Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture

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Xishuangbanna Prefecture
西双版纳州 · Xishuangbanna.svg
Autonomous prefecture
西双版纳傣族自治州
ᦈᦹᧈᦈᦹᧈᦋᦵᦲᧁᦘᦱᦉᦱᦑᦺ᧑᧒ᦗᧃᦓᦱ
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture
Location of Xishuangbanna Prefecture in Yunnan
Location of Xishuangbanna Prefecture in Yunnan
Coordinates: 22°00′N 100°48′E / 22.000°N 100.800°E / 22.000; 100.800
Country People's Republic of China
Province Yunnan
GB/T 2260 CODE[1] 532800
Admin HQ Jinghong
Admin units
Area
 • Total 19,700 km2 (7,600 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 993,397
 • Density 50/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 666100[2]
Area code(s) 0691[2]
Website xsbn.gov.cn
1Yunnan Statistics Bureau [1]
2Yunnan Portal [2]
Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 西雙版納傣族自治州
Simplified Chinese 西双版纳傣族自治州
Former Chinese name (1)
Traditional Chinese 車里
Simplified Chinese 车里
Former Chinese name (2)
Traditional Chinese 允景洪
Simplified Chinese 允景洪
Tai Lü name
Tai Lü Xishuangbanna.svg
([síp.sɔ́ŋ.pân.nâː])
Hani name
Hani Xisual banaq
Akha name
Akha Sǐsǎwpâna

Xishuangbanna, or Sibsongbanna, abbreviated to Xidai (Chinese: 西傣; pinyin: Xīdǎi; Thai: สิบสองปันนา), is an autonomous prefecture in the south of Yunnan Province of the People's Republic of China. The prefectural seat is Jinghong (Chiang Rung, Jeng Hung, Keng Hung, or Chieng Hung; Tai Lü: ᦋᦵᧂᦣᦳᧂᧈ, Tai Lü pronunciation: [t͡sêŋ.hūŋ], เชียงรุ่ง), the largest settlement in the area and one that straddles the Mekong River, called the Lancang River in Chinese.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Sipsongpanna (cognate to the Thai สิบสองพันา, RTGS: Sip Song Pan Na) is a Tai Lü compound consisting of sip song "twelve", phan "thousand" and na "rice paddy", thus translating into "Twelve Thousand Rice Fields" [4][5] The etymology is parallel to the autonomous Tai-speaking region in French Indochina from 1890 to 1945 called Sip Song Chau Tai meaning "Twelve Tai Counties" and relates etymologically to the ancient names of the Lao Kingdom of Lan Chang, "One Million Elephants" and the northern Thai Muang of Lan Na, "One Million Rice Fields."

History[edit]

In the chaos of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing government in 1911 in favor of a Chinese republican government, a local official, Chao Meeng Jie, staged a rebellion against the Qing remnant officials. The Yunnan provincial government of the newly established Republic of China sent troops in 1913 to oust the rebels.[6]:137–138 Ke Shuxun remained in Xishuangbanna to govern with his "13 Principles of Governing the Frontier", which emphasized equality between Han and Dai in areas such as land ownership and taxation, allowed intermarriage between the ethnic groups and promoted education in secular and technical subjects, rather than Burmese-based monastic education.[6]:156–158 The Second Sino-Japanese War (1931-1945) saw the heavy bombardment of Xishuangbanna by Japanese troops and a simultaneous influx of Pan-Taiist propaganda from Japan's ally, Thailand. According to Hsieh,[6]:173–174 this reduced the appeal of a broad pan-Tai identity among the Dai Lue.

During the final phase of the Chinese Civil War, many remnants of the Guomindang fled from Communists forces into Burma's Shan State from Xishuangbanna. The new People's Republic of China (PRC) sent various non-military expeditions to Xishuangbanna from 1949 to provide services such as schools and hospitals to replace those from Christian western missionaries.[6]:193–194

The Communists took control of the prefecture from Guomindang loyalists in 1952. On January 23, 1953, the PRC established the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Region and ended the native-chieftain system. That year, the People's Congress of Xishuangbanna created the New Dai Lue alphabet, based on the Tai Tham alphabet, for printing material in the Tai Lü language.[6]:243–244

Xishuangbanna was made an autonomous prefecture in 1955, but lost some territory on the creation of the autonomous counties of Jingdong and Jiangcheng.[6]:40 Land reform started in earnest in January 1956, destroying the power of the village headmen.[6]:188–189, 211 State-owned rubber plantations accounted for most of the region's wealth during the early PRC period.

Xishuangbanna also received an influx of educated youth during the Down to the Countryside Movement of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). During this period Buddhist temples in Xishuangbanna were used as barns, only being restored to their original purpose in 1981.[6]:239

In 1987, the Xishuangbanna government promulgated the Law of the Xishuangbanna Dai Nationality Autonomous Prefecture for Self-government to bring local laws into line with the national Law of the People's Republic of China for Regional National Autonomy.[6]:68

Shao Cunxin (召存信, 1922-), former head of the Chieftain's outer council (1944-1950) and chief of Meng Peng (1938-1950), was the chief of the autonomous prefecture from 1955 to 1992.

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
2000C 993,397 —    
2010C 1,133,515 +14.1%
sources:[7]

Xishuangbanna governs one county-level city and two counties.

Map
Xishuangbanna mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2000C)
Population
(2010C)
Urban Pop
(2000C)
Urban Pop
(2010C)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
1 Jinghong City 景洪市 Jǐnghóng Shì 443,600 519,935 138,939 205,523 7,133 73
2 Menghai County 勐海县 Měnghǎi Xiàn 314,100 331,850 34,241 94,945 5,511 60
3 Mengla County 勐腊县 Měnglà Xiàn 235,700 281,730 55,632 84,625 7,056 40
  • references:Xishuangbanna Gov,[8] Citypopulation.de Yunnan Urban Populations.[9]

Geography[edit]

The prefecture has an area of 19,700 km2 (7,600 sq mi). Xishuangbanna is the home of the Dai people. The region sits at a lower altitude than most of Yunnan, and borders closely on tropical climate. It is fast becoming a sought after tourist destination.

Biodiversity[edit]

Passiflora xishuangbannaensis

Xishuangbanna harbors much of the biodiversity of Yunnan Province, which harbors much of the biodiversity of China. Its tropical climate and its remoteness until recent times accounts for this. In addition to an abundance of plants, Xishuangbanna is home to the last few Asian elephants still in China; the species roamed over a large part of the country even as late as a few hundred years ago. The elephants are protected in a reserve, but the plant diversity is threatened by, and has for five decades been threatened by, the proliferation of rubber plantations which completely destroy the rainforest and replace it with a monoculture of trees originally from Brazil.[10]

Passiflora xishuangbannaensis is a recently discovered passionflower species that is endemic to Xishuangbanna.

Demographics[edit]

With censuses in the year 2000 Xishuangbanna had 993,397 inhabitants with a population density of 50.43 inhabitants per km². According to the 2000 national census, Dai people make up the plurality at 29.89%, with the Han people coming in at a close second at 29.11%. At the time of the 1977 census, however, Han people made up the largest single ethnic group in Xishuangbanna, making up 36.53% of a population of 627,089, while the Dai made up 33.15%, and others 30.32%. The Xishuangbanna government has strived to maintain this ethnic balance of around 33% of each group: Han, Dai, and other; this policy is known as "the plan of three-three-three" (三三三计划, sān-sān-sān jìhuà)[6]:62–64

Before the increasing social mobility of the 1940s, inhabitants of Xishuangbanna called each other "basin people" (壩區民族, bàqū mínzú) or "mountain people" (山區民族, shānqū mínzú) in reference to the groups' stereotyped location. The Han and Dai lived mostly around the mountains and played a socially dominant role, while the non-Dai ethnic minorities lived in the basins and were politically disenfranchised.[6]:44, 52 The Dai used to be called the Baiyi (摆夷), and until a 1936 Guomindang reform, the bai part was written with the dog radical (). The PRC government decided that regardless of radical, the term Baiyi is pejorative, and adopted Dai () instead.[6]:257 Historically, some ethnic minorities adapted some Dai characteristics in order to alleviate discrimination and increase their social status, such as the Bulang people adopting the sarong dress, practicing matrilocal residence, and learning the Tai Tham alphabet.[6]:54

Ethnic groups[edit]

The Blang village of Manpo.

Ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna, 2000 census

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Dai 296,930 29.89%
Han 289,181 29.11%
Hani 186,067 18.73%
Yi 55,772 5.61%
Lahu 55,548 5.59%
Blang 36,453 3.67%
Jino 20,199 2.03%
Yao 18,679 1.88%
Miao 11,037 1.11%
Bai 5,931 0.6%
ethnic background not given 5,640 0.57%
Hui 3,911 0.39%
Va 3,112 0.31%
Zhuang 2,130 0.21%
Others 2,807 0.3%

Culture[edit]

Dai Ethnic Garden, 30 kilometers away from Jinghong city, is a popular ethnic theme park with natural Dai village and Buddhist temple

The Six famous tea mountains region (Chinese: 六大茶山; pinyin: Liù Dà Chá Shān) located in the prefecture produce some of the most highly regarded Pu-erh tea in the 20th century.

Xishuangbanna is rich in nature, historical and cultural resources, noted for its folklore, rain forests, rare plants and wildlife. Its major tourist attractions include Menglun Tropical Botanical Garden, Manfeilong Pagodas (Tanuozhuanglong), Jingzhen Pavilion, Wild Elephant Gully, Dai people's village at Ganlanba.[citation needed]

The well-known traditional festival is the ethnic Dai's Water-Splashing Festival. It lasts for three days from April 13 to 15. Besides the water festival event it also consists of some other events such as Dragon boat races, firing of indigenous missiles, flying Kongming Lamps.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Since the opening of the Xishuangbanna Gasa Airport (formerly "Jinghong International Airport") in 1990, traveling to Xishuangbanna by air has become more popular and convenient and there are daily flights connecting Xishuangbanna with Kunming City. The area also has air connections with Dali, Chengdu and Bangkok. The Xishuangbanna Airport is 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Jinghong City.

There are also bus routes to places all over Yunnan and neighboring provinces.

In October 2010, plans were announced for a 530 km (330 mi) railway linking Xishuangbanna to Vientiane, Laos;[11] connections to Thailand are also possible.[12]

See also[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Sara Davis (2006), Premodern Flows in Postmodern China: Globalisation and the Sipsongpanna Tais, Centering The Margin: Agency And Narrative In Southeast Asian Borderlands (Berghahn Books): 87–110 
  • Charles Patterson Giersch (2006), Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier, Harvard University Press 
  • Mette Halskov Hansen (1999), Teaching Backwardness or Equality: Chinese State Education Among the Tai in Sipsong Panna, China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development (Routledge): 243–279 
  • Mette Halskov Hansen (2004), The Challenge of Sipsong Panna in the Southwest: Development, Resources, and Power in a Multiethnic China, Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers (University of Washington Press): 53–83 
  • Ratanaporn Sethakul (2000), Tai Lue of Sipsongpanna and Müang Nan in the Nineteenth-Century, Civility and Savagery: Social Identity in Tai States (Curzon Press) 

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjbz/xzqhdm/index.htm
  2. ^ a b Area Code and Postal Code in Yunnan Province
  3. ^ Lionel M. Jensen, Timothy B. Weston (2007). China's transformations: the stories beyond the headlines. Rowman & Littlefield.  Sandra Teresa Hyde, Ch. 11: Jinghong is a piaocheng or city of prostitution. It provides Han Chinese male tourists with a sex-oriented tourist destination.
  4. ^ R. Edward Grumbine (2012), In the Land of Twelve Thousand Rice Fields, chapter 5 in Where the Dragon Meets the Angry River, p. 83-93 
  5. ^ Mette Hansen (1999), History of Chinese Education in Sipsong Panna, Lessons in Being Chinese: Minority Education and Ethnic Minority in Southwest China: 90 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hsieh, Shih-Chung. Ethnic-political adaptation and ethnic change of the Sipsong Panna Dai: an ethnohistorical analysis. University of Washington, July, 1989.
  7. ^ "CHINA: Administrative Population". Citypopulation.de. 2012-05-12. Retrieved October 31, 2013. 
  8. ^ http://www.xsbn.gov.cn/zwgk/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=17745
  9. ^ http://citypopulation.de/China-Yunnan.html
  10. ^ Corruption 'threatens China rainforest'
  11. ^ "NEW CHINA-LAOS LINK | Railways Africa". Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
  12. ^ "STANDARD GAUGE FOR THAILAND | Railways Africa". Retrieved 2010-12-19. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°00′N 100°48′E / 22.000°N 100.800°E / 22.000; 100.800