XML Information Set
XML Information Set (XML Infoset) is a W3C specification describing an abstract data model of an XML document in terms of a set of information items. The definitions in the XML Information Set specification are meant to be used in other specifications that need to refer to the information in a well-formed XML document.
An information set can contain up to eleven different types of information items:
- The Document Information Item (always present)
- Element Information Items
- Attribute Information Items
- Processing Instruction Information Items
- Unexpanded Entity Reference Information Items
- Character Information Items
- Comment Information Items
- The Document Type Declaration Information Item
- Unparsed Entity Information Items
- Notation Information Items
- Namespace Information Items
Infoset recommendation Second Edition was adopted on February 4, 2004.
Infoset augmentation or infoset modification refers to the process of modifying the infoset during schema validation, for example by adding default attributes. The augmented infoset is called the post-schema-validation infoset, or PSVI. 
Infoset augmentation is somewhat controversial, with claims that it is a violation of modularity and tends to cause interoperability problems, since applications get different information depending on whether or not validation has been performed. 
XML Information Set instances:
- "XML Information set recommendation (Second Edition)". W3C. 4 February 2004.
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