Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group

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Europe Y-DNA. Principle puzzles - highlighted areas where the frequency of haplogroups represent more than a third of the gene pool (> 35%)
Dominant Y-chromosome haplogroups in pre-colonial world populations, with possible migrations routes according to the Coastal Migration Model.

Listed here are notable ethnic groups by Y-DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The data are presented in two columns for each haplogroup with the first being the sample size (n) and the second the percentage in the haplogroup designated by the column header. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations in the first two columns.

Population Language Family[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L
Abazinians Caucasian (Northwest) 14 0[4] 14 14[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 0[4] 14 7[4][5] 14 29[4]
Abkhaz Caucasian (Northwest) 12 8[4] 12 33.0[4] 12 33.3[4] 12 0[4] 12 0[4] 12 25[4][5] 12 0[4]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 51 17.6[6] 51 9.8[6] 51 19.6[6] 51 21.6[6] 51 23.5[6] 51 2.0[6] 51 0.0[6] 51 0.0[6] 51 0.0[6]
Albanians (Kosovar) IE (Albanian) 114 21.1[7] 114 4.4[7] 114 7.9[7] 114 47.4[7] 114 16.7[7]
Albanians (Tirana) IE (Albanian) 30 13.3[8] 30 13.3[8] 30 16.7[8] 30 23.3[8] 30 0.0[8] 30 20.0[8] 30 3.3[8]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 55 18.2[9] 55 9.1[9] 55 21.8[9] 55 25.5[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 23.6[9] 55 1.8[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 0.0[9] 55 0.0[9]
Albanians (Macedonia) IE (Albanian) 64 18.8[9] 64 1.6[9] 64 17.2[9] 64 39.1[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 21.9[9] 64 1.6[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 0.0[9] 64 0.0[9]
Albanians IE (Albanian) 106 23.6[10]
Altaians Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 142 9.2[11]
Altaians (Northern) Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 50 6.0[12] 50 38.0 50 0.0 50 0.0 50 2.0 50 0.0 50 10.0
Altaians (Southern) Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 96 1.0[12] 96 53.1 96 2.1 96 1.0 96 4.2 96 11.5
Ambalakarar Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 6.9[13] 29 3.4[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 20.7[13]
Amhara Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 45.8[14] 48 33.3[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 0.0[14] 48 4.2[14] 48 0.0[14]
Andalusians IE (Italic) 29 65.5[6] 29 0.0[6] 103 3.9[10] 76 9.2[15] 93 1.1[15] 29 0.0[6] 29 0.0[6] 29 6.9[6] 29 3.4[6]
Andis Caucasian (Northeast) 49 6.1[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 26.5[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 55.1[16] 49 6.1[16] 49 0.0[16] 49 2.0[16] 49 0.0[16]
Arabs (Algeria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 35 13.0[17] 35 0.0[17] 32 50[15] 35 35[17]
Arabs (Algeria - Oran) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 10.8[18] 102 1[18] 102 50.9[18] 102 12.8[18] 102 27.4[18]
Arabs (Bedouin) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 32 0.0[19] 32 9.4[19] 32 6.3[19] 32 18.7[19] 32 65.6[19] 32 0.0[19]
Arabs (Egyptians) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 147 4.1[20] 147 2.7[20] 147 0.7[20] 147 36.7[20] 147 2.8[20] 147 32.0[20] 147 8.8[20] 147 0.0[20] 147 8.2[20]
Arabs (Israel) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 143 8.4[19] 143 1.4[19] 143 6.3[19] 143 20.3[19] 143 55.2[19] 143 0.0[19]
Arabs (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 44 3.8[7] 44 0.0[7] 44 0.0[7] 49 85.5[15] 49 2.4[15]
Arabs (Oman) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 121 1.7[20] 121 9.1[20] 121 0.0[20] 121 15.7[20] 121 7.4[20] 121 47.9[20] 121 1.7[20] 121 8.3[20] 121 0.8[20]
Arabs (Qatar) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 72 1.4[21] 72 6.9[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 5.6[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 66.7[21] 72 2.8[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 0.0[21] 72 2.8[21]
Arabs (Saudi Arabia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 157 1.9[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 7.6[22] 157 40.0[22] 157 3.2[22] 157 0.0[22] 157 5.1[22] 157 1.9[22]
Arabs (UAE) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 164 4.3[21] 164 7.3[21] 164 11.6[21] 164 5.5[21] 164 45.1[21] 164 4.3[21] 164 0.0[21] 164 4.9[21] 164 3.0[21]
Arabs (Yemen) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 12.9[21] 62 3.2[21] 62 82.3[21] 62 1.6[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21] 62 0.0[21]
Arabs (Syria) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 20 15.0[6] 20 10.0[6] 20 5.0[6] 20 10.0[6] 20 30.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6] 20 0.0[6]
Arabs (Lebanon) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 31 6.4[6] 31 9.7[6] 31 3.2[6] 31 25.8[6] 31 45.2[6] 31 3.2[6] 31 0.0[6] 31 0.0[6] 31 3.2[6]
Arabs (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 102 15.7[23] 102 3.9[23] 102 16.7[23] 102 47.1[23]
Arabs (Tunisia) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 148 6.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 49.3[17] 148 1.4[17] 148 35.8[17] 148 0.0[17] 148 0.7[17] 148 0.0[17]
Arabs (Libya) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 63 3[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 1.5[24] 63 52.0[24] 63 0.0[24] 63 24.0[24] 63 8.0[24] 63 5.0[24] 63 1.5[24]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 89 24.7[25] 89 5.6[25] 100 5.0[4] 89 3.4[25] 89 29.2[25] 100 11.0[4] 89 3.4[25]
Armenians IE (Armenian) 734 32.4[26] 734 5.3[26] 734 5.4[26] 734 1.6[26]
Aromuns (Dukasi, Albania) IE (Italic) 39 2.6[8] 39 2.6[8] 39 17.9[8] 39 17.9[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 48.7[8] 39 10.3[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 0.0[8] 39 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Andon Poci, Albania) IE (Italic) 19 36.8[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 42.1[8] 19 15.8[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 5.3[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8] 19 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Kruševo, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 43 27.9[8] 43 11.6[8] 43 20.9[8] 43 20.9[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 11.6[8] 43 7.0[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 0.0[8] 43 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Štip, Macedonia) IE (Italic) 65 23.1[8] 65 21.5[8] 65 16.9[8] 65 18.5[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 20.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8] 65 0.0[8]
Aromuns (Romania) IE (Italic) 42 23.8[8] 42 2.4[8] 42 19.0[8] 42 7.1[8] 42 0.0[8] 42 33.3[8] 42 0.0[8]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 79 12.7[19] 79 22.8[19] 79 43.0[19] 79 0.0[19]
Ashkenazi Jews Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 442 4.1[27] 442 19.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 38.0[27] 442 9.7[27] 442 0.2[27] 442 0.2[27]
Austrians IE (Germanic, West) 219 32 219 14
Avars Caucasian (Northeast) 42 2.4[16] 42 2.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 7.1[16] 42 71.4[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 0.0[16] 42 4.8[16] 42 9.5[16]
Azerbaijanis Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 72 11.1[28] 72 6.9[28] 97 4.1[29]
Bagvalins Caucasian (Northeast) 28 67.9[16] 28 3.6[16] 28 7.1[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 21.4[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16] 28 0.0[16]
Balkarian Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 39 2.6[15] 16 25.0[15]
Balkarians Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 38 13.2[9] 38 13.2[9] 38 2.6[9] 38 2.6[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 23.7[9] 38 28.9[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 0.0[9] 38 5.3[9]
Baloch IE (Iranian, NW) 25 8.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13]
Bashkirs (Perm) Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 43 86.0[30] 43 9.3 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 0.0 43 2.3 43 2.3 43 0.0 43 0.0
Basque (France, Spain) Basque (Basque) 67 88.1[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 7.5[6] 67 2.2[6] 67 3.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6] 67 0.0[6]
German Bavarians (West) IE (Germanic, West) 80 50.0[25] 80 15.0[25] 80 8.0[25] 80 5.0[25] 80 0.0[25] 80 0.0[25]
Belgians IE (Germanic/Italic) 92 63.0[25] 92 4.0[25] 92 2.0[25]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 41 0.0[25] 41 39.0[25] 147 19.0[10] 41 10.0[25] 41 2.4[25]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 68 4.4[31] 68 45.6[31] 68 25.0[31] 68 4.4[31] 68 1.5[31] 68 8.8[31]
Belarusians IE (Slavic, East) 306 4.2[32] 306 51.0[32] 306 4.6[32] 306 3.3[32] 306 9.5[32]
Bearnais IE (Italic) 26 7.7[10] 43 3.7[15] 26 3.8[15]
Beja Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic?) 42 4.8[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 52.4[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 38.1[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23] 42 0.0[23]
Berbers (Moyen Atlas) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 69 87.1[29]
Berbers (Marrakesh) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 29 92.9[29]
Berbers (Mozabite) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 20 80.0[29]
Berbers (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 64 88.2[15] 64 0[15] 103 0[15]
Berbers (north-central Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 63 88.8[15] 63 0[15]
Berbers (southern Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Berber) 40 89[15] 40 0[15]
Bijagós Niger–Congo (Bak) 21 4.8[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 14.3[33] 21 76.2[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33] 21 0.0[33]
Borgu (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 26 11.5[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 53.8[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23] 26 0.0[23]
Bosnians IE (Slavic, South) 69 1.4[7] 69 24.6[7] 69 42.0[7] 69 10.1[7] 69 0.0[7]
Brahmins (Konkanastha) IE (Indic) 25 0.0[13] