|General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China|
15 November 2012
|Preceded by||Hu Jintao|
|7th President of the People's Republic of China|
14 March 2013
|Vice President||Li Yuanchao|
|Preceded by||Hu Jintao|
|Chairman of the Central Military Commission|
15 November 2012 (Party Commission)
14 March 2013 (State Commission)
|Preceded by||Hu Jintao|
|Chairman of the National Security Commission|
25 January 2014
|Preceded by||Position established|
|First Secretary of the Central Secretariat of the Communist Party|
22 October 2007 – 15 November 2012
|General Secretary||Hu Jintao|
|Preceded by||Zeng Qinghong|
|Succeeded by||Liu Yunshan|
|Vice President of the People's Republic of China|
15 March 2008 – 14 March 2013
|Preceded by||Zeng Qinghong|
|Succeeded by||Li Yuanchao|
|President of the Central Party School of the Communist Party|
22 December 2007 – 15 January 2013
|Preceded by||Zeng Qinghong|
|Succeeded by||Liu Yunshan|
15 June 1953 |
|Political party||Communist Party|
|Alma mater||Tsinghua University|
Xi Jinping (pinyin: Xí Jìnpíng, pronounced [ɕǐ tɕînpʰǐŋ], born 15 June 1953) is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the President of the People's Republic of China, and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. As Xi holds the top offices of the party, state, and military, he is sometimes informally referred to as China's "paramount leader". As General Secretary, Xi is also an ex officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body.
Son of communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, Xi Jinping rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. He served as the Governor of Fujian between 1999 and 2002, then as Governor and Party Secretary of the neighboring Zhejiang between 2002 and 2007. Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as the Party Secretary for a brief period in 2007. Xi was promoted to the Politburo Standing Committee and Central Secretariat in October 2007 and was groomed to become Hu Jintao's successor. He served as Vice-President of the People's Republic of China between 2008 and 2013.
Xi is now the leader of the People's Republic's fifth generation of leadership. He has initiated a renewed campaign against corruption, further market economic reforms, governing with greater emphasis on the law and legal institutions, and a comprehensive national renewal under the neologism "Chinese Dream".
- 1 Early life
- 2 Rise to power
- 3 Politburo Standing Committee member
- 4 Leader of China
- 5 Political positions
- 6 Personal life
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Xi Jinping was born on 15 June 1953 in Beijing. His father, Xi Zhongxun (1913–2002), was a Communist revolutionary figure. After the founding of the Communist state in 1949, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, Vice-Premier, and Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Shaanxi, and Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. He is the second son of Xi Zhongxun and his wife Qi Xin.
When Xi was 10, his father was purged and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, Xi's secondary education was cut short by the Cultural Revolution, when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Xi was 15 when his father was jailed in 1968 during the Cultural Revolution. Without the protection of his father, Xi went to work in Yanchuan County, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. He later became the Party branch secretary of the production team. When he left in 1975, he was only 22 years old. When asked about this experience later by state television, Xi recalled it saying, "It was emotional. It was a mood. And when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."
From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University as a "Worker, Peasant, PLA" student (gongnongbing xuesheng). In 1975, education was more political and practical than professional, and Tsinghua University "was no longer so much a centre of learning, but functioned as a liaison office, where science and engineering majors spent 80% of their time on learning practical subjects and working in factories, 15% of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought and 5% of their time doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army". Commenting on the quality of this education, Joseph Fewsmith wrote; "it was probably a decent education, but not as good as he would have received prior to, much less after, the Cultural Revolution".
From 1998 to 2002, he studied Marxist philosophy and ideological education in an "on-the-job" postgraduate programme at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, again at Tsinghua University, and obtained a Doctor of Law (LLD) degree, which was a degree covering fields of law, politics, management, and revolutionary history. However, commentators have questioned this qualification, pointing out a series of problems with it. The Sunday Times of London commissioned scholars to read the unpublished PhD thesis who noted that the content has little to do with law, appears to contain no original research, and reads like a collection of quotes from existing published works. Writer Joe Chung compared Xi's works with those of other scholars and found that numerous passages had been copied from previously published works or works published around the same time as Xi's. In one case, citations were shown to have been copied from another work, including misspellings and punctuation errors in that previously published work. Based on this research, Chung raised the question of whether Xi plagiarised his PhD. The Sunday Times article also noted the poor esteem of his previous qualifications and speculated that the PhD was invented by a committee in order to improve Xi's public image.
