The xiao (simplified Chinese: 箫; traditional Chinese: 簫; pinyin: xiāo; Wade–Giles: hsiao, pronounced [ɕi̯ɑ́ʊ̯]) is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute. It is generally made of dark brown bamboo (called "purple bamboo" in Chinese). It is also sometimes (particularly in Taiwan) called dòngxiāo (simplified Chinese: 洞箫; traditional Chinese: 洞簫), dòng meaning "hole." An ancient name for the xiāo is shùdí (豎笛, lit. "vertical bamboo flute", [ʂûtǐ]) but the name xiāo in ancient times also included the side-blown bamboo flute, dizi.
Xiao are today most often pitched in the key of G (with the D above middle C being the lowest note, with all fingers covered), although xiao in other less common keys are also available, most commonly in the key of F. More traditional xiao have six finger holes, while most modern ones have eight; the additional holes do not extend the instrument's range but instead make it easier to play notes such as F natural. There are a further four (sometimes two or six) sound holes situated at the bottom third of the length of the xiao. The blowing hole is at the top end, it may be cut into a 'U' shape, a "V" shape, or at an angle (with or without bone/ivory inlay.) Some xiao have the blowing end entirely cut off, so the player must use the space between their chin and lips to cover the hole fully. There may be a metal joint between the blow hole and the top finger hole for tuning purposes and sometimes also between the last finger hole and the end. The length of the xiao ranges from around 45 cm to over 1.25 m but is usually around 75–85 cm. Usually, shorter xiaos are more difficult to play because of the need to control one's breath more accurately. The angle to play the xiao is around 45 degrees from the body.
Varieties of xiao 
The qinxiao (simplified Chinese: 琴箫; traditional Chinese: 琴簫) or 紫竹箫 （pinyin：“Zi Zhu Xiao") is a version of the xiao, which is narrower and generally in the key of F with eight finger holes, used to accompany the guqin. The narrowness of the qin xiao makes the tone softer, making it more suitable to play with the qin (which is a very quiet instrument). It is also the longest of all xiao types, up to 1.25m.
The nanxiao (simplified Chinese: 南箫; traditional Chinese: 南簫), "Southern xiao") or 洞箫(pinyin: "Dong Xiao"), sometimes called chiba (Chinese: 尺八; , "foot-eight," an old name still used for the Japanese shakuhachi) is a short xiao with open blowing end used in the Nanyin, the local Fujianese opera from Quanzhou.
Related instruments 
A separate instrument, the paixiao (simplified Chinese: 排箫; traditional Chinese: 排簫; pinyin: páixiāo) is a panpipe which was used in ancient China and which, although it remains unusual, has recently had something of a come-back.
- Xiao page from Paul and Bernice Noll site
See also 
- Chinese flutes
- End-blown flute
- Music of China
- Traditional Chinese musical instruments