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X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1
Protein XRCC1 PDB 1cdz.png
PDB rendering based on 1cdz.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols XRCC1 ; RCC
External IDs OMIM194360 MGI99137 HomoloGene31368 GeneCards: XRCC1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE XRCC1 203655 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7515 22594
Ensembl ENSG00000073050 ENSMUSG00000051768
UniProt P18887 Q60596
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_006297 NM_009532
RefSeq (protein) NP_006288 NP_033558
Location (UCSC) Chr 19:
44.05 – 44.08 Mb
Chr 7:
24.55 – 24.57 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

DNA repair protein XRCC1 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC1 gene. XRCC1 is involved in DNA repair where it complexes with DNA ligase III.


DNA-repair protein Xrcc1 functions in the repair of single-strand DNA breaks in mammalian cells and forms a repair complex with beta-Pol, ligase III and PARP.[1]

XRCC1 is involved in the efficient repair of DNA single-strand breaks formed by exposure to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. This protein interacts with DNA ligase III, polymerase beta and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase to participate in the base excision repair pathway. It may play a role in DNA processing during meiogenesis and recombination in germ cells. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity.[2]


PDB 1xna EBI.jpg
nmr solution structure of the single-strand break repair protein xrcc1-n-terminal domain
Symbol XRCC1_N
Pfam PF01834
Pfam clan CL0202
InterPro IPR002706
SCOP 1xnt

The NMR solution structure of the Xrcc1 N-terminal domain (Xrcc1 NTD) shows that the structural core is a beta-sandwich with beta-strands connected by loops, three helices and two short two-stranded beta-sheets at each connection side. The Xrcc1 NTD specifically binds single-strand break DNA (gapped and nicked) and a gapped DNA-beta-Pol complex.[3]


XRCC1 has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Rice PA (September 1999). "Holding damaged DNA together". Nat. Struct. Biol. 6 (9): 805–6. doi:10.1038/12257. PMID 10467087. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: XRCC1 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1". 
  3. ^ Marintchev A, Mullen MA, Maciejewski MW, Pan B, Gryk MR, Mullen GP (September 1999). "Solution structure of the single-strand break repair protein XRCC1 N-terminal domain". Nat. Struct. Biol. 6 (9): 884–93. doi:10.1038/12347. PMID 10467102. 
  4. ^ Vidal AE, Boiteux S, Hickson I D, Radicella J P (November 2001). "XRCC1 coordinates the initial and late stages of DNA abasic site repair through protein-protein interactions". EMBO J. 20 (22): 6530–9. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.22.6530. PMC 125722. PMID 11707423. 
  5. ^ Date H, Igarashi Shuichi, Sano Yasuteru, Takahashi Toshiaki, Takahashi Tetsuya, Takano Hiroki, Tsuji Shoji, Nishizawa Masatoyo, Onodera Osamu (Dec 2004). "The FHA domain of aprataxin interacts with the C-terminal region of XRCC1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 325 (4): 1279–85. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.10.162. PMID 15555565. 
  6. ^ a b Gueven N, Becherel Olivier J, Kijas Amanda W, Chen Philip, Howe Orla, Rudolph Jeanette H, Gatti Richard, Date Hidetoshi, Onodera Osamu, Taucher-Scholz Gisela, Lavin Martin F (May 2004). "Aprataxin, a novel protein that protects against genotoxic stress". Hum. Mol. Genet. 13 (10): 1081–93. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh122. PMID 15044383. 
  7. ^ Marsin Sé, Vidal Antonio E, Sossou Marguerite, Ménissier-de Murcia Josiane, Le Page Florence, Boiteux Serge, de Murcia Gilbert, Radicella J Pablo (November 2003). "Role of XRCC1 in the coordination and stimulation of oxidative DNA damage repair initiated by the DNA glycosylase hOGG1". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (45): 44068–74. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306160200. PMID 12933815. 
  8. ^ Schreiber Vé, Amé Jean-Christophe, Dollé Pascal, Schultz Inès, Rinaldi Bruno, Fraulob Valérie, Ménissier-de Murcia Josiane, de Murcia Gilbert (June 2002). "Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is required for efficient base excision DNA repair in association with PARP-1 and XRCC1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (25): 23028–36. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202390200. PMID 11948190. 
  9. ^ a b Fan J, Otterlei Marit, Wong Heng-Kuan, Tomkinson Alan E, Wilson David M (2004). "XRCC1 co-localizes and physically interacts with PCNA". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (7): 2193–201. doi:10.1093/nar/gkh556. PMC 407833. PMID 15107487. 
  10. ^ Whitehouse CJ, Taylor R M, Thistlethwaite A, Zhang H, Karimi-Busheri F, Lasko D D, Weinfeld M, Caldecott K W (January 2001). "XRCC1 stimulates human polynucleotide kinase activity at damaged DNA termini and accelerates DNA single-strand break repair". Cell 104 (1): 107–17. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00195-7. PMID 11163244. 
  11. ^ Ewing RM, Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, Climie Shane, McBroom-Cerajewski Linda, Robinson Mark D, O'Connor Liam, Li Michael, Taylor Rod, Dharsee Moyez, Ho Yuen, Heilbut Adrian, Moore Lynda, Zhang Shudong, Ornatsky Olga, Bukhman Yury V, Ethier Martin, Sheng Yinglun, Vasilescu Julian, Abu-Farha Mohamed, Lambert Jean-Philippe, Duewel Henry S, Stewart Ian I, Kuehl Bonnie, Hogue Kelly, Colwill Karen, Gladwish Katharine, Muskat Brenda, Kinach Robert, Adams Sally-Lin, Moran Michael F, Morin Gregg B, Topaloglou Thodoros, Figeys Daniel (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. 
  12. ^ Wang L, Bhattacharyya Nandan, Chelsea Diane M, Escobar Pedro F, Banerjee Sipra (November 2004). "A novel nuclear protein, MGC5306 interacts with DNA polymerase beta and has a potential role in cellular phenotype". Cancer Res. 64 (21): 7673–7. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2801. PMID 15520167. 
  13. ^ Kubota Y, Nash R A, Klungland A, Schär P, Barnes D E, Lindahl T (Dec 1996). "Reconstitution of DNA base excision-repair with purified human proteins: interaction between DNA polymerase beta and the XRCC1 protein". EMBO J. 15 (23): 6662–70. PMC 452490. PMID 8978692. 
  14. ^ Bhattacharyya N, Banerjee S (July 2001). "A novel role of XRCC1 in the functions of a DNA polymerase beta variant". Biochemistry 40 (30): 9005–13. doi:10.1021/bi0028789. PMID 11467963. 
  15. ^ Masson M, Niedergang C, Schreiber V, Muller S, Menissier-de Murcia J, de Murcia G (June 1998). "XRCC1 is specifically associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and negatively regulates its activity following DNA damage". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3563–71. PMC 108937. PMID 9584196. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR002706