From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the then vice premier and Secretary-General of the Central Military Commission. This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study American agriculture, he visited the town of Muscatine, Iowa.
Rise to power
Xi joined the Communist Youth League in 1971 and the Communist Party of China in 1974. In 1982, he was sent to Zhengding County in Hebei as Deputy Secretary to the CPC Zhengding County Committee, and was promoted in 1983 to Secretary of the CPC Zhengding County Committee. Xi subsequently served in four provinces during his political career: Shaanxi (during the Cultural Revolution, 1969–1975), Hebei (1982–1985), Fujian (1985–2002), and Zhejiang (2002–2007).
Xi held Party positions in the CPC Fuzhou Municipal Committee and became the president of the Party School in Fuzhou in 1990. In 1999, he was promoted to the Deputy Governor of Fujian, then became Governor a year later. While there, he made efforts to attract investment from Taiwan and to boost free-market economy. In February 2000, he and provincial Party Secretary Chen Mingyi were called before the top four members of the Party Central Politburo Standing Committee – General Secretary Jiang Zemin, Premier Zhu Rongji, Vice-President Hu Jintao and Discipline Inspection secretary Wei Jianxing to explain aspects of the Yuanhua scandal.
In 2002, Xi took up senior government and Party positions in Zhejiang, and eventually took over as party chief after several months as acting Governor, becoming the first-in-charge in the province. Xi was then made an alternate member of the 15th CPC Central Committee and holds the membership of the 16th CPC Central Committee, marking his ascension to the national stage. While in Zhejiang, Xi provided the economic environment which secured growth rates averaging 14% per year. His career in Zhejiang was marked by tough and straightforward stance against corrupt officials, which earned him a name on the national media and drew the attention of China's top leaders.
Following the dismissal of Shanghai Party Chief Chen Liangyu in September 2006 due to a social security fund scandal, Xi was transferred to Shanghai in March 2007 to become the new Party Chief of Shanghai. Xi's appointment to one of the most important regional posts in China was clearly a sign of confidence from the Central Government. While in Shanghai he was careful not to touch any controversial issues while largely echoing the line of the central leadership. Xi's career is notable in that during his regional tenures, he was never implicated in any serious scandals, nor did he face serious political opposition.
Politburo Standing Committee member
Xi's appointment to the Party Secretary post in Shanghai was seen as a stepping stone for him to become an emerging member of the fifth generation of Chinese leadership. Xi was appointed to the nine-man Politburo Standing Committee at the 17th Party Congress in October 2007. Xi was ranked above Li Keqiang, an indication that he was going to succeed Hu Jintao as China's next leader. In addition, Xi also held the top-ranking membership of the Communist Party's Central Secretariat. This assessment was further supported at the 11th National People's Congress in March 2008, when Xi was elected as Vice-President of the People's Republic of China. Some suggest Xi's elevation was because Xi had kept friendly relations with both Hu Jintao and the other power figure in the central leadership, Zeng Qinghong.
Following his elevation, Xi has held a broad range of portfolios. He was put in charge of the comprehensive preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, as well as being the central government's leading figure in Hong Kong and Macau affairs. In addition, he also became the new President of the Central Party School, the cadre-training and ideological education wing of the Communist Party. In the wake of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, Xi visited disaster areas in Shaanxi and Gansu. Xi made his first foreign trip as Vice President to North Korea, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Yemen from 17 to 25 June 2008. After the Olympics, Xi was assigned the post of Committee Chair for the preparations of the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the founding of the People's Republic of China. He was also reportedly at the helm of a top-level Communist Party committee dubbed the 6521 Project, which was charged with ensuring social stability during a series of political sensitive anniversaries in 2009.
Xi is considered to be one of the most successful members of the Crown Prince Party, a quasi-clique of politicians who are descendants of early Chinese Communist revolutionaries. At the time, Senior leaders considered Xi to be an emerging figure that is open to serious dialogue about deep-seated market economic reforms and even political reform, although Xi's personal political views were mostly unknown to the outside world.[clarification needed] He had a reputation of being popular with foreign dignitaries, who are intrigued by his openness and pragmatism. Former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, when asked about Xi, said he felt he was "a thoughtful man who has gone through many trials and tribulations." Lee also commented: "I would put him in the Nelson Mandela class of persons. A person with enormous emotional stability who does not allow his personal misfortunes or sufferings affect his judgment. In other words, he is impressive". Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson described Xi as "the kind of guy who knows how to get things over the goal line." Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that Xi "has sufficient reformist, party and military background to be very much his own man."
In February 2009, in his capacity as Vice-President, Xi Jinping embarked on a tour of Latin America, visiting Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil to promote Chinese ties in the region and boost the country's reputation in the wake of the global financial crisis. He also visited Valletta, Malta, before returning to China.
On 11 February, while visiting Mexico, Xi spoke in front of a group of overseas Chinese and explained China's contributions to the financial crisis, saying that it was "the greatest contribution towards the whole of human race, made by China, to prevent its 1.3 billion people from hunger". He followed with a rather direct accusation for "foreigners" trying to interfere in Chinese affairs, a subject that has always been sensitive in Chinese political circles. In Chinese, Xi remarked: "There are some bored foreigners, with full stomachs, who have nothing better to do than point fingers at us [China]. First, China doesn't export revolution; second, China doesn't export hunger and poverty; third, China doesn't come and cause you headaches, what more is there to be said?" The story was reported on some local television stations. The news led to a flood of discussions on Chinese internet forums. It was reported that the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs was caught off-guard by Xi's non-diplomatic remarks, as the actual video was shot by some accompanying Hong Kong reporters and broadcast on Hong Kong TV, which then turned up in various internet video websites.
Xi continued his international trips, some say to burnish his foreign affairs credentials prior to taking the helm of China's leadership. Xi visited Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 7 to 21 October 2009. Xi visited Japan, South Korea, Cambodia and Myanmar on his Asian trip from 14 to 22 December 2009. Xi made a state visit to South Korea in 4 July, 2014.
Xi visited the United States, Ireland and Turkey in February 2012. The visit included meeting with U.S President Barack Obama at the White House and Vice President Joe Biden, with whom he had met extensively in China in August 2011; and stops in California and Iowa, where he met with the family which previously hosted him during his 1985 tour as a Hebei provincial official.
Leader of China
Accession to top posts
On 15 November 2012, Xi Jinping was elected to the post of General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission by the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, making him – informally – the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China. On the following day, Xi led the new line-up of the Politburo Standing Committee onto the stage in their first public appearance. The new Standing Committee decreased its number of seats from nine to seven, with only Xi himself and Li Keqiang retaining their seats from the previous Standing Committee; the remaining members were new. In a marked departure from the common practice of Chinese leaders, Xi's first speech as General Secretary was plainly worded and did not include any political slogans or mention of his predecessors. Xi mentioned the aspirations of the average person, remarking, "Our people [...] expect better education, more stable jobs, better income, more reliable social security, medical care of a higher standard, more comfortable living conditions, and a more beautiful environment." Xi also vowed to tackle corruption at the highest levels, alluding that it would threaten the Party's survival; he was reticent about far-reaching economic reforms.
In December 2012, Xi visited Guangdong in his first trip outside of Beijing since taking the Party leadership. The overarching theme of the trip was to call for further economic reform and a strengthened military. Xi paid tribute to the statue of Deng Xiaoping and his trip was described as following in the footsteps of Deng's own southern trip in 1992, which provided the impetus for further economic reforms in China after conservative party leaders stalled many of Deng's reforms in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Xi also visited the Haikou destroyer, which had been patrolling the South China Sea, and also gave a speech to the Guangzhou military region. On his trip, Xi consistently alluded to his signature slogan the "Chinese Dream." "This dream can be said to be the dream of a strong nation. And for the military, it is a dream of a strong military", Xi told sailors. Xi's trip was significant in that he departed from established convention of Chinese leaders' travel routine in multiple ways. Rather than dining out, Xi and his entourage ate regular hotel buffet. He traveled in a large van with his colleagues rather than a fleet of limousines, and did not restrict traffic on the parts of the highway he traveled on.
Xi was elected President of the People's Republic of China on 14 March 2013, in a confirmation vote by the 12th National People's Congress in Beijing. He received 2,952 for, one vote against, and three abstentions. He replaced Hu Jintao, who retired after serving two terms. Although the presidency is officially a ceremonial post,[a] in recent years it has become customary for the general secretary to assume the presidency as confirmation of his rise to power.
The liberal reformer Li Yuanchao was elected as Vice President in a 2839 to 80 vote, becoming the first vice-president not to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee since Rong Yiren in 1998.
In his new capacity as President, on 16 March Xi expressed support for noninterference in China–Sri Lanka relations amid a United Nations Security Council vote to condemn that country over government abuses during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
On 17 March, Xi and his new ministers arranged a meeting with the chief executive of Hong Kong, CY Leung, confirming his support for Leung. Within hours of his election, Xi discussed cyber security and North Korea with U.S. President Barack Obama over the phone, who announced the visits of Treasury and State secretaries Jacob Lew and John F. Kerry to China on the following week.
Xi also affirmed China's commitment to continued good relations with Pakistan. Within a week of his assuming the Presidency, Xi embarked on a trip to Russia, Tanzania, South Africa, and Republic of Congo.
In November 2013, at the conclusion of the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee, the Communist Party delivered a far-reaching reform agenda that alluded to changes in both economic and social policy. Xi signaled at the plenum that he was consolidating control by reining in the massive internal security organization that was formerly the domain of Zhou Yongkang. A new National Security Commission was formed with Xi Jinping at its helm. The Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms – another ad-hoc policy coordination body led by Xi – was also formed to oversee the implementation of the reform agenda.
The reforms, termed "comprehensive deepening reforms" (quanmian shenhua gaige) were said to be the most significant since Deng Xiaoping's 1992 "Southern Tour". In the economic realm, the Plenum announced that "market forces" would begin to play a "decisive" role in allocating resources. This meant that the state would gradually reduce its involvement in the distribution of capital, and restructure state-owned enterprises to allow further competition, potentially by attracting foreign and private sector players in industries that were highly regulated previously. This policy aimed to address the bloated state sector that had unduly profited from an earlier round of re-structuring by purchasing assets at below-market prices, assets which were no longer being used productively. The Plenum also resolved to abolish the laogai system of "re-education through labour" which was largely seen as a blot on China's human rights record. The system has faced significant criticism for years from domestic critics and foreign observers. The one-child policy would also be relaxed, allowing two children per family where one parent is an only child.
David Gosset, the Director of Academia Sinica Europaea at the China Europe International Business School, named Xi Jinping the "person of the year" in 2013. Gosset said that Xi's penchant for taking action combined with his affable modesty made him and his country stand in sharp contrast to the political deadlock in the United States and Europe.
In December 2013, Xi showed up unannounced at a small Beijing restaurant to have steam buns (baozi) for lunch, with only one person accompanying him. He paid for the meal himself and dined with regular patrons. Xi was applauded for the 'common touch' of the visit, and images were circulated widely on social media.
Xi vowed to crack down on corruption almost immediately after he ascended to power at the 18th Party Congress. In his 'inaugural speech' as General Secretary, Xi mentioned that fighting corruption was one of the toughest challenges for the party. A few months into his term, Xi outlined the "eight point guide", listing out rules intended to curb corruption and waste during official party business; it aimed at stricter discipline on the conduct of party officials. Xi also vowed to root out "tigers and flies", that is, high-ranking officials and ordinary party functionaries. During the first two years of Xi's term, he initiated bold cases against former Central Military Commission Chairman Xu Caihou, as well as former Politburo Standing Committee member and security chief Zhou Yongkang.
Along with new disciplinary chief Wang Qishan, Xi's administration spearheaded the formation of "centrally-dispatched circuit work teams" (中央巡视组), essentially cross-jurisdictional squads of officials whose main task was to gain more in-depth understanding of the operations of provincial and local party organizations, and in the process, also enforce party discipline mandated by Beijing. Many of the work teams also had the effect of identifying and initiating investigations on high-ranking officials. Over fifty provincial-ministerial level officials were implicated during a massive nationwide anti-corruption campaign. These include former and current regional officials (Su Rong, Bai Enpei, Wan Qingliang), leading figures of state-owned enterprises and central government organs (Song Lin, Liu Tienan), and highly-ranked generals in the military (Gu Junshan). In June 2014, the Shanxi provincial political establishment was decimated, with four officials dismissed within a week from the provincial party organization's top ranks.
Xi coined the phrase "Chinese Dream" to describe his overarching plans for China as its leader. It is used to describe the aspiration of individual self-improvement in Chinese society. Although the phrase has been used previously by journalists and scholars, a translation of a New York Times article written by the American journalist Thomas Friedman, "China Needs Its Own Dream", has been credited with popularizing the concept in China. Friedman attributes the term to Peggy Liu and the environmental NGO JUCCCE's China Dream project, which defines the Chinese Dream as sustainable development. In 2013, the slogan became widespread in the media. In May 2013, Xi called upon young people "to dare to dream, work assiduously to fulfill the dreams and contribute to the revitalization of the nation". He called upon all levels of the Party and the government to facilitate favorable conditions for their career development. Xi told young people to "cherish the glorious youth, strive with pioneer spirit and contribute their wisdom and energy to the realization of the Chinese dream".
Reporters have noted that, "Mr Xi had seen the American dream up close, having spent a couple of weeks in 1985 with a rural family in Muscatine, Iowa. (He revisited them during a trip to America in 2012 as leader-in-waiting.)"
Xi has reportedly taken on a hard line on security issues as well as foreign affairs, projecting a more nationalistic and assertive China on the world stage. Xi's administration is even more anathema than his predecessors on foreign criticism of what is regarded as China's "internal affairs". Xi's political program calls for a China more united and confident of its own value system and political structure.
Under Xi China has also taken on a more critical stance of North Korea, while improving its relationship with South Korea. China-Japan relations have soured under Xi's administration; the most thorny issue between the two countries remains the dispute over the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. In response to Japan's continued hard-line stance on the issue, China declared a Air Defense Identification Zone in November 2013.
Xi has called China-U.S. relations in the contemporary world a "new type of great power relations", a phrase the Obama Administration has been reluctant to embrace. Under his administration the Strategic and Economic Dialogue that began under Hu Jintao has continued. On China-U.S. relations, Xi said, "If [China and the United States] are in confrontation, it would surely spell disaster for both countries". Xi met with President Obama privately at the Sunnylands ranch in California in 2013, in what became known as the "shirtsleeves summit". The U.S. has been critical of Chinese actions in the South China Sea.
Xi has also cultivated stronger relations with Russia, particularly in the wake of the Ukraine crisis of 2014. Xi seems to have developed a strong personal relationship with President Vladimir Putin, both of whom are viewed as strong leaders with a nationalist orientation who are not afraid to assert themselves against Western interests. Xi attended the opening ceremonies of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Under Xi, China signed a $400 billion gas deal with Russia; China has also become Russia's largest trading partner.
Xi has also tacitly spoken out critically on the U.S. "strategic pivot" to Asia. Addressing a regional conference in Shanghai on 21 May 2014, Xi called on Asian countries to unite and forge a way together, rather than get involved with third party powers, seen as a reference to the United States. "Matters in Asia ultimately must be taken care of by Asians. Asia's problems ultimately must be resolved by Asians, and Asia's security ultimately must be protected by Asians", he told the conference. In November 2014, in a major policy address, Xi has called for a decrease in the use of force, preferring dialogue and consultation to solve the current issues plaguing the relationship between China and its South East Asian neighbors.
Role of Communist Party
During his first years in office, Xi has been repeatedly issuing pronouncements on the supremacy of the Communist Party, largely echoing Deng Xiaoping's line that effective economic reform can only take place within the one-party political framework. Xi's policies have been characterized as "economically liberal but politically conservative" by Cheng Li of the Brookings Institution. The "Document No. 9" is a confidential internal document widely circulated within the Communist Party of China in 2013 by the General Office of the Communist Party of China. The document was first published in July, 2012. The document warns of seven dangerous Western values, including "constitutional democracy", "universal values of human rights" and "civil society". Coverage of these topics in educational materials is forbidden. The release of this internal document, which has introduced new topics that were previously not 'off-limits', was seen as Xi's recognition of the 'sacrosanct' nature of Communist Party rule over China.
Xi's administration has also overseen more internet restrictions imposed in China. Xi's term has also marked a further suppression of dissent from civil society, including that which appear in line with Xi's overarching goal of eradicating corruption. Xi's term has seen the arrest and imprisonment of activists such as Xu Zhiyong, as well as numerous others who identified with the New Citizens' Movement. Prominent legal activist Pu Zhiqiang of the Weiquan movement was also arrested and detained. Xi's has been described as preferring highly centralized political power as a means to direct large-scale economic restructuring.
Xi married the prominent Chinese folk singer Peng Liyuan in 1987. Peng Liyuan, a household name in China, was much better known to the public than Xi until his political elevation. The couple frequently lived apart due largely to their separate professional lives. Xi and Peng have a daughter named Xi Mingze, who enrolled as a freshman at Harvard University in the autumn of 2010 under a pseudonym.
Peng described Xi as hardworking and down-to-earth. "When he comes home, I've never felt as if there's some leader in the house. In my eyes, he's just my husband." Peng has played a much more visible role as China's "first lady" compared to her predecessors; for example, Peng hosted U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama on the latter's high-profile visit to China in March 2014. Xi was described in a 2011 The Washington Post article by those who know him as "pragmatic, serious, cautious, hard-working, down to earth and low-key". Xi was also described as a good hand at problem solving and "seemingly uninterested in the trappings of high office." He is also known to love Hollywood films like Saving Private Ryan and The Departed. The Guardian noted that "perhaps more surprisingly" he also praised the independent film maker Jia Zhangke. He is also reported to be a fan of The Godfather movies.
In June 2012, Bloomberg reported that members of Xi's extended family have substantial business interests, although there was no evidence that they had been assisted by Xi's political position. The Bloomberg website was blocked in mainland China in response to the article. Since embarking on an anti-corruption campaign, Xi's family were reported by the New York Times to be selling their corporate and real estate investments beginning in 2012, reportedly to decrease Xi's own political vulnerability.
- The approximate English pronunciation is SHEE JIN-PING.
- Huang, Cary. "Xi Jinping pledges renewal of the nation". South China Morning Post.
- Wang, Xiangwei (November 18, 2013). "Xi moves closer to becoming another paramount leader". South China Morning Post.
- "deckblatt-ca-data sup-form.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "Xi Jinping calls for a Chinese dream, Daily Telegraph". Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- Isogawa, Tomoyoshi (2012). Understand Xi Jinping in 30 Minutes. Japan: United Books. p. 151.
- "Profile: Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping". Radio Free Europe. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "本报独家探访河南邓州习营村". Wen Wei Po. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "与丈夫习仲勋相伴58年 齐心：这辈子无比幸福_读书频道_新华网". Xinhuanet. 28 April 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Bouée, Charles-Edouard, China's Management Revolution: Spirit, Land, Energy, (Palgrave Macmillan, 15 December 2010), p. 93; via Googlebooks. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Watts, Jonathan (26 October 2007). "Most corrupt officials are from poor families but Chinese royals have a spirit that is not dominated by money". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- Denis Fred Simon; Cong Cao (19 March 2009). China's Emerging Technological Edge: Assessing the Role of High-End Talent. Cambridge University Press. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-0-521-88513-3.
- Joseph Fewsmith. Civil-Military Change in China Elites, Institutes, and Ideas after the 16th Party Congress. DIANE Publishing. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-4289-1026-3.
- "Xi Jinping". 30 March 2010.
- "Objection, Mr Xi. Did you earn that law degree?". 11 August 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "Plagiarism and Xi Jinping". 24 September 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Associated Press, "China's Vice-President revisits youth with a trip to the Midwest to meet farming family he stayed with on exchange trip", The Daily Mail, 15 February 2012.
- Ranade, Jayadva (25 October 2010). "China's Next Chairman - Xi Jinping". Centre for Air Power Studies. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Xi Jinping". GlobalSecurity.org. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Yu, Xiao (18 February 2000). "Fujian leaders face Beijing top brass". South China Morning Post.
- "Hu Jintao reelected Chinese president", Xinhua (China Daily), 15 March 2008.
- "Vice-President Xi Jinping to Visit DPRK, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Yemen". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Michael Wines. 'China's Leaders See a Calendar Full of Anniversaries, and Trouble'. The New York Times, 9 March 2009.
- Ansfield, Jonathan (22 December 2007). "Xi Jinping: China’s New Boss And The ‘L’ Word". Newsweek. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "China's Nelson Mandela". Time. 19 November 2007.
- Tang, Eugene (15 March 2008). "China Appoints Xi Vice President, Heir Apparent to Hu". Bloomberg. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Rudd seeks to pre-empt PM's China white paper with his own version The National, David Uren, 5 October 2012
- "Chinese vice president in Mexico to boost trade". Channel NewsAsia. Agence France-Presse. 11 February 2009.
- "Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping speaks during a news conference in Mexico City. Jinping is on a two-day official visit to Mexico.". Associated Press. 10 February 2009.
- "Photo Gallery of the Official Visit of the Vice President of the People's Republic of China and the State Visit of the King and Queen of Spain". Jamaica Information Service. 12 February 2009.
- "China, Jamaica vow to enhance friendly partnership". China Central Television. 13 February 2009.
- Mu Xuequan (17 February 2009). "Chinese vice president concludes official visit to Colombia". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "China Names Colombia Official Tourism Destination". Latin American Herald Tribune.
- Fang Yang (19 February 2009). "Chinese VP meets Venezuelan top legislator on parliamentary co-op, bilateral ties". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Devereux, Charlie (26 September 2012). "China Bankrolling Chavez’s Re-Election Bid With Oil Loans". Bloomberg News.
- "Chinese VP meets Brazilian president on deepening strategic partnership". Xinhua News Agency. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- "Xi Jinping visits Malta". The Embassy of Malta in the People's Republic of China. 23 February 2009.
- Mu Xuequan (22 February 2009). "Roundup: Chinese vice president starts official visit to Malta". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Original: simplified Chinese: 在国际金融风暴中，中国能基本解决13亿人口吃饭的问题，已经是对全人类最伟大的贡献; traditional Chinese: 在國際金融風暴中，中國能基本解決13億人口吃飯的問題，已經是對全人類最偉大的貢獻
- Original: simplified Chinese: 有些吃饱没事干的外国人，对我们的事情指手画脚。中国一不输出革命，二不输出饥饿和贫困，三不折腾你们，还有什么好说的？; traditional Chinese: 有些吃飽沒事干的外國人，對我們的事情指手畫腳。中國一不輸出革命，二不輸出飢餓和貧困，三不折騰你們，還有什麽好說的？
- "AsiaOne.com: Chinese VP blasts meddlesome foreigners". News.asiaone.com. 14 February 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- 記者賴錦宏 (18 February 2009). "習近平出訪罵老外 外交部捏冷汗" [Xi Jinping scored at foreigners, Ministry of foreign affairs had cold sweat]. 聯合報. Retrieved 27 February 2009.[dead link]
- "Vice President Xi Jinping to visit Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania and attend Europalia Chinese Art Festival and China's Guest-of-Honor Activities in Frankfurt Book Fair". Mfa.gov.cn. 10 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Raman, B., "China's Cousin-Cousin Relations with Myanmar" # 3566[dead link], South Asia Analysis Group, 25 December 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "International theologian publishes sermon in seven languages", Korea Times, 2014-11-05, retrieved 2014-11-05
- "Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping heads back to his favourite U.S. town 27 years after he first stayed there", Daily Mail Online, 16 February 2012
- "China Confirms Leadership Change". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "Xi Jinping: China's 'princeling' new leader". Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- "Ending Congress, China Presents New Leadership Headed by Xi Jinping". The New York Times. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "After months of mystery, China unveils new top leaders". CNN. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- Johnson, Ian (November 15, 2012). "A Promise to Tackle China’s Problems, but Few Hints of a Shift in Path". New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- "Full text: China's new party chief Xi Jinping's speech". BBC. 15 November 2012.
- "For Xi, a 'China Dream' of Military Power", 13 March 2013 WSJ
- Chen, Zhuang (10 December 2012). "The symbolism of Xi Jinping's trip south". BBC News. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- BBC News (2012). "China confirms leadership change", BBC, Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Demick, Barbara (3 March 2013). "China's Xi Jinping formally assumes title of president". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
- Moore, Malcolm (14 March 2013). "Xi Jinping becomes China's president". The Sunday Telegraph. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "China's Xi Jinping hints at backing Sri Lanka against UN resolution". Press Trust of India. 16 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Cheung, Tony; Ho, Jolie (17 March 2013). "CY Leung to meet Xi Jinping in Beijing and explain cross-border policies". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "China names Xi Jinping as new president". Agence France-Presse. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "Zardari phones, felicitates Chinese president". Dawn. 17 Narch 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013. Check date values in:
- Chris Buckley, "China’s Leader Tries to Calm African Fears of His Country’s Economic Power", The New York Times, 26 March 2013
- Kroeber, Arthur R. (November 17, 2013). "Xi Jinping's Ambitious Agenda for Economic Reform in China". The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Ouyang, Yadan (19 November 2013). "China Chips Away at One-Child Policy". Science.
- Gossett, David. "Xi Jinping - Person of the Year 2013". Huffington Post.
- "Presidential Style: A New Flavour". The Economist. Jan 4, 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- "Xi Jinping's inaugural Speech". BBC News. November 15, 2012.
- "Elite in China Face Austerity Under Xi’s Rule". The New York Times. March 27, 2013.
- "President Xi’s Anti-Corruption Campaign Biggest Since Mao". Bloomberg. March 4, 2014.
- "Chasing the Chinese dream", The Economist 4 May 2013, pp. 24-26
- Fallows, James (3 May 2013). "Today's China Notes: Dreams, Obstacles". The Atlantic.
- "The role of Thomas Friedman". The Economist. 6 May 2013.
- Fish, Isaac Stone (3 May 2013). "Thomas Friedman: I only deserve partial credit for coining the 'Chinese dream'". Foreign Policy.
- "China Dream". JUCCCE.
- "Xi Jinping and the Chinese Dream", The Economist 4 May 2013, p 11 (editorial)
- Yang Yi, "Youth urged to contribute to realization of 'Chinese dream'", Youth urged to contribute to realization of "Chinese dream" Xinhuanet 4 May 2013
- Kuhn, Robert Lawrence (June 6, 2013). "Xi Jinping, a nationalist and a reformer". South China Morning Post.
- Meng, Angela (September 6, 2014). "Xi Jinping rules out Western-style political reform for China". South China Morning Post.
- Li, Cheng (September 26, 2014). "A New Type of Major Power Relationship?". The Brookings Institution (Interview).
- Osawa, Jun (December 17, 2013). "China’s ADIZ over the East China Sea: A “Great Wall in the Sky”?". Brookings Institution.
- HIROYUKI, AKITA (July 22, 2014). "A new kind of 'great power relationship'? No thanks, Obama subtly tells China". Nikkei Asian Review.
- Ng, Teddy; Kwong, Man-ki (July 9, 2014). "President Xi Jinping warns of disaster if Sino-US relations sour". South China Morning Post.
- Baker, Peter (November 8, 2014). "As Russia Draws Closer to China, U.S. Faces a New Challenge". The New York Times.
- Blanchard, Ben (July 3, 2014). "With one eye on Washington, China plots its own Asia 'pivot'". Reuters.
- "Asian nations should avoid military ties with third party powers, says China's Xi". China National News. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Miller, Matthew. "China's Xi tones down foreign policy rhetoric". CNBC. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- "China’s New Leadership Takes Hard Line in Secret Memo" article by Christopher Buckley in The New York Times August 19, 2013
- Raymond Li (August 29, 2013). "Seven subjects off limits for teaching, Chinese universities told: Civil rights, press freedom and party's mistakes among subjects banned from teaching in order described by an academic as back-pedalling". South China Morning Post. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
- "Chinese dream turns sour for activists under Xi Jinping". Agence France-Presse. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- AFP, above, quoting Joseph Cheng of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
- Elizabeth Yuan (8 November 2012). "Xi Jinping: From 'sent-down youth' to China's top". CNN. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- Magnier, Mark (23 October 2007). "China's 'fifth generation' of leaders reflects nation's shifts". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- "Red Nobility: Xi Jinping's Harvard daughter". Want China Times. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "China's Leaders". BBC. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Beech, Hannah (March 21, 2014). "Michelle Obama Tours Beijing With China’s First Lady". Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Richburg, Keith B. (15 August 2011). "Xi Jinping, likely China’s next leader, called pragmatic, low-key". The Washington Post.
- Buckley, Chris, "China leader-in-waiting carries heavy political baggage to U.S.", Reuters, 8 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Branigan, Tania (13 February 2012). "The Guardian profile: Xi Jinping". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Buckley, Chris, "Xi, in ‘Godfather’ Mold, Looks Assertive and Even Imperial" New York Times, 15 November 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- Karen, Christensen (1 April 2011). "The "Rise of China" Takes on New Meaning". Berkshire Publishing. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- "Xi Jinping Millionaire Relations Reveal Fortunes of Elite". Bloomberg. 29 June 2012.
- Branigan, Tania (29 June 2012). "China blocks Bloomberg for exposing financial affairs of Xi Jinping's family". The Guardian (Beijing). Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Forsythe, Michael (17 June 2012). "As China’s Leader Fights Graft, His Relatives Shed Assets". New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- The office of the President is a prestigious one. The President is the Head of the State. The Constitution of 1982 restores powers and functions of the President of the People's Republic of China and recognizes him as the Head of the State. But he is not the real executive like the American President but only a ceremonial Head. He can be compared with the Indian President or King/Queen of England.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xi Jinping.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Xi Jinping|
- Biography at www.chinavitae.com
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Xi Jinping collected news and commentary at the China Digital Times
- Xi Jinping collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Xi Jinping collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- feature article on Xi, 29 September 2012
- Xi Jinping collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal
- Works by or about Xi Jinping in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- U.S. Embassy Beijing, Portrait of Xi Jinping, via United States diplomatic cables leak
- Osnos, Evan, "China’s Valentine’s Day in Washington", The New Yorker, 14 February 2012. Review of comment accompanying Xi's visit.