Xalapa

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Xalapa
Xalapa-Enríquez
Municipality and City
Coat of arms of Xalapa
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): La Ciudad de las Flores
("The City of Flowers")
Xalapa is located in Mexico
Xalapa
Xalapa
Coordinates: 19°32′24″N 96°55′59″W / 19.54000°N 96.93306°W / 19.54000; -96.93306
Country Mexico
State Veracruz
Founded 1313
Declared as a city 1791
Government
 • Mayor Américo Zúñiga Martínez[1](PRI)
Area
 • Municipality and City 118.45 km2 (45.73 sq mi)
Population (2009 estimate)
 • Municipality and City 525,147
 • Metro 809,206
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Website www.xalapa.gob.mx

Xalapa, or Jalapa (/həˈlɑːpə/; Spanish pronunciation: [xaˈlapa] ( ); officially Xalapa-Enríquez [xaˈlapa enˈrikes]), is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality. In the year 2005 census the city reported a population of 387,879 and the municipality of which it serves as municipal seat reported a population of 413,136.[2] The municipality has an area of 118.45 km². Xalapa lies near the geographic center of the state and is the second-largest city in the state after the city of Veracruz.

Xalapa comes from the Nahuatl roots xālli /ˈʃaːlːi/ "sand" and āpan /ˈaːpan/ "water place", which approximately means "spring in the sand." It is classically pronounced /ʃaˈlaːpan/ in Nahuatl, though the final /n/ is often omitted; the /ʃ/ sound (like English sh) was written x in the 16th century, but does not occur in modern Spanish, and its counterpart is the [x] or [h] sound, normally written j. The spelling Xalapa (like the word México) reflects the archaic pronunciation. The full name of the city is Xalapa-Enríquez, named in honor of 19th-century Governor Juan de la Luz Enríquez. The city's nickname La ciudad de las flores ("The City of Flowers"), was bestowed by Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the town on 10 February 1804. However, the reference is firmly embedded in its earlier colonial history. In folklore, the Spaniards believed that Xalapa was the birthplace and home of the Florecita, which literally means "little flower".[3]

History[edit]

The Totonacas were the first people to establish themselves around the Macuiltepetl – a five-peaked hill, which today is a park. During the 14th century, four cultures settled in the territory today known as Xalapa. Each of them built a small village: Xalitic (in the sand) was founded by the Totonacas; Techacapan (river of waste) was founded by the Chichimecas; in the northeast Tecuanapan (river of the beasts) was founded by the Toltecas and Tlalnecapan was founded by the Teochichimecas.

Eventually around 1313, the four villages grew and joined forming one big village which was given the name Xallapan.Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, fifth Aztec Emperor, invaded the territory during the second half of the 15th century; therefore all the land became part of the Aztec Empire until the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores.

In 1519 Hernán Cortés passed through Xalapa en route to Tenochtitlan. 1555 saw the final construction of the Franciscan convent which is the second most important event in that time in Nueva España.

Charles IV of Spain elevated the status of Xalapa to town officially on 18 December 1791.

When the Spanish arrived, Xalapa was barely populated. It rose after the conquest but the opening of the Mexico-Orizaba-Veracruz route reduced the importance of Xalapa as a transport hub, resulting in the population stagnating during the 17th century.[4] However, from 1720 Xalapa became increasingly important, due to trade with numerous retailers of the New Spain arriving to sell products and to buy products arriving from the peninsula.[4] At this time numerous resident Spanish families in the near towns settled in Xalapa, so that by 1760 the population had increased to over 1,000 inhabitants, mestizo and Spanish. The growth of Xalapa in population, culture, commerce and importance, increased dramatically in the 18th century, with the result that, in response to a request from local inhabitants Carlos IV of Spain elevated the status of Xalapa to a town on 18 December 1791.[4]

In 1772, the construction of Xalapa Cathedral began, and on 18 May 1784, José María Alfaro lifted the first air balloon in the Americas, in Xalapa. Due to the abundance of flowers growing in the region, Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the town on 10 February 1804, christened the town as the "City of the Flowers".[4]

