Xenophora

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Xenophora
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous–Recent
XenophoridApertureView.jpg
A ventral view of a shell of Xenophora pallidula, with attached gastropod shells
XenophoridSideView.jpg
A lateral view of the same shell
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha
Superfamily: Xenophoroidea
Family: Xenophoridae
Genus: Xenophora
Fischer von Waldheim, 1807[1]
Species

See text

Synonyms

Xenophorus (incorrect subsequent spelling of Xenophora Fischer von Waldheim, 1807)

Xenophora, common name the carrier shells, is a genus of medium-sized to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Xenophoridae, the carrier snails or carrier shells.[2] The genus Xenophora is the type genus of the family Xenophoridae.

Xenophora is also the name of the quarterly magazine of the French Conchologist Association.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The name Xenophora comes from two ancient Greek words, and means "bearing foreigners", so-called because in most species the snail cements pieces of rock or shells to its own shell at regular intervals as the shell grows.[4]

Description[edit]

The shells of species within in this genus vary from small to large (diameter of base without attachments 19-90 mm; height of shell 21-60 mm), depressed-conical, with narrow to very narrow, simple peripheral edge, non-porcellanous ventrally. Foreign objects are attached to all whorls, with generally more than 30% of dorsal surface obscured by these objects. The foreign objects are usually medium-sized to large.[5] Although the foreign objects are usually such things as gastropod or bivalve shells, pebbles, or small pieces of coral rock, in some instances a bottle cap has been attached by the snail to its shell.

Species[edit]

The genus Xenophora includes the following species and subspecies:[5][6][7]

Subgenus Xenophora (Austrophora) Kreipl, Alf & Kronenberg, 1999
Subgenus Xenophora (Xenophora) Fischer von Waldheim, 1807
Species brought into synonymy
  • Subgenus Xenophora (Stellaria) Möller, 1832: synonym of Stellaria Möller, 1832
  • Xenophora (Stellaria) testigera (Bronn, 1831): synonym of Stellaria testigera (Bronn, 1831)
  • Xenophora australis Souverbie & Montrouzier, 1870: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) solarioides (Reeve, 1845)
  • Xenophora calculifera (Reeve, 1843): synonym of Stellaria chinensis (Philippi, 1841)
  • Xenophora caperata sensu Petit de la Saussaye, 1857: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) senegalensis Fischer, 1873
  • Xenophora caribaea Petit de la Saussaye, 1857 - Caribbean carriersnail: synonym of Onustus caribaeus (Petit de la Saussaye, 1857)
  • Xenophora cavelieri Rochebrune, 1883: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) senegalensis Fischer, 1873
  • Xenophora digitata Martens, 1878: synonym of Stellaria testigera digitata Martens, 1878
  • Xenophora gigantea (Schepman, 1909): synonym of Stellaria gigantea (Schepman, 1909)
  • Xenophora helvacea Philippi, 1851: synonym of Onustus indicus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Xenophora japonica Kuroda & Habe, 1971: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) japonica Kuroda & Habe, 1971
  • Xenophora konoi Habe, 1953: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) mekranensis konoi Habe, 1953
  • Xenophora laevigata Fischer von Waldheim, 1807: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) conchyliophora (Born, 1780)
  • Xenophora lamberti Souverbie, 1871: synonym of Stellaria lamberti (Souverbie, 1871)
  • Xenophora longleyi Bartsch, 1931 - shingled carriersnail: synonym of Onustus longleyi Bartsch, 1931
  • Xenophora meandrina Fischer von Waldheim, 1807: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) conchyliophora (Born, 1780)
  • Xenophora mediterranea Tiberi, 1863: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) crispa (König, 1825)
  • Xenophora neozelanica Suter, 1908: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) neozelanica neozelanica Suter, 1908
  • Xenophora regularis Habe & Okutani, 1983 : synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) granulosa Ponder, 1983
  • Xenophora tenuis Hirase, 1934: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) tenuis Fulton, 1983
  • Xenophora torrida Kuroda & Ito, 1961 : synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) cerea (Reeve, 1845)
  • Xenophora tricostata Fischer von Waldheim, 1807: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) conchyliophora (Born, 1780)
  • Xenophora tulearensis Stewart & Kosuge, 1993: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) corrugata (Reeve, 1842)
  • Xenophora vulcanica Fischer von Waldheim, 1807: synonym of Xenophora (Xenophora) conchyliophora (Born, 1780)
  • Xenophora wagneri Philippi, 1855: synonym of Onustus indicus (Gmelin, 1791)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fischer von Waldheim J. (1807). Mus. Démid. 3: 213.
  2. ^ WoRMS (2012). Xenophora. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138664 on 2012-06-28
  3. ^ Xenophora.org website [1] accessed 24 April 2014
  4. ^ Xenophora.org website [2] accessed 24 April 2014
  5. ^ a b Kreipl, K. & Alf, A. (1999): Recent Xenophoridae. 148 pp. incl. 28 color plts. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, ISBN 3-925919-26-0.
  6. ^ Powell A. W. B. (1979). New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand. ISBN 0-00-216906-1
  7. ^ OBIS Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database