Stand earned the fourth highest opening weekends yet.[95][96] All of these records have since been surpassed. The next three X-Men films after X-Men: The Last Stand opened lower than their predecessor and didn't set opening records.[97] In North America, X-Men: The Last Stand has the highest opening weekend and is the highest-grossing film in the series. Worldwide and outside North America, X-Men: Days of Future Past has the highest opening weekend and is the highest-grossing film in the series.[93]

The X-Men film series is the third highest-grossing film series based on Marvel Comics characters after Marvel Cinematic Universe and the Spider-Man films respectively.[98] In North America, it is the 11th highest-grossing film franchise of all time, having grossed over $1.299 billion.[99] Worldwide, it is the 12th highest-grossing film franchise of all time, having grossed over $3 billion.[93]

Critical and public response[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
82% (154 reviews)[100]
64 (33 reviews)[101]
87% (224 reviews)[103]
68 (37 reviews)[104]
X-Men: The Last Stand
58% (231 reviews)[105]
58 (38 reviews)[106]
X-Men Origins: Wolverine
38% (254 reviews)[107]
40 (39 reviews)[108]
X-Men: First Class
87% (245 reviews)[109]
65 (38 reviews)[110]
The Wolverine
69% (217 reviews)[111]
60 (43 reviews)[112]
X-Men: Days of Future Past
91% (255 reviews)[113]
74 (43 reviews)[114]

Wesley Morris of the Boston Globe praised the first three X-Men films as "more than a cash-guzzling wham-bang Hollywood franchise... these three movies sport philosophy, ideas, a telethon-load of causes, and a highly elastic us-versus-them allegory." Morris praised X-Men: The Last Stand for "put[ting] the heroes of a mighty summer blockbuster in a rare mortal position. Realism at this time of year? How unorthodox!"[115] Roger Ebert gave the films good reviews, but criticized them for the amount of mutants stating "their powers are so various and ill-matched that it's hard to keep them all on the same canvas."[116]

The first two films were highly praised due to their cerebral tone, however when director Bryan Singer left, many criticized his successor Brett Ratner. Colin Colvert of the Star Tribune felt "Singer's sensitivity to [the discrimination themes] made the first two X-Men films surprisingly resonant and soulful for comic-based summer extravaganzas... Singer is adept at juggling large casts of three-dimensional characters, Ratner makes shallow, unimaginative bang-ups."[117] James Berardinelli felt, "X-Men: The Last Stand isn't as taut or satisfying as X-Men 2, but it's better constructed and better paced than the original X-Men. The differences in quality between the three are minor, however; despite the change in directors, there seems to be a single vision."[118] David Denby of The New Yorker praised "the liquid beauty and the poetic fantasy of Singer's work", but called Ratner's film "a crude synthesizer of comedy and action tropes."[119] Singer's third film in the series, X-Men: Days of Future Past was also highly praised. Alonso Duralde of The Wrap felt that "Singer keeps things moving along briskly enough that you can just go along with the ride of Superhero Stuff without getting bogged down".[120]

The X-Men films received good reviews from fans of the comic books, but there was criticism of the large cast, and the limited screentime for all of them. Richard George of IGN praised the depictions of Wolverine, Professor X, Magneto, Jean Grey, Storm, William Stryker, Mystique, Beast and Nightcrawler; however, George thought many of the younger X-Men characters, such as Rogue, Iceman, Pyro, and Kitty Pryde were "adjectiveless teenager[s]", and was disappointed by Cyclops's characterization. He observed the filmmakers were "big fans of silent henchmen", due to the small roles of the various villainous mutants; such as Lady Deathstrike.[121] Spider-Man director Sam Raimi said he was a fan of the series, particularly Singer's films.[122] Film historian Kim Newman also tonally compared Batman Begins to Singer's films.[123]


Richard George of IGN stated that the success of the first X-Men film paved the way for comic-book film adaptations such as the Spider-Man series, Fantastic Four, V for Vendetta and Singer's adaptation of Superman, Superman Returns.[121] Meanwhile, Chris Hewitt of Empire Magazine called the first X-Men film as the "catalyst" for films based on Marvel Comics characters stating "Singer’s 2000 movie is the catalyst for everything that’s come since, good and bad. Without it, there’s no Marvel Studios."[124] Comic-book writer, Mark Millar said Singer's X-Men "revolutionized" superhero films.[125]

Tie-in material[edit]

In June 2000, Marvel Comics published a comic book prequel to the first film, titled X-Men: Beginnings, featuring the back-stories of Magneto, Rogue and Wolverine.[126] A novel adaptation for the film was also released.[127] A video game, X-Men: Mutant Academy was released for PlayStation and Game Boy Color by Activision. It shares the title fonts and a number of costumes from the film. The game also contains behind-the-scenes material from the first film. In 2003, Marvel released a comic-book for X2, which contained prequels detailing Nightcrawler's backstory and Wolverine's time searching for Alkali Lake.[128] A multi-console video game titled X2: Wolverine's Revenge was also released, which served as a tie-in to X2. Patrick Stewart served as the voice actor for Professor X. In 2006, X-Men: The Official Game was released, which was set between X2 and X-Men: The Last Stand and also explained Nightcrawler's departure from the X-Men.[129] Del Rey Books also published novelizations for the first three films; the latter two were written by Chris Claremont.[130][131][132] In 2009, the video game X-Men Origins: Wolverine based on the film of the same name was released.[133]


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External links[edit]