Xichang Satellite Launch Center

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Xichang Satellite Launch Center
西昌卫星发射中心
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Xichang Satellite Launch Center is located in Sichuan
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Location within Sichuan
Alternative names Base 27
General information
Status Complete
Location Xichang, Liangshan, Sichuan
Coordinates 28°14′45.66″N 102°1′35.60″E / 28.2460167°N 102.0265556°E / 28.2460167; 102.0265556
Opening 1984
Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Xichang2 launch center.gif
Simplified Chinese 西昌卫星发射中心
Traditional Chinese 西昌衛星發射中心

The Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC), also known as the Xichang Space Center, is a People's Republic of China space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) approximately 64 kilometres (40 miles) northwest of Xichang, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan.

The facility became operational in 1984 and is primarily used to launch powerful thrust rockets and geostationary communications and weather satellites. It is notable as the site of Sino-European space cooperation, with the launch of the first of two Double Star scientific satellites in December 2003. Chinese officials have indicated interest in conducting additional international satellite launches from XSLC.[1]

In 1996, a fatal accident occurred when the rocket carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite failed on launch from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. Also, a 2007 test of an anti-satellite missile occurred from the center.

History[edit]

China's first manned space program[edit]

In order to support the Chinese Project 714 manned space program in the 1960s, the construction of a new space center at Xichang in the Sichuan province was decided, located farther from the Soviet border, thus safer. The Shuguang One spacecraft was expected to be launched from the launch pad number one. After the cancellation of the program the launch pad was never completed. Today a viewing platform for officials has been built at the site.[2]

First Long March-2E carrier rocket[edit]

China launched its first Long March-2E carrier rocket on July 16, 1990, sending into orbit Pakistan's first indigenously developed Badr-1 satellite and HS-601.

1996 Launch accident[edit]

On February 15, 1996 a fatal accident occurred when the first new Long March 3B heavy carrier rocket carrying Intelsat 708 veered off course 22 seconds after launch, crashing 1200 meters away from the launch pad in a nearby mountain village, destroying 80 homes. According to the official report, six people died and 56 were injured.[3] The number of civilian deaths has been disputed.[4]

China's first successful ASAT test[edit]

China conducted on January 11, 2007 an anti-satellite missile test with a SC-19 ASAT weapon.

A Chinese weather satellite—the FY-1C polar orbit satellite of the Fengyun series, at an altitude of 865 kilometres (537 mi), with a mass of 750 kg—was destroyed by a kinetic kill vehicle.

The SC-19 have been described as being based on a modified DF-21 ballistic missile or its commercial derivative, the KT-2 with a Kinetic Kill Vehicle and is fully mobile.

Beginning of China's lunar exploration program[edit]

On October 24, 2007, Chang'e 1, an un-manned Moon orbiter of the Chang'e program, was successfully launched from the facility, marking the beginning of China’s lunar exploration program.[5]

First Long March-3C carrier rocket[edit]

China launched its first Long March-3C carrier rocket on April 25, 2008. This was the 105th mission of China's Long March series of rockets, and also the launch of the nation's first data relay satellite (数据中继卫星) Tianlian I (天链一号).[6]

Future of the center[edit]

With the completion of the upgrade of Wenchang Satellite Launch Center scheduled for 2013, all the GEO missions will be transferred to this new space center. The high number of negatives for this [clarification needed] center, such as its higher latitude, the possibility of rocket stages falling on inhabited areas (Guizhou) and limited transport infrastructures, the Xichang Satellite Launch Center will no longer be used for civilian duties. However it will not be closed, it will be kept to serve as a backup launch site.

Facilities[edit]

Launch Complex 1 (LC-1)[edit]

Unbuilt Shuguang launch site, later used as a viewing area.[7]

Launch Complex 2 (LC-2)[edit]

Used for launching Long March 2E, Long March 3A, Long March 3B[8][9] and Long March 3C rockets.

Launch Complex 3 (LC-3)[edit]

Also known as LA-1. Used for launching Long March 2C, Long March 3 and Long March 3A rockets. Demolished and rebuilt between 2005 and 2006. Upgraded in order to support the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.[10][not in citation given]

Technical Center[edit]

XSLC's Technical Center is state of the art and is equipped for testing and integration of the payload and launch vehicle. Its Mission Command and Control Center is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) southwest of the launch pads, and provides flight and safety control during overall system rehearsal and launch. It is serviced by a dedicated railway and highway directly from Xichang Qingshan Airport, which is 50 km (31 mi) away from the launch site. Two launch complexes at the facility support flight operations.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dongfanghong IV ready for more int'l satellite orders". Xinhua News Agency. 
  2. ^ "百人大厅静得能听见掉下一根针". Shanghai Morning Post. October 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  3. ^ "96年火箭发射失控爆炸全过程". 大旗网. September 15, 2007. Retrieved June 13, 2008. 
  4. ^ Anatoly Zak (February 2013). "Disaster at Xichang". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 2013-04-21.  (Article on the crash of a rocket carrying a commercial payload on February 15, 1996)
  5. ^ "China's 1st moon orbiter enters Earth orbit". Xinhua News Agency. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  6. ^ "我国首颗中继卫星发射成功 将测控神七飞行". 人民网. April 26, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Xichang Satellite Launch Centre". SinoDefence.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  8. ^ "China launches French-built satellite". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-06-09. 
  9. ^ "Long March 3B rocket launches Chinasat-9 satellite". Mister-Info.com. 
  10. ^ "西昌卫星发射中心重建发射塔为登月作准备". 人民网. September 19, 2006. Retrieved June 11, 2008. 
  11. ^ Profile of Xichang Satellite Launch Center, GlobalSecurity.org.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 28°14′45.66″N 102°1′35.60″E / 28.2460167°N 102.0265556°E / 28.2460167; 102.0265556