Since the beginning of the 19th century, Xalapa was the scene of some important historical events, a town which relished the movement of Mexican independence from the Spanish. Ideas greatly flowed in the town, and Xalapa was represented by many who put forward these ideas to those in Mexico City in government meetings.[4] On 20 May 1821, shortly before completing Mexican Independence on 27 September of the same year, Xalapa was attacked by the forces of Don Antonio López de Santa Anna, who, along with Don Joaquin Log, they forced Spanish captain Juan Horbregoso to submit the town.[4] Nevertheless independence was completed just months later in more amicable circumstances, although the emperor Agustín de Iturbide was not warmly received in Xalapa due to past differences.[4]

On 9 May 1824, by decree of the President of the Republic Don Guadalupe Victoria, the First Legislature of the State of Veracruz was established in Xalapa. That same year, Xalapa was declared state capital, In the 1820s Xalapa and the surrounding area was subject to a revolt when Vicente Guerrero replaced General Anastasio Bustamante. Veracruz was attacked by Isidro Barradas, who was attempting to reconquer parts of Mexico, and over 3,000 were deployed to defend the cities of Veracruz, Cordova and Orizaba for military purposes.[4] Anastacio Bustamante, betraying the confidence given to him, revolted against the legitimate government with a new plan of Xalapa, signed on 4 December 1829. Nevertheless, the revolt was subdued.

On 29 November 1830 by decree, Xalapa was elevated to the class of city. On 1843, Don Antonio María de Rivera founded the Normal School of Xalapa, which is today a preparatory school.

During the American invasion, in 1847 General Don Antonio López de Santa Anna attempted to defeat the opposing forces at a site near Xalapa in the Battle of Cerro Gordo with an army of more than 12,000 soldiers. Mexican troops suffered many casualties, killing around 1,000 and seriously injuring 3,000 and on 18 April 1847, a bloody defeat resulted in the invaders occupying the city the following day.[4]

Patriotism against the invaders prevailed, and Xalapeños such as Ambrosio Alcalde and Antonio García fought bravely in the defense of the city of Veracruz, but were taken prisoner by the enemy. Released, after promising not to again take arms against the North American invaders, they rejoined the fight against them only to be recaptured this time near Teocelo. They were subsequently taken to Xalapa to be sentenced to death and executed on 24 November 1847.[4] Today these two men are remembered as martyrs for preferring to die than see the enemy take their country. A monument, taking the form of an obelisk marks the event between San Jose Church and Alcalde Market, named after Ambrosio Alcalde.[4] The North Americans were eventually driven out. Xalapa was once again attacked in November 1862 during the French invasion, when they temporarily took control of the state capital.

On 27 November 1867 the corpse of the emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, who had been executed in Querétaro, arrived at Xalapa, being deposited firstly in the neighborhood of San Jose and attended to by the priest José María y Daza, before being transferred to Veracruz the following day and then shipped back to Austria to be buried.[4] In 1885 General Juan de la Luz Enríquez, increased the power of Xalapa by moving some legislative authority from Orizaba to Xalapa, in accordance with the decree issued in June 1884 by the provisional Governor Jose Manuel Jauregui. General Enríquez, in coordination with the Swiss teacher Enrique C. Rébsamen, then founded the Normal School in Xalapa, the first school of this type in the entire country in 1886.[4]

Governor Juan de la Luz Enríquez (1836–1892) for whom the city is named.

Enríquez died in 1892, but the construction of the building of the Preparatory School and the later inauguration of other schools during the 1890s gave cultural reputation to Xalapa, and led to it becoming known as the “Athens of Veracruz”.[4]

During the regime of Enríquez, the building of the old convent of San Francisco was demolished and replaced with the Parque Juárez. In June 1890 the first locomotive for the Xalapa-Coatepec-Teocelo railroad arrived in the city. The interoceanic railroad was completed in Veracruz in 1901.[4] The public lighting system was introduced in 1904[5] and in 1906 a clock was installed in the centre of the city on Enríquez Street on premises which presently houses the agency of the National Lottery.

On 18 May 1911, Francisco I. Madero visited Xalapa and on 21 June of the same year a minor conflict occurred between federal forces and revolutionaries.[4]

On 3 January 1920, a strong earthquake affected the city, destroying several buildings. Years later in December 1923, Xalapa fell into the power of the huertístas, commanded by Guadalupe Sánchez.[4]

In 1940 the water building and agricultural house were constructed, which today is occupied by the Agrarian League of Communities and Union Farmers of the State. On 11 September 1944 the Universidad de Veracruzana was established, and Dr. Manuel Suárez became the first director. On 4 September 1978 by means of decree number 325, the Local Legislature approved that the official name of the city Xalapa Enríquez should have to be written with a “X” rather than a "J".[4]

Xalapa is a thriving center for commerce and many multinational companies have branches in the city. These include Wal-Mart, Superama, Sam's Club, The Home Depot, Liverpool, Sears, Costco, Sanborns, Comercial Mexicana, C&A, Fabricas de Francia, Coppel, Garcia, Milano, Burger King, McDonald's, Domino's pizza, Pizza Hut, Subway, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Office Depot, Office Max, Oxxo, Block Buster, Hugo Boss, Pull and Bear, and Carl's Jr., Prada, Tous, etc.

Xalapa also has a number of cinemas, some of them of substantial size like the Cinepolis Museum (10 screens), Cinepolis the Americas (16 screens), and other cinemas such as Cinepolis in Crystal and Cinemex in Plaza Animas. There are several malls in Xalapa: Plaza Crystal, Plaza Museo, Plaza Animas (L.A. Fashion), Plaza Américas, Plaza los Arcos (to open in 2012).

Many people in Xalapa are employed by the government, since it is the state capital. Xalapa is also the head one of the five regional sections of the Tribunal Electoral (a level below the Supreme Court). This area encompasses 7 states: Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz and Yucatán. The other regional seats are Mexico City, Toluca, Monterrey and Guadalajara.

Culture[edit]

Giant Olmec head, a mark of the indigenous civilizations of Xalapa.

Xalapa is known as the "Athens of Veracruz" because of the strong cultural influence of its major university, Universidad Veracruzana (the main public university in the State of Veracruz), which is largely a reason why General Enriquez, whose policies did much to enhance the educational system in Xalapa, is so honored in the city.

Culturally, a wide variety of events and venues are present in Xalapa like its theatres, museums, and street art. Many musicians and dancers frequently perform in the center in the nights, especially on special occasions and events of celebration or commemoration, notably the fandango.

Art has a keen following in Xalapa, and notably the gallery of Pinacoteca Diego Rivera. located near the City Hall and Parque Juárez in the downtown area of the city, has the widest collection of Diego Rivera's paintings in all of Mexico.[3]

Holidays[edit]

Feast day of San José, Feast of Santiago Apostle, Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Jesus, Conception of Maria, and Expo-Fair International are all celebrated in the city. An important religious holiday is on 8 December, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, celebrating Mary the Mother of God patroness of the city. On 24 October San Rafael Guizar and Valencia are celebrated, with thousands of people from all over Mexico visiting their tomb that is in a chapel within the cathedral. The cathedral remains open all night and day during this event.

Cuisine[edit]

Xalapa is the home place of the famous Jalapeño peppers,[6] as well as products made with maize: gorditas, tostadas, pasties, enfrijoladas, and chicken are common foods. The desserts that are consumed in the region are typically sweet such as cake and coconut candies.

Music[edit]

Xalapa is home to numerous classical music orchestras and bands. The Orquesta Sinfónica de Xalapa is the most prominent, formed on 21 August 1929.[7] Other orchestras include the Orquesta municipal de Xalapa, Banda Sinfónica del Estado, Orquesta de Música Popular de la UV, Orquesta de salsa de la UV, Orquesta de Guitarras de Xalapa, Tlen Huicani and Orquesta Sinfónica Juvenil del Estado, which is the youth symphony orchestra for Veracruz state.

