Xi'an (Chinese: 西安; pinyin: Xī'ān), formerly romanized as Sian, is the capital of Shaanxi province, located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Guanzhong Plain. One of the oldest cities in China, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming dynasty. Xi'an is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of interior China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administerring 9 districts and 4 counties. According to the 2010 Census, nine urbanized districts of Xi'an has a population of 6,501,189, while the total population of the Municipality is up to 8,467,837. It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China. According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China. The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Administrative divisions
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Culture
- 8 Religion
- 9 Economy
- 10 Education
- 11 International events
- 12 Tourism
- 13 Sports
- 14 Media
- 15 International relations
- 16 See also
- 17 Notes and references
- 18 External links
The two Chinese characters "西安" in the name Xi'an literally mean "Western Peace". During the Zhou dynasty, the area was called Fenghao, with the portion of the city on the west bank of the Feng River called Feng and the portion on the east called Hao. It was renamed Chang'an, meaning "Perpetual Peace", during the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), although it was also sometimes referred to as the Western Capital or Xijing (西京) during the Han dynasty after the capital was moved further east to Luoyang during Eastern Han. It changed in 581 CE to Daxing (大興) during the Sui dynasty then again became Chang'an from 618 during the Tang dynasty. During the Yuan dynasty (1270–1368), the city was first given the name Fengyuan (奉元), followed by Anxi (安西) then Jingzhao (京兆). It finally became Xi'an in 1369 at the time of the Ming dynasty. This name remained until 1928, then in 1930 it was renamed Xijing (西京), or "Western Capital". The city's name once again reverted to its Ming-era designation of Xi'an in 1943.
Xi'an currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do, possibly due to fact that it was historically called Jing (京) or Du (都), both meaning "the Capital", for obvious reasons.[dubious ] Several suggested abbreviations include Feng （丰, the City's first name when it was founded as the new Capital of Zhou, meaning abundance, greatness, and bumper harvest）, Hao (Chinese: 镐; pinyin: Hào, derived from the name of Zhou dynasty's capital Haojing), or Tang (Chinese: 唐; pinyin: Táng, from the name of the Tang dynasty).
Xi'an has a rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Xi'an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year old Banpo Neolithic village was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago. The site is now home to the Xi'an Banpo Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.
11th century BCE to 19th century CE
Xi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BCE with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states. In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang due to political unrest. Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.
In 202 BCE, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (長樂宮, perpetual happiness) was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an, or Xi'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (未央宮, (perpetual happiness) hasn't reached its midpoint yet) north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 km² (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City, or 11 times the size of the Vatican City. The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BCE and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 km (15.97 mi) in length and 12–16 m (39.37–52.49 ft) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 km2 (13.90 sq mi). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.
Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui dynasty united China again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing (大興, great prosperity). It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of 84 km2 (32 sq mi) within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an (長安, Perpetual Peace or Eternal Peace) by the Tang Dynasty. In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, Buddhist monk Xuanzang (popularly known as Tang Sanzang) established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures.
Construction of the Great Wild Goose Pagoda began in 652. This pagoda was 64 m (209.97 ft) in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda began. This pagoda measured 45 m (147.64 ft) tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m (142.39 ft).
Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 km (7.4 mi) in circumference, 12 m (39.37 ft) in height, and 15–18 m (49.21–59.06 ft) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi).
20th century and after
In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing dynasty was overthrown, the Manchus living in the northeastern zone within the city walls were massacred. In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion. On May 20, 1949, The Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army captured the city of Xi'an from the Kuomintang force.
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres (1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). The urban area of Xi'an is located at . The Wei River provides potable water to the city.
The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62 mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.
At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han dynasty: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Land of thousands miles and rich in harvest can be found here, as if this place is belongs to the nation of the heaven.' (《关中左崤函，右陇蜀，沃野千里，此所谓金城千里，天府之国也》) Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.
National Time Service Centre
The Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (临潼), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is 36 km (22 mi) away from Xi'an.
National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.
Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 13.68 °C (56.6 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,646 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109 °F).
|Climate data for Xi'an (normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.0
|Average high °C (°F)||4.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−16
|Precipitation mm (inches)||6.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.6||4.4||6.9||8.4||8.9||9.0||10.0||9.1||10.9||9.7||6.0||3.4||90.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||100.8||103.2||120.8||147.9||171.4||185.3||191.9||195.4||127.0||111.1||98.4||92.8||1,646|
|Percent possible sunshine||32||34||33||38||40||43||44||47||34||32||32||31||37|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration, all-time extreme temperature|
By the end of 2005, Xi'an had a population of 8.07 million. Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million. The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female. Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.
The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.
During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.
|Division||Permanent residents||Hukou residents|
|Total||Percentage||Population density (persons/km2)|
|ISO 3166-2||English||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Seat||Postal code||Subdivisions|
|610100||Xi'an||西安市||Xī'ān Shì||10,096.81||Weiyang District||710000||106||69||1||721||3025|
|610102||Xincheng District||新城区||Xīnchéng Qū||30.13||Xiyi Road Subdistrict (西一路街道)||710000||9||104||1|
|610103||Beilin District||碑林区||Bēilín Qū||23.37||Zhangjiacun Subdistrict (张家村街道)||710000||8||103|
|610104||Lianhu District||莲湖区||Liánhú Qū||38.32||Beiyuanmen Subdistrict (北院门街道)||710000||9||127||5|
|610111||Baqiao District||灞桥区||Bàqiáo Qū||324.50||Fangzhicheng Subdistrict (纺织城街道)||710000||9||37||223|
|610112||Weiyang District||未央区||Wèiyāng Qū||264.41||Zhangjiabao Subdistrict (张家堡街道)||710000||10||93||181|
|610113||Yanta District||雁塔区||Yàntǎ Qū||151.44||Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict (小寨路街道)||710000||8||117||92|
|610114||Yanliang District||阎良区||Yánliáng Qū||244.55||Fenghuang Road Subdistrict (凤凰路街道)||710089||5||2||23||80|
|610115||Lintong District||临潼区||Líntóng Qū||915.97||Lishan Subdistrict (骊山街道)||710600||23||38||284|
|610116||Chang'an District||长安区||Cháng'ān Qū||1,588.53||Weiqu Subdistrict (韦曲街道)||710100||25||31||668|
|610122||Lantian County||蓝田县||Lántián Xiàn||2,005.95||Languan (蓝关镇)||710500||22||9||519|
|610124||Zhouzhi County||周至县||Zhōuzhì Xiàn||2,945.20||Erqu (二曲镇)||710400||22||14||376|
|610125||Hu County||户县||Hù Xiàn||1,279.42||Ganting (甘亭镇)||710300||16||21||518|
|610126||Gaoling County||高陵县||Gāolíng Xiàn||285.03||Luyuan (鹿苑镇)||710200||7||1||4||88|
Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians.
Electric bikes are very popular among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of about 280 bus routes. There are more than 2 million registered automobiles  in Xi'an, so cars play a very important role in people's daily life, which also means frequent traffic jams.
Currently the metro system is designed with 6 lines.
Line 2, running through the city from north (North Railway Station) to south (Weiqu Nan),was the first opened to the public on September 16, 2011. Operations finally began on 28 September 2011. This line is currently 19.9 km long with 17 stations. Line 1 opened on 15 September 2013. As a west-east railway,its 19 stations connects Houweizhai and Fangzhicheng. Construction of Xi'an Metro's Line 3 broke ground in May 2011 and is set to finish in 2015. The rest are planned to be finished around 2020. When completed, the total system will span 251.8 km (156.5 mi); will mainly service the urban and suburban districts of Xi'an municipality, and part of Xianyang City.
On 30 December 2008, a fire accident occurred that was later extinguished within an hour and all workers evacuated safely. Sixty six hours later, on 2 January, another fire occurred at another station on line 2.
Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly BYD Auto made in Xi'an. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas. For the taxis' fare, during the 06:00-23:00,¥7/2Km for the fare fall and ¥1.5/Km later, at night ¥8 for the fare fall and ¥1.8/Km later.
There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway. With 34 platforms, it is the largest railway station in Northwest China. Construction of the station began on September 19, 2008. The station was opened on January 11, 2011. As of May 2012, Xi'an North Station is served only by the fast (G-series and D-series) trains running on the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway; one of them continues south to Hankou. The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations.
Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. There are services from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji, and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway also serves Xi'an. Construction work began on September 25, 2005, the railway opened for service on February 6, 2010. The railway has made air service between Zhengzhou and Xi'an uncompetitive. All passenger flights between the two cities were suspended within 48 days of start of regular high-speed rail service.
Xi'an currently has three ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except where there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.
As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an–Hanzhong Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling. At 15 km (9.3 mi) long the Zhongnan Shan Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia.
Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. It is 41 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Xi'an city centre, and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of the centre of Xianyang. China Eastern Airlines, Hainan Airlines and China Southern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on 3 May 2012.
International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Osaka, Pusan, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei. First direct route between Xi'an and Europe was launched by Finnair on 14 June 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season.
Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5 percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.
- On 6 June 1994, China Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke up in mid-air and crashed near Xi'an, en route to Guangzhou from Xian. A maintenance error was responsible. All 160 people on board died. As of 2013, it remains the deadliest airplane crash ever to occur in mainland China.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (simplified Chinese: 关中人; traditional Chinese: 關中人; pinyin: Guānzhōng rén) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" (simplified Chinese: 关中十大怪; traditional Chinese: 關中十大怪; pinyin: Guānzhōng shí dà guài). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (simplified Chinese: 长安八景; traditional Chinese: 長安八景; pinyin: Cháng'ān bājǐng), a collection of scenic areas in the region.
Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile Town (Chinese: 纺织城; pinyin: Fǎngzhī chéng). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s. Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.
Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" (Chinese: 乱弹; pinyin: Luàntán), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (Chinese: 西秦腔; pinyin: Xi qínqiāng; literally: "Voice of West Qin") in Qin dynasty, and blossomed until Qing dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.
Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Xi'an is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking Company, respectively.
Chinese traditional religion and Taoism
The most influential religions in Xi'an are the Chinese traditional religion and Taoist schools, represented by many major and minor temples. Among these there are a City God Temple, completely reconstructed in the 2010s, and a Temple of Confucius.
In Xi'an there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital. In 1892, Arthur Gostick Shorrock and Moir Duncan founded the Sianfu Mission, in present day Xi'an.
Xi'an, formerly the capital of China, was the first to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in 651 AD. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an. There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the most famous being the Great Mosque.
Actually, debate exists concerning the exact date that Islam has been introduced into China. Though many but not all international and domestic Chinese academics agree that Islam had been introduced into China in 651 AD in Tang Dynasty, others believe it could be traced back earlier in Sui Dynasty Kai Huang period （581-618AD）or later in Zhen Guan period of Tang Dynasty. And questions also remained for the exact geographic location that Islam had been introduced into China, yet a few may mention Xi'an, the capital city of Tang Dynasty at that time, however, Islam may probably came to China via trading. Three of the oldest mosques today in China are located respectively in Guangzhou, Quanzhou and Yangzhou. The mosque in guangzhou is believed to build by Prophet Mohammed's uncle, Saad ibn abi Waqqas. And the mosque in Xi'an may not proved to build in Tang Dynasty, though it is said so. At least, the Great Mosque in Xi'an what we see today was built and/or rebuilt in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). So far, there is no official statistics of the total numbers of Mosques in xi'an , it is around 10-25. including the suburbs. For more information of Chinese Muslims, please refer to Dru. Gladney's works.
As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion. Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP. At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.
Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing. The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5 percent of the city's total. Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals, Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4 percent per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8 percent.
Xi'an is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997–2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software New Town, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment. Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.
|This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Inadequate English. (April 2014)|
Major industrial zones in Xi'an include:
a daily average of 3.7 technology enterprises established in Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone in the year of 2005,from XINHUANET.com 7/28/2005 Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone has more than 16,000 enterprises which ranked second place in all the 88 hi-tech ZONES in China, achieved a total revenue of 522.223 billion yuan. It is worth mentioning that 13 enterprise's annual income is over a hundred billion yuan, 19 enterprise's annual income more than 50 billion, more than 265 enterprise earns over billion yuan each year, Listed companies at home and abroad have accumulated 50, of which the domestic A-share market issued 21 of them, accounting for more than 60% of the province; 4 GEM listed companies, ranking first in the Midwest high-tech zones.
Software and outsourcing industries
The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China.
A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits—with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month—half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2012)|
In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.
Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5 to 8 products with global competitiveness.
In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi), will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.
Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq) company, born and grew up in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University in 1960s.
- Xi'an Jiaotong University (西安交通大学)
- Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)
- Xidian University (西安电子科技大学)
- Chang'an University (长安大学)
- Northwest A&F University(西北农林科技大学)
- Northwest University（西北大学）
- Northwest University of Political Science and Law
- Shaanxi Pre-school Normal University (陕西学前师范学院)
- Shaanxi Normal University (陕西师范大学)
- Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts (西安美术学院)
- Xi'an Conservatory of Music (西安音乐学院)
- Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications (西安邮电大学)
- Xi'an International Studies University(西安外国语大学)
- Xi'an Physical Education Institute (西安体育学院)
- Xi'an Polytechnic University(西安理工大学)
- Xi'an Petroleum University(西安石油大学)
- Xi'an Technological University (西安工业大学)
- Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology(西安建筑科技大学)
- Xi'an University of Arts and Science（Xi‘an University） (西安文理学院)
- Xi'an University of Finance and Economics (西安财经学院)
- Xi'an University of Science and Technology(西安科技大学)
- Xi'an University of Technology (西安理工大学)
- Air force Engineering University (空军工程大学, 1999年由空军电讯工程学院、空军工程学院、空军导弹学院合编组成)
- The Fourth Military Medical University
- The Second Artillery Engineering University of People's Liberation Army (解放军第二炮兵工程学院)
- (PLA) Xi'an Telecommunication College (西安通信学院)
- Shaanxi Institute of International Commerce (陕西国际学院)
- Xi'an Eurasia University (西安欧亚学院)
- Xi'an Fanyi University (西安翻译学院)
- Xi'an International University (西安外事学院)
- Xi'an Peihua University (西安培华学院)
- Xi'an Siyuan University (西安思源学院)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
World Horticultural Expo 2011
Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an.
The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn.
Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity, tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.
The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou dynasty kings located in the city. Xi'an also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han dynasty, with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era. The city has numerous Tang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.
Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:
- The city is surrounded by a well-preserved city wall which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang dynasty.
- The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km (25 mi) to the east of the city centre, in the city's suburbs.
- The Bell Tower and Drum Tower, both are located at the city's central axis.
- The city's Muslim quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.
- The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances (usually at noon and soon after sunset). They protected Buddhist writings in the past.
- The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks
- The Famen Temple and its towering pagoda located on the city's outskirt
- Xi Ming Temple
- Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane
- Xingjiao Temple at Shaolin Yuan (where Xuanzang's Tomb lies)
- Jianfu Temple
- Blue Dragon Temple
- Wangji Temple
- The Banpo Neolithic village is located on the outskirt of the city proper
- The Qianling Mausoleum, one of the many Tang dynasty era tombs located in Xi'an
- The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.
- Mount Zhongnan (终南山)
- Mount Taibai
- Mount Li
- Huaqing Hot Springs, at the foot of Mt. Li, have a history of 6,000 years, the adjacent Huaqing Palace has a history of 3,000 years. Ranked among the Hundred Famous Gardens in China, it also has the status as a National Cultural Relic Protection Unit and a National Key Scenic Area.
- Daming Palace National Heritage Park, site of the former royal residence of the Tang dynasty emperors
- Terracotta Army Museum
- Shanxi History Museum
- Hanyang Tomb Museum, the 1st modern underground museum in China, opened in 2006
- Stele Forest
- Xi'an Museum: October 20, 2006, international council of monuments sites (ICOMOS) international protection centre (IICC) was formally established here
- Mount Cuihua National Geological Park (翠华山国家地质公园)
- Chanba National Wetland Park (浐灞国家湿地公园)
- Daming Palace National Heritage Park
- Mount Li National Forest Park
- Mount Taibai National Forest Park
- Mount Wangshun National Forest Park (王顺山国家森林公园)
- Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park
- Hei He National Forest Park (黑河国家森林公园)
- Louguantai National Forest Park (楼观台国家森林公园)
- Taiping National Forest Park (太平国家森林公园)
- Zhuque National Forest Park (朱雀国家森林公园)
Cuju is a very old football game:
It was improved during the Tang dynasty (618–907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.
Professional sports teams in Xi'an include:
- Chinese Pingpong Association Super League
- Galaxy (银河)
Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an:
- Chinese Football Association Super League
- Chinese Basketball Association
Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team.
Television and radio
- China Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nationwide.
- Shaanxi Television (SXTV) provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces.
- Xi'an Television (XATV) municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming.
- Shaanxi Radio broadcasts music, news.
- Xi'an Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.
- Shaanxi Music Radio: Fm 98.8, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.
- Chinese Business View (华商报) is a popular daily newspaper.
- Xi'an Evening News (Xi'an Wanbao) (西安晚报), with a history of 50 years (1957–2007), is one of the oldest newspapers.
- Sanqin Daily (三秦都市报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province.
- Shaanxi Daily (陕西日报) covers the news of Shaanxi Province and Xi'an.
- New dynasty (新潮) is a popular multilingual online magazine in Xi'an.
Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:
Notes and references
- "Xi'an". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
- It is also called "Sianfu" by many Western authors of the early 20th century. For example, the Catholic Archdiocese of Xian used to be called the Vicariate Apostolic of Sianfu. Adolf S. Waley, The Re-making of China, New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, 1914.
- "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.
- "Xi'an". Encarta. 1993-2008. September 3, 2008. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008.
- "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- "西安市2010年���六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". 西安日报. 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original on November 8, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2014, 2011. Check date values in:
- "最新中国城市人口数量排名（根据2010年第六次人口普查）". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises
- Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 1540.
- Yang, Xiaoping (2010). "Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society". p. 177. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8716-4_8. ISBN 978-90-481-8715-7.
- Stark, Miriam T (2008-04-15). "East Asian plant domestication". Archaeology of Asia. pp. 77–95. ISBN 9781405153034.
- Fuller, Dorian Q; Qin, Ling; Harvey, Emma (2008). "A Critical Assessment of Early Agriculture in East Asia, with emphasis on Lower Yangzte Rice Domestication". Pragdhara: 17–52.
- Meng, Y; Zhang, HQ; Pan, F; He, ZD; Shao, JL; Ding, Y (2011). "Prevalence of dental caries and tooth wear in a Neolithic population (6700-5600 years BP) from northern China". Archives of oral biology 56 (11): 1424–35. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.04.003. PMID 21592462.
- "Banpo Museum in Xi'an". chinamuseums.com. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Third scroll of the Chang'an Annals (长安志) interpreted by Huangfu Mi in his Age of Kings (book) (帝王世紀)
- "China's six major historical capitals - Xi'an's cultural history". Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 2134.
- O. Louis Mazzatenta. "Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army". National Geographic.
- The precise coordinates are )
- "Weiyang Palace: the Largest Palace Ever Built on Earth".
- "History of Xi'an" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Kiang, 12.
- Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.
- Guo Rugui,中国抗日战争正面战场作战记 ,第二部分：从“九一八”事变到西安事变 绥远抗战的巨大影响和军事上的经验
- "Public Government Policy" (in Chinese). City of Xi'an. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- NTSC 国家授时中心简介
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- "西安人口 (Xi'an population)". City of Xi'an, in Chinese. Retrieved 2007-05-16.[dead link]
- "西安市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报" (in Chinese). Xi'an Evening News (西安晚报). 25 May 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- People's Republic of China County-level Division Population Statistics (《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》).
- 小雪, 翟 (2014-07-04). "西安机动车数量突破200万辆". 西安晚报.
- 西安地铁二号线开通 西安迈入"地铁时代" [Xi'an Metro line brings Xi'an into the "metro era"]. China National Radio (in Chinese). Beijing. September 16, 2006.
- "Xi'an Subway Line 2 to begin trial runs on September 28". Global Times. June 29, 2011.
- "市政府召开西安地铁开通试运营新闻发布会". 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
- "Xi’an Subway Line 3 Breaks New Ground". eChinacities.com. May 19, 2011.
- "Xian: the Building of Subway to Start This Year". Travel China Guide. September 14, 2006.
- "Subway Collapse Kills Two in Xi'an". CRIENGLISH.com. China Radio International. August 3, 2009.
- "Growth to continue". Railway Gazette International. DVV Media UK. March 3, 2011.
- Tang Ru (September 20, 2008). 郑西客运专线西安北站将建成大型综合交通枢纽中心 [Zhengzhou to Xi'an: Xi'an North Passenger Station will be a large-scale transport hub]. China Railway Network (in Chinese). www.railcn.net Corporation.
- 西安北列车时刻表 - Xi'an North train schedule
- Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed train starts operation. China Daily. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
- High-speed rail linking central, western China starts operation. iStockAnalyst. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
- High-speed train debuts in W. China. CCTV. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved February 6, 2010].
- China express train forces airlines to stop flights. 03-26-2010 [Retrieved 03-28-2010]. Reuters.
- "陕西年鉴1992" [Shaanxi Yearbook 1992].
- Xian Airport opens new terminal building with strong focus on retail growth
- News report from the New York Times.
- News report from the Kingston Gleaner. NewspaperArchive.com
- Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network
- Xu Wei to rock fans in grand concert. Shenzhen Daily. 2005-07-05 [Retrieved 2014-05-28]. China Daily.
- "陕西小吃-羊肉泡馍". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- "China promove programas diversificados durante o Festival da Primavera". China Radio International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved November 17, 2010. (English)
- "Chinese opera The First Emperor transmitted live into theaters worldwide". People's Daily. January 14, 2007. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- Yuet Chau, Adam (2006). Miraculous response: doing popular religion in contemporary China. Stanford University Press. p. 53. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46–48
- Shorrock, Arthur Gostick (1926). Shensi in Sunshine and Shade. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press.
- "Duncan Papers (Mundus Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom)". Angus Library, Regents Park College.
- Burt, Ernest Whitby (1925). Fifty Years in China: The Story of the Baptist Mission in Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 1875-1925. London: The Carey Press.
- Glover, Richard (1914). Herbert Stanley Jenkins, medical missionary, Shensi, China: with some notices of the work of the Baptist Missionary Society in that country (1914). London: Carey Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-524-07100-4.
- Duncan, Moir Black (1900). The missionary mail to faithful friends and candid critics (the substance of letters written from Shên His). London: Elliot Stock.
- 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission
- Mosques in Xian from www.muslim2china.com
- Walcott, Susan (April 17, 2010). "Xi'an's Maturing Economy". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Xi'an ( Shaanxi ) City Information". Aug 29, 2011. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "City Report: Xi’an". January 17, 2007. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- "Xi’an Economy". The People's Government of Shaanxi. January 1, 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- "Xi'an". Lehman, Lee & Xu. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- People's Daily
- Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government
- "Xi'an to Host World Horticultural Expo" China.org.cn
- "Xi'an". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
- "Sister Cities of Kyoto City". City of Kyoto. Archived from the original on 2014-01-21. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
- "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28.[dead link]
- Heng Chye Kiang. (1999). Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes. Singapore: Singapore University Press. ISBN 9971-69-223-6.
- Woo, J. K. (1964). "A newly discovered mandible of the Sinanthropus type – Sinanthropus lantianensis". Scientia Sinica 13: 801–811. PMID 14170540.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xi'an.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Xi'an.|
|Capital of China (as Hao)
1046 BC-771 BC
|Capital of China (as Chang'an)
|Capital of China (as Chang'an)
|Capital of China (as Daxing)
itself, as Chang'an
itself, as Daxing
|Capital of China (as Chang'an)
Largest cities or towns of China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
|2||Beijing||Beijing||18,827,000||12||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||7,055,071|