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The Sanyi religion (Chinese: 三一教; pinyin: Sanyi jiao; literally: "religion of the Three in the One") or Xiaism (Chinese: 夏教; pinyin: Xia jiao; literally: "religion of summer") is a Chinese religion, a systematisation of the Chinese folk religion including Confucian morality and ancestral worship, Taoist meditation techniques and pursuit of enlightenment (taken from Buddhism). The "Three in One" is a philosophical concept expressing the original trinity proceeding from the Tao, the two principles, yin and yang, of the Great Pole. The Great Pole is the One that contains yin and yang, the Two, in the Three.
It was founded by Lin Zhao'en (1517–98), in Putian, Fujian. After his death, he was deified as the "Lord of the Three-in-One", and is worshipped in over a thousand temples in the Xinghua region of Fujian, and also in Taiwan and Southeast Asia's Chinese communities. Xiaist practices include the "heart method" of self-cultivation, which is still widely practised in Xinghua today.
Xiaism has its independent ritual tradition, rivaling with those of Taoism and Buddhism. Its ritual specialists perform communal offerings (jiao) and funeral services (gongde), along with individual rites. In some communities in the Xinghua region, the Sanyi temple has become the primary village temple, centre of collective life. Annual pilgrimages are made to the religion's central temple, the Zongkongtang, in Putian, Fujian. The religion had over 500.000 adherents in the Xinghua area in 1998.
- Kenneth Dean. Lord of the Three in One: The Spread of a Cult in Southeast China. Princeton University Press, 1998. ISBN 0691028818
- Edward L. Davis. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0415241294
- Edward L. Davis. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. ¶ Sanyi jiao
- Dean, 1998. pp. 36-37
- Dean, 1998. p. 7