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Xylazine is a drug that is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle and other non-human mammals. An analogue of clonidine, it is an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. Xylazine has recently emerged as a recreational drug, especially in Puerto Rico.
As with other α2 agonists, adverse effects include bradycardia, conduction disturbances, and myocardial depression. Yohimbine (Yobine), tolazoline (commercial name Tolazine), and atipamezole (commercial name Antisedan) can be used to reverse xylazine effects. In veterinary anesthesia, xylazine is often used in combination with ketamine. No formal information in humans is available. Xylazine is sold by Bayer under the brand name Rompun.
- Reyes, J. C.; Negrón, J. L.; Colón, H. M.; Padilla, A. M.; Millán, M. Y.; Matos, T. D.; Robles, R. R. (2012). "The Emerging of Xylazine as a New Drug of Abuse and its Health Consequences among Drug Users in Puerto Rico". Journal of Urban Health 89 (3): 519–526. doi:10.1007/s11524-011-9662-6. PMC 3368046. PMID 22391983.
- McCurnin, DM, and JM Bassert. Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians, 5th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. 2002.
- Bayer Healthcare - Rompun Homepage http://www.rompun.com/. 2005.
- Wright, Dr. Bob. Human Health Concerns When Working With Medications Around Horses. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA). http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/horses/facts/00-063.html. 2005.
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