Son Jarocho also thrives, including noted group Son de Madera.

Notable city landmarks[edit]

  • The Xalapa Cathedral is a mix of Baroque and Neo-Gothic design built in 1773. It has a clock tower, the clock coming from England.
  • Callejón Diamante (lit. Diamond Alley) is one of the more crowded streets at night because of its Bohemian atmosphere with cafes and an artists' colony. Callejón Jesús te Ampare is a cobblestone street next to the Church of San José .
  • Patio Muñoz is a neighborhood built in the 19th century, with most of the original buildings intact. Here are held workshops in Veracruz-style painting, dance and music.
  • Parque Juárez is a park in central Xalapa with a terrace-like appearance. The southern side of the park looks over the valley below, offering scenic views of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains in the distance.[8] Parque Juárez was the location of the Monastery of San Francisco. It is located among the four oldest neighborhoods of the city. Its central garden features enormous monkey puzzle trees, art gallerys, an agora, workshops, an auditorium and a café.
  • The Jardín de Esculturas (Sculpture Garden) is a museum dedicated to sculpture, exhibiting works by nationally and internationally recognized artists.
  • The Museo Interactivo de Xalapa (Interactive Museum of Xalapa) features a planetarium with an IMAX screen, showing educational documentaries.[9]
  • In the Paseo de los Lagos, there used to be an ancient dam. Today it has footpaths surrounded by leafy trees, circling three lakes and a fresh-water spring.
  • The Parque de los Tecajetes is in a natural depression or ravine of the same name in the center of the city. Underneath is a fresh-water spring that feeds the aqueducts, artificial pools and canals of the park.
  • The Museo de Antropología de Xalapa houses the largest collection of artifacts from Mexican Gulf Coast cultures such as the Olmec, the Huastec and the Totonac with more than 25,000 pieces. The most notable pieces in the museum are the giant Olmec heads and the smaller Totonac ones. Some of the pieces in the museum date back to the Early Pre-Classic Period from 1300 BC −900 BC.[10]
  • Nearby is the Hacienda del Lencero Its first owner was Juan Lencero, a soldier of Hernán Cortés. In 1842 it was purchased by Antonio López de Santa Anna for 45,000 pesos.[11] Today, it is a museum which displays furniture and personal belongings dating from the 19th century. It also has a chapel, spacious gardens and a lake surrounding the property which include a sculpture by Gabriela Mistral who spent time there while in exile.
  • The Jardín Botánico Clavijero (Clavijero Botanical Garden) has an important collection of regional plants with sections dedicated to Mexican ornamental flowers, reconstructed mountain environments in Xalapa, ferns and the most extensive variety of pines in Mexico.[12]

Parks and gardens[edit]

Juárez Park
  • Jardín Botánico de Xalapa
  • Parque Juárez
  • Parque Los Berros
  • Parque Ecológico "Cerro del Macuiltépec"
  • Paseo de Los Lagos
  • Parque Ecológico "El Haya"
  • Parque "Natura"
  • Jardines de la Universidad Veracruzana
  • Parque "Tejar Garnica"
  • Jardín de las Esculturas
  • Parque Ecológico de Los Tecajetes
  • Parque María Enriqueta
  • Parque Revolución
  • Parque Bicentenario
  • Stadium Xalapeño


Education[edit]

The Universidad Veracruzana in Xalapa is the most important in the state of Veracruz

In Xalapa, the basic education is distributed by 195 establishments of pre-school, 196 primary schools and 97 secondary schools. In addition it has 86 institutions which offer baccalaureate, as well as a technical and professional training center (CONALEP). In addition it has several institutions of further education. Of the most important is the Universidad Veracruzana which is also the most important in the state of Veracruz and attracts students not only from across Mexico but worldwide.[13] Established in 1944, the current director of the university is Dr. Patricia Arceo Briseño, a graduate of the University of Delaware.[citation needed] Furthermore, it is associated with the North American Mobility Project, a transnational academic program that links it to Georgia Southern University in the United States and Wilfrid Laurier University in Canada.[14] High Schools ESTI 128 ESTI 97

Universities[edit]

Sport[edit]

Athletics at Heriberto Jara Corona Stadium in 1991.

Xalapa is home to the Halcones UV Xalapa, a very successful professional basketball team. They play in the LNBP

  • The team was created in 2003 and placed 3rd in the LNBP
  • In 2004 they were champions of the south division, and got second overall in the LNBP
  • In 2005 they were champions of the south division and champions of the LNBP
  • In 2006 they were champions of the south division, and got second in the LNBP. They also placed second in the Copa Independencia LNBP
  • In 2007 – 2008 they were champions of the south division and champions of the LNBP
  • In 2008 – 2009 they were champions of the south division and champions of the LNBP. They also placed second in the FIBA de las Americas.

Xalapa also has many sporting facilities. As of 2005, the city has 25 soccer fields, 95 volleyball fields, 95 basketball courts, 36 baseball fields, and 29 multiple-use fields.[15]

Also, the city has 12 gymnasiums, 7 parks, and the notable Heriberto Jara Corona Stadium, inaugurated 1921–1925.[15]

Sportspeople of note hailing from Xalapa include Armando Fernández (an Olympic wrestler), Eulalio Ríos Alemán (an Olympic swimmer and at some time butterfly-stroke record holder in the USA, indicted into the Ft. Lauderdale's International Swimming Hall of Fame), and the track and field athlete Luis Hernández

Industry[edit]

Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) in nearby Alto Lucero, Veracruz, produces about 4.5% of Mexico's electrical energy.

Transportation[edit]

The city is connected by the 140-D Highway with the cities of Veracruz, Puebla and Mexico City. Also the 140 Road provides a link between those cities.

The city has a central bus station (CAXA) which is a nodal point for many bus companies operating in the area, including AU, ADO, ADO-GL, OCC, Auto-Tour and Buses Sierra-Texcoco.

Several bus companies are based in Xalapa including Servicio Urbano de Xalapa (SUX);[16] Auto-Transportes Banderilla (ATB);[17] the yellow and green sets of Interbus,[18] Auto-Transportes Miradores Del Mar;[19] and Transportes Rápidos de Veracruz (TRV)[20] amongst many others.

There is also a bus service which exclusively takes passengers back and forth from Xalapa to Coatepec. These buses operate all over the city, with a cost per person ranging from 6.00 to 8.00 Mexican pesos; discount is offered to the elderly and to students who normally pay 5.00 Mexican pesos within the urban area. There are over 100 bus routes in the city.

The taxis that operate in Xalapa are easily recognisable by their white and red paintwork. The most abundant taxis are of the Nissan Tsuru model. Typically, taxi drivers do not charge based on taximeter.

The city of Xalapa is served by a small airport, El Lencero Airport,[21] located 15 minutes by road from the city. The only commercial airline that serves the city is Aeromar with non-stop flights to and from Mexico City.

Healthcare[edit]

The demand for medical services by the population of the municipality, is taken care of by publicly and privately owned institutions. The medical units in Xalapa provide external advisory services, general and specialized hospitalization that are equipped with laboratories for clinical medical analyses including X-rays, obstetrical, gynaecological and paediatric equipment.[22]

The public institutions of the health sector that provide services are:

  • Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social IMSS,
  • Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado ISSSTE,
  • Centro de Especialidades Médicas CEM,
  • Petróleos Mexicanos PEMEX,
  • Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional SDN
  • Secretaría de Salud de Veracruz SESVER,
  • Centro de Rehabilitación y Educación Especial de Veracruz CREEVER,
  • Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia DIF.[22]

In the private sector the municipality counts on important medical establishments such as:

  • Sanatorio San Francisco,
  • Clínica del American Hospital,
  • Clínica de especialidades Las Palmas,
  • Vital Clínica Hospital,
  • Cruz Roja Mexicana,
  • Centro Médico de Xalapa,
  • Clínica Millenium
  • Hospital Ángeles.[22]

Media[edit]

A narrow street in Xalapa, better known as Callejones.

Newspaper[edit]

Notable newspapers produced or circulated in Xalapa include www.Xalapa.MX Diario de Xalapa, Diario AZ, Diario el Portal de Xalapa, Diario la Opinión, Periodico Marcha, Periodico Al Calor Politico, Periodico Agronomica, Milenio and the Lider. As well, important agency of news on line, like RadioVer www.radiover.com and magazine Revista Era www.revistaera.com t

Radio[edit]

The city is served by numerous radio stations including:

FM:

  • 90.5 Radio de la Universidad Veracruzana
  • 91.7 Amor (Grupo Acir)
  • 95.5 Sensación HD (Oliva Radio)
  • 96.9 Digital 96.9 (AvanRadio)
  • 97.7 La Máquina (AvanRadio)
  • 98.5 Los 40 Principales (AvanRadio, Televisa)
  • 107.7 Radio Más (Radio-Televisión de Veracruz)
  • 104.9 El Patron FM (Oliva Radio)

AM:

  • 550 W Radio (AvanRadio)
  • 610 Ke Buena (AvanRadio)
  • 1040 OK Radio (AvanRadio)
  • 1130 Yo FM 1130 AM(Grupo Radio Capital)
  • 1210 El Patrón (Oliva Radio)
  • 1460 ABC Xalapa Radio (Grupo ABC)
  • 1550 Radio Universidad Veracruzana

Television[edit]

Television channels include:

Cable services include:

Notable people from Xalapa[edit]

Antonio López de Santa Anna, born in Xalapa, is one of the most emblematic figures in Mexican history.

Politicians[edit]

Writers[edit]

Educators[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Artists[edit]

Doctors[edit]

Benefactors[edit]

The municipality[edit]

The Cofre de Perote hills

Xalapa is situated in eastern-central Mexico, approximately 55 miles (89 km) northwest of Veracruz city.[23] and roughly 350 kilometres from Mexico City. The municipality of Xalapa has an area of 118.45 square kilometres which comprises 0.16% of Veracruz state. It borders to the north with Banderilla, Jilotepec and Naolinco, to the east with Actopan and Zapata, to the south with Coatepec and the west with Tlalnelhuacoyan.

The city of Xalapa is located beneath the volcanic peaks of the Sierra Madre Oriental, at an elevation that oscillates from 1400 metres to 1700 metres above sea level, and is surrounded in lush tropical vegetation.[24] This mountainous area of Mexico is volcanic, and in the area surrounding the city are places such as the Naolinco volcanic field. Located north of the city, it consists of a broad area of scattered quaternary pyroclastic cones and associated basaltic lava flows.

Naolinco volcanic field, north of Xalapa city

Situated east, about 50 km (31 mi) away along Mexican Federal Highway 140 is the Cofre de Perote National Park. The park covers an area of 117 km2 (29,000 acres), and consists of mainly forested mountains and hills. Its highest point of Cerro de Macuiltépetl rises 1522 metres above sea level. Other hills of prominence include the Cerro de Acalotépetl and the Cerro Colorado.

From Xalapa you can also see the Pico de Orizaba, the highest peak in Mexico (5,366m or 18,490 feet). It is also the third highest peak in North America.

Hydrographically, there are numerous streams and springs which are in the area around the city.[24] These include the rivers: Sedeño River, Carneros River, Sordo River, Santiago River, Zapotillo River, Castillo River and the Coapexpan River, 3 artificial lakes and the springs Chiltoyac, Ánimas, Xalitic, Techacapanand Tlalmecapan.[24] Jalcomulco is located 39 km (24 mi) southeast of Xalapa which has numerous natural features, such as the mouth of the Pescados River. Cascada de Texolo (Texolo Waterfall) is located 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Xalapa, in the town of Xico. It is an 80 meters (260 feet) waterfall that drops into a lush canyon, home to numerous animal species.

Climate[edit]

Xalapa, Veracruz
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
42
 
22
11
 
 
38
 
23
11
 
 
46
 
27
14
 
 
61
 
27
16
 
 
121
 
28
17
 
 
328
 
26
16
 
 
203
 
25
16
 
 
171
 
26
16
 
 
270
 
26
16
 
 
105
 
25
15
 
 
67
 
24
14
 
 
50
 
23
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [25]
Overlooking the Paseo de los Lagos in Xalapa

Xalapa features a humid subtropical climate that borders on a subtropical highland climate under the Köppen climate classification. The climate in Xalapa is semi-humid, but the city is relatively cool being located in the mountains over 1400 metres above sea level. The climate can be variable, having a maximum temperature of 37.3 °C and a minimum ranging from 0 °C to 10 °C, but on average the temperature does not fluctuate greatly all year round with an average annual temperature of 18 °C. The warmer season in Xalapa tends to fall between March and reaching a peak in May when the average high reaches 28 °C and low of 17 °C. The cooler season is late December, January and February with an average low of 11 °C and an average high of 22 °C.

The average annual precipitation is 1509.1 mm.[26] During the cooler winter months rainfall is at a minimum, with Xalapa receiving only 42 millimetes in January and 38 millimetres in February on average. Snow, however, is common in winter outside the city at Perote, located around 35 minutes from Xalapa. Very early in the morning, Xalapa often has a mist, giving it a characteristic mountain atmosphere. The greatest rainfall occurs during the summer months, particularly in June, when on average rainfall reaches 328 millimetres, remaining relatively high until mid-September.

Climate data for Xalapa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
33.4
(92.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.0
(98.6)
38.4
(101.1)
36.0
(96.8)
31.5
(88.7)
31.9
(89.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.9
(91.2)
33.0
(91.4)
32.4
(90.3)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
22.8
(73)
26.6
(79.9)
26.9
(80.4)
28.3
(82.9)
25.8
(78.4)
25.2
(77.4)
25.7
(78.3)
25.7
(78.3)
25.0
(77)
23.7
(74.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.0
(77)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
17.0
(62.6)
20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
22.8
(73)
20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
20.1
(68.2)
18.8
(65.8)
17.4
(63.3)
19.8
(67.6)
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
11.2
(52.2)
14.2
(57.6)
15.5
(59.9)
17.3
(63.1)
16.1
(61)
15.9
(60.6)
16.2
(61.2)
16.4
(61.5)
15.2
(59.4)
14.0
(57.2)
12.2
(54)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
2.5
(36.5)
7.8
(46)
8.0
(46.4)
10.5
(50.9)
10.0
(50)
11.0
(51.8)
9.5
(49.1)
9.8
(49.6)
9.8
(49.6)
6.8
(44.2)
3.5
(38.3)
0.2
(32.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 42.2
(1.661)
37.7
(1.484)
45.6
(1.795)
61.3
(2.413)
121.1
(4.768)
327.7
(12.902)
203.4
(8.008)
171.2
(6.74)
269.8
(10.622)
104.9
(4.13)
66.5
(2.618)
49.5
(1.949)
1,500.9
(59.091)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.3 10.5 10.4 8.9 11.2 19.3 17.4 16.1 17.6 15.8 11.2 12.1 161.8
 % humidity 75 73 71 69 72 78 77 76 79 78 76 75 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.4 138.7 150.5 138.8 142.8 124.2 144.5 165.0 116.7 126.3 137.0 127.8 1,651.7
Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional[25]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (humidity and sun)[27]

Economy[edit]

Xalapa is often called the “Flower Garden of Mexico”[23] and flowers play an important role in the economy. Xalapa is one of the most important places for Coffee production in Mexico due to its ideal climate, and coffee beans are grown on both smallholdings and large estates in the surrounding mountains.[23] The tobacco industry also forms a part of the local economy with the process of producing cigarettes, and the growing of tropical fruits.[23] Processed foods and beverages are also produced in Xalapa.

The municipality has a total surface of 5,261,400 hectares, of which 3,457,363 hectares are seeded for agricultural production.[28] The main agricultural products in the municipality of Xalapa are maize, sugar cane, orange green chili and coffee.[28] Approximately an area of 4,500 hectares is dedicated to cattle ranching, including the rearing of pigs, horses and goat.[28] Bird-raising and avicultural farms have certain importance in Xalapa.[28] Warehouses and factories for making of footwear, clothes, books are also present in Xalapa. In the municipality as of 2005 it had 75 hotels, 223 restaurants and 25 travel agencies.

The supermarket chain Chedraui is based in Xalapa.[28] Employment structure in Xalapa in 2005:

Industry sector Typical professions  % of population
Primary Industry Farming, cattle ranching, hunting and fishing 4.21[28]
Secondary Industry Petroleum Mining, extraction and natural gas, manufacturing, industry, electricity, water and construction 19%[28]
Tertiary Industry Commerce, transport and communications, financial, social and administrative services 70%[28]
Unspecified 2.9%[28]

Sister cities[edit]

Books published about Xalapa[edit]

  • Una excursión a Jalapa en 1875 by Guillermo Prieto
  • El Libro Azul del Estado de Veracruz (1923). México, el País del Porvenir (bilingual, Spanish and English). México, Compañía Editorial Pan-Americana, S. A. Edición facsimilar de la Editora del Gobierno, 2007; reprint 2008.
  • Arquilla Abierta (ca.1980) by Ana Güido de Icaza
  • Xalapa de mis recuerdos (1986) by Aureliano Hernández Palacios
  • Bocetos Antiguos de Xalapa (1991) by Rubén Pabello Acosta
  • Trazos de una vida, bosquejos de una Ciudad. El pintor Carlos Rivera y Xalapa (2009) by Alicia Bazarte Martínez. México, Instituto Politécnico Nacional / Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz, 2009.
  • Politics and Privilege in a Mexican City (Stanford University Press, 1972), by Richard Fagen and William S. Tuohy

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Promete Américo Zúñiga una nueva historia mejor para Xalapa". Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática.
  3. ^ a b "Xalapa, Mexico:History". University of Texas, Austin. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Xalapa:Historia". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  5. ^ See William K. Boone
  6. ^ "Xalapa:Gastronomía". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  7. ^ "Orquesta Sinfónica de Xalapa:History". Orquesta Sinfónica de Xalapa. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  8. ^ "Xalapa Sights:Parque Juárez". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  9. ^ "Museo Interactivo de Xalapa". Museo Interactivo de Xalapa. October 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  10. ^ "Museo Antropología". Xalapa.net. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  11. ^ "Museo del Lencero". Xalapa.net. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  12. ^ Triedo, Nicolas (February 2008). "Fin de semana en Xalapa". Guía México Desconocido 372: 42–48. 
  13. ^ "Universidad Veracruzana". Universidad Veracruzana. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  14. ^ "Projects funded under the Program for North American Mobility in Higher Education". Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  15. ^ a b "Xalapa:Deportes". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  16. ^ "Busca tu ruta del Servicio Urbano". Sociedad Cooperativa Auto-Transportes de Camioneros del Servicio Urbano de Jalapa. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  17. ^ "Secretaria de Trabajo" (PDF). Veracruz Gobierno del Estado. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  18. ^ "Interbus". Servicio Urbana Jalapa. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  19. ^ "Informe del 12 al 18 de febrero de 2007". Gobierno de Mexico. 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  20. ^ "Acervo Fotográfico Busexpress México". Busexpress México. October 2006. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  21. ^ "Lenecero Airport". World Aero Data. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  22. ^ a b c "Xalapa:Salud". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Xalapa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  24. ^ a b c "Xalapa:Geografia". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  25. ^ a b "SERVICIO METEOROLÓGICO NACIONAL, NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1971-2000". Smn.cna.gob.mx. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  26. ^ "Xalapa:Clima". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  27. ^ "Normales climatológicas para Jalapa Enriquez, Veracruz." (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Xalapa:Economia". Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México. Instituto Nacional para el Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 19°32′24″N 96°55′39″W / 19.54000°N 96.92750°W / 19.54000; -96.92750