The city of Xenia, the county seat of Greene County, is nearly surrounded by Xenia Township, although the two are politically independent. The census-designated place of Wilberforce is located in the township's northeast. By area, Xenia Township is the largest political entity in the United States that begins with the letter X, while the city of Xenia is the largest by population.
The township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is also an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, which is held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees.