Yüksek Hızlı Tren

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Yüksek Hızlı Tren
High Speed Train
YHT at Ankara.JPG
A westbound train waiting to depart Ankara station
Overview
Service type High speed rail
Status Operating
Locale Northwest, Central Anatolia
First service March 13, 2009
Current operator(s) Turkish State Railways
Ridership 3,375,000 (2012)
Route
Start Central Station, Ankara
Stops 1
End Central Station, Eskişehir
Central Station, Konya
Distance travelled 245 km (152.2 mi)
Average journey time 1 hour, 50 minutes[1]
Service frequency 10 daily (Ankara-Eskişehir)
8 daily (Ankara-Konya)
2 daily (Eskişehir-Konya)
On-board services
Class(es) Business and economy class
Disabled access Fully accessible
Seating arrangements Airline-style coach seating
Catering facilities On-board café, and at-seat meals in first class
Entertainment facilities On-board television with feature films.
Baggage facilities Checked baggage available at selected stations
Technical
Rolling stock HT65000 EMUs
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 25 kV 50 Hz AC
Operating speed 250 km/h (155 mph) maximum
Track owner(s) TCDD
Route map
Distance     Station
0 Ankara
25 km (15.5 mi) Sincan
90 km (55.9 mi) Polatlı
99 km (62 mi)
246 km (153 mi) Eskişehir
312 km (194 mi) Konya

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The Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT (English: high-speed train) is the Turkish State Railways high-speed rail service currently operating on three routes: Ankara to Eskişehir as part of the under construction Ankara-Istanbul route, Ankara to Konya and Eskişehir to Konya. YHT uses the HT65000 EMU sets with tilting technology built by CAF. YHT is the only high-speed service in Turkey and in the Middle East operating at speeds up to 250 km/h (160 mph).[2]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Istanbul and Ankara are Turkey's largest two cities, having a combined population over 16,500,000. Transportation between the two cities is high. The Otoyol 4 motorway is a major highway between the two cities, and the Ankara–Istanbul route is the busiest route for the Turkish Airlines. The route between Istanbul and Ankara by rail has been a single-track line, and trains usually were delayed 30 minutes to 2 hours plus the average 7 hours, 30 minutes travel time. Rail transport in Turkey was already at its lowest point, so in 2003 the State Railways and the Turkish Ministry of Transport made an agreement to build a 533 km (331 mi) line between the two cities. The line would be an electrified double trackline.[2] Construction began in 2004 from Esenkent to Eskişehir. The line was completed on April 23, 2007.[3]

Testing[edit]

ETR 500 train set used for testing the completed high-speed rail lines.

On February 28, 2007, TCDD requested bids for high-speed train sets from other networks to be tested on the completed portion of the high-speed line.

On March 30, 2007, TCDD signed an agreement with Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato to rent an ETR 500 train set for 4 months.[3][4]

The first run was from Haydarpaşa Terminal in Istanbul to the Central Station in Ankara, using the completed portion of the high-speed line between Hasanbey and Esenkent.

On September 14, 2007, the ETR 500 Y2 set a speed record in Turkey, reaching 303 km/h (188.3 mph).[5] This test received extensive media coverage in Turkey.

On November 20, 2007, the first TCDD HT65000 high-speed train sets purchased from CAF of Spain entered Turkey from the Kapıkule Border Gate in Edirne,[6] and tests were subsequently made with these train sets prior to the commencement of services on March 13, 2009.

Naming[edit]

TCDD requested bids for the name of the high-speed service. Out of over 100 entries, the ones with the highest votes were: Türk Yıldızı (Turkish Star), Turkuaz (Turquoise), Yüksek Hızlı Tren (High Speed Train), Çelik Kanat (Steel Wing) and Yıldırım (Lightning). TCDD chose Yüksek Hızlı Tren to be the name of the service.[7]

In 2010 one of the YHT trains had been converted to a test train in order to test the new opening line, such as Konya, and forthcoming Istanbul lines. The Transportation Ministry had spent 14 million TL (around 7 mio Euros). It named the train – because it is a tradition for test trains – as "Piri Reis" for the famous Turkish navy man, who drew the most accurate maps of the Mediterranean Sea and America in the 16th century.

Opening[edit]

TCDD ordered 10 sets of HT65000 EMUs. The first set left Spain on November 10, 2007 and arrived in Turkey at Kapıkule on November 20, 2007.[6] Then 4 more sets came to Turkey in 2008, 3 more in 2009 and 2 more in 2010. On March 13, 2009, the inaugural ceremony took place in Ankara. The Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, along with the President of Turkey, Abdullah Gül, and the Minister of Turkish Transport, Binali Yıldırım inaugurated the opening of the first phase of the project (Eskişehir-Ankara).

Routes in service[edit]

Turkish State Railways network: High-speed rail tracks in service, under construction and in plan.

The YHT operates on the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway (only Eskişehir-Ankara part is in operation) and, recently, the Ankara-Konya high-speed railway via Polatlı.

All current route of the YHT is a double track, electrified along with ETCS, ATS, ERTMS, ATMS, SICAS and ATP standards.[1]

Ankara-Eskişehir[edit]

The current route begins at Ankara Central Station. The YHT runs on the triple track line from Central station to Sincan, then single track from Sincan to Esenkent. At Esenkent the YHT switches on to the double track high-speed line. On this line the train passes over the Sakarya Viaduct and the Duatepe Tunnel. On this track the YHT reaches its top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph). The train switches back on to the normal route at Hasanbey (which has been upgraded from a single track line to a triple track line from Hasanbey to Eskişehir). The YHT continues to Eskişehir Central Station.[8]

Full Route: Ankara-Istanbul[edit]

The plans for the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway line will begin at Sincan and end at Gebze. From Ankara to Sincan the line will be upgraded from a triple track line to a 6 track line (2 tracks for commuter trains, 2 tracks inter-city trains and 2 tracks for high-speed train), along with the new Ankara Central Station.[2] At Sincan the YHT will switch to its high-speed track. It will stop at Eskişehir, Bilecik, İzmit and İstanbul. At Gebze the YHT will switch back on to the normal line, which will also be upgraded from a double track line to a quadruple track line for the Marmaray project.[9]

Before the YHT came into operation, average journey time between İstanbul and Ankara was 7 hours and 30 minutes. By transferring from the YHT to regional trains at Eskişehir, average journey time between İstanbul and Ankara has fallen to 5 hours and 30 minutes.[10] When the high-speed line is completed to İstanbul, the average journey time is expected to be lowered to 3 hours.[1]

Ankara-Konya[edit]

With the service between Ankara and Konya, passengers now have a direct route between the two cities. The YHT is the Turkish State Railway's premier route, with 11 scheduled departures daily in each direction, although it is only the fourth-busiest route in Turkey. The Yüksek Hızlı Tren is the 8th high-speed rail service in the world and the sixth in Europe.[1]

Engineering[edit]

Train design[edit]

The Turkish State Railways agreed with Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF), a Spanish rail car building company, to design a high-speed train set in 2006. CAF introduced the HT65000 EMU set, similar to the RENFE Class 120 / 121 EMU sets. The HT65000 is a 6 car EMU set. Using 25 kV AC electrical system, these sets have an acceleration of 0.48 m/s² and the power input is 4,800 kW via pantograph.[11] One train set has a capacity of 411 passengers, as 365 passengers in Economy class and 55 passengers in business class (or 1st class).[1]

Speed limitations[edit]

The YHT has operated only on high-speed track between the town of Esenkent, 33.79 km (21 mi) outside of Ankara, and Hasanbey, 6.50 km (4 mi) outside Eskişehir. On the central high-speed track, the YHT operates at 250 km/h (155 mph). On the 39 km portion between Ankara Central Station and Esenkent, the YHT has a speed limit of 120 km/h (75 mph). This speed is still higher than the average speed of 90 km/h (56 mph) for trains running on the same track. The same speed restrictions apply on the 6 km portion of track before Eskişehir.

Service[edit]

Passenger car specifications[edit]

The YHT has 6 railroad cars with cabins in the front and rear car. These include: 1 business class car, 1 café car and 4 economy class cars. A business class car has a capacity of 55 passengers. The seating arrangements are 3 seats in a row (1 on one side, 2 on the other side). An economy class car has the capacity of 89 passengers. There are 4 seats in a row (2 on each side). Automatic sliding doors provide passage between cars. Baggage may be stowed in the overhead compartments above the seats, or underneath the seats. The HT65000 cars are wheelchair-accessible.

In economy class, fabric-coated first class seats arranged in 2+2 with audio system. With acoustic and thermal comfort (the noise level will be less than 65 dB in passenger sections), apart from the tables mounted at the back of the seats, there are two foldable tables in every passenger section. In business class, there are leather-coated seats in 2+1 arrangement, a visual and audio broadcasting system that can broadcast at least 4 hours on 4 different channels. Wi-fi service is available with power inputs for laptops in business class.[12]

Staff and operation[edit]

On YHT service, there is usually 1 train engineer (2 on some trains), a train conductor, a car attendant and a café car attendant. Business-class passengers are served meals at their seats. Maintenance for the YHT is done at the Etimesgut Yard in Ankara.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e YHT Tanıtım Kitabi (YHT Reference Book), published by TCDD and Turkish Ministry of Transport.
  2. ^ a b c Turkish State Railways - YHT Project
  3. ^ a b "Demiryolu" Magazine March–April Issue
  4. ^ Hürriyet: Hızlı tren artık raylarda
  5. ^ "Nuovo record di velocità del treno italiano Etr 500 in Turchia: 303 km/h" (in Italian). Il Sole 24 Ore. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  6. ^ a b TCDD English Site - First High Speed Train set arrived in Turkey
  7. ^ Vikipedi - YHT Vikipedi Page (in Turkish).
  8. ^ TCDD Official Site - In Turkish
  9. ^ Marmaray Project - TCDD English Site
  10. ^ YHT Timetables TCDD Official Site
  11. ^ TCDD HT65000 Page - Information on the HT65000
  12. ^ "TCDD YHT Page" (Turkish) - YHT statistics and service, tcdd.gov.tr.