Xi Qia

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Aisin-Gioro Xiqia
愛新覺羅·熙洽
Xi Qia.JPG
Xi Qia as a member of the Manchukuo Cabinet
Imperial Household Minister and Interior Minister
In office
21 May 1935 – 1945
Monarch Emperor Puyi
Preceded by Shen Ruiling
Minister of Finance
In office
9 March 1932 – 21 May 1935
Monarch Emperor Puyi
Succeeded by Sun Qichang
Personal details
Born 1883
Shenyang, Liaoning, Qing China
Died 1950
Fushun, Liaoning, People's Republic of China
Citizenship Manchukuo
Alma mater Imperial Japanese Army Academy
Military service
Allegiance Fengtian clique
Manchukuo
Unit Provincial Army of Kirin Province
Other names Hsi Hsia, also Xi Xia
Ethnicity Manchu

Aisin-Gioro Xiqia (Aisin-Gioro Hsi-hsia; Chinese: 愛新覺羅·熙洽; pinyin: Àixīnjuéluó Xīqià; Wade–Giles: Ai4-hsin1-chüeh2-lo2 Hsi1-ch'ia4; 1883–1950), commonly known monomymously as Xi Qia or Xi Xia (Hsi Hsia; Chinese: 熙洽; pinyin: Xīqià; Wade–Giles: Hsi1-hsia4; Hepburn: Ki Kō), was a general in command of the Kirin Provincial Army of the Republic of China, who defected to the Japanese during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and who subsequently served as a cabinet minister in Manchukuo.

Biography[edit]

Xi Qia was an ethnic Manchu of the imperial clan of Aisin Gioro, and a supporter of efforts to create a new Manchu-dominated state in Manchuria after the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in China. As a youth, he studied in Japan at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. He rose to the rank of lieutenant general and commanding officer of the Provincial Army of Kirin Province under the Fengtian clique.

On 23 September 1931, after the Mukden Incident, Xi Qia, was invited by the Japanese government to form a government for Kirin Province. The Imperial Japanese Army succeeded in achieving a bloodless occupation of the capital, Kirin city. General Xi Qia called a meeting of government organizations and Japanese advisors, and on 30 September 1931 issued a proclamation declaring Kirin Province to be independent of the Republic of China, with himself as head of a provisional government.

After the Japanese Kwantung Army completed military control over southern Manchuria in early January 1932, occupying Jinzhou and Shanhaiguan, it turned to the north to secure the remainder of Manchuria. When negotiations with Generals Ma Zhanshan and Ting Chao had come to naught, Japanese Colonel Kenji Doihara in early January 1932 requested that General Xi Qia advance with his forces to take Harbin from the last major Kuomintang force in the north led by General Ting Chao. General Xi Qia advanced to Shuangcheng on 25 January, and fighting began on the morning of the 26th. However, Xi Qia's troops soon suffered a serious reverse and Doihara was forced to call upon the Kwantung Army to assist. To justify this, Colonel Doihara created the Harbin Incident.

The Japanese 2nd Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant General Jiro Tamon, was ordered to go to the rescue of General Xi Qia, and entrained on 28 January. Because of transportation difficulties in the cold winter weather it took seven days for Japanese columns to struggle north over the frozen countryside in temperatures of 30° below zero. Finally they closed in on the Harbin from the west and south on 4 February and took the city on 5 February 1932. Within two months, the state of Manchukuo was established, and Xi Qia was confirmed by the new government as governor of Kirin Province.

A couple of months later, on 29 March 1932, Xi Qia's militia suffered another defeat, this time at the hands of the Anti-Japanese Army For The Salvation Of The Country, a Volunteer Army led by General Li Hai-ching on outside the town of Nong'an, only 35 miles from the Manchukuoan capital of Hsinking. Japanese forces from the east at Yao-men, tried to fight their way through to Nong'an with close air support from IJAAF bombers but the defender's radio ceased broadcasting when Li's forces captured the town. Japanese regular army troops soon drove Li's forces out of Nong'an. Xi Qia was removed from office soon after his defeat and was given a desk job in 1932.

Xi Qia became Minister of Finance of Manchukuo in 1934. He subsequently served as Imperial Household Minister and Interior Minister in 1936. At the end of World War II, he was captured by the Soviet Red Army and held in a Siberian prison until he was extradited to the People's Republic of China in 1950, where he later died in captivity at the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre.

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