XIV Corps (Union Army)
Union Army 1st Division Badge, XIV Corps
|Branch||United States Army|
|Part of||Army of the Cumberland
Army of Georgia
|Engagements||Battle of Stones River
Battle of Chickamauga
Battle of Missionary Ridge
Battle of Resaca
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain
Battle of Peachtree Creek
Battle of Utoy Creek
Battle of Jonesboro
March to the Sea
Battle of Bentonville
|William S. Rosecrans
George H. Thomas
John M. Palmer
Richard W. Johnson
Jefferson C. Davis
The XIV Corps, along with the XIII Corps, were both created in October 1862 with the passing of General Orders No. 168. The order directed that all the troops of the Department of the Cumberland be organized into the XIV Corps with, General William Rosecrans in command.
The troops of this corps had previously been styled the Army of the Ohio, under the command of Don Carlos Buell. Buell's Army of the Ohio had already been divided into three unofficial corps designated I, II and III Corps. When Rosecrans took command the army was renamed the Army of the Cumberland and was made up of twelve divisions. This included 155 regiments of infantry, 1 regiment of engineers, 35 batteries of artillery, and 6 regiments of cavalry.
The Army of the Cumberland and XIV Corps were virtually synonymous and therefore command of the corps was divided into three "wings" with the same basic formation as in the former Army of the Ohio. The old I Corps became the Right Wing under Alexander M. McCook. The II Corps became the Left Wing under Thomas L. Crittenden. The III Corps became the Center Wing under George H. Thomas, replacing Charles C. Gilbert. In this formation the corps fought at the battle of Stones River losing over 25% in killed, wounded or missing.
Battle of Chickamauga
On January 9, 1863, in the immediate aftermath of Stones River, the XIV Corps wings were given their own official corps designations. McCook's Right Wing became the XX Corps. Crittenden's Left Wing became the XXI Corps. Thomas' Center Wing remained as the XIV Corps. Thomas led the corps to distinction at a decisive battle fought in the vicinity of Chickamauga Creek.
Chattanooga to Bentonville
Battle of Utoy Creek the XIV Army Corps was placed under the command of the Army of the Ohio MG Schofield 1 August 1864 and the two corps were assigned by Sherman to break the Railroad lines at East Point. The ensuing battle of Utoy Creek initial assault by Johnson's 1st Division on 05 August and supporting attack on 6 August 1864 came close to success. Due to a disagreement of the date of rank between MG Palmer and MG Schofield after the battle which Schofield unsucessfully commanded. Richard W. Johnson briefly commanded the corps after Palmer's resignation during the siege of Atlanta 1864. Jefferson C. Davis took command of the corps and led it during the battle of Jonesboro. Following the fall of Atlanta, the XIV Corps was detached from the Army of the Cumberland and assigned to what became the Army of Georgia. Davis remained in command of the corps and fought at the Battle of Bentonville in 1865.
Corps Badge origin
This Corps's distinctive badge was in the shape of that of an acorn. The acorn was chosen to remind the men of their tough times in late 1863 when they were left in the wilderness without supplies and forced to survive on acorns.
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