|Classification and external resources|
It was first formally characterized in 1954.
Type I xanthinuria can be caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase, which is an enzyme necessary for converting xanthine to uric acid. Type II xanthinuria and molybdenum cofactor deficiency lack one or two other enzyme activities in addition to xanthine oxidase.
Sufferers have unusually high concentrations of xanthine in their blood and urine, which can lead to health problems such as renal failure and xanthine kidney stones, one of the rarest types of kidney stones.
There is no specific treatment beyond maintaining a high fluid intake and avoiding foods that are high in purine.
- Dent CE, Philpot GR (1954). "Xanthinuria, an inborn error (or deviation) of metabolism". Lancet 266 (6804): 182–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(54)91257-X. PMID 13118765.
- Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O (1997). "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria". J. Clin. Invest. 99 (10): 2391–7. doi:10.1172/JCI119421. PMC 508078. PMID 9153281.
- Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O. "Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria". J Clin Invest. 99(10):2391-7. PMID: 9153281
- Kojima T., Nishina T., Kitamura M., Hosoya T., Nishioka K. (1984). "Biochemical studies on the purine metabolism of four cases with hereditary xanthinuria". Clin Chim Acta. 137 (2): 189–98. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(84)90179-7. PMID 6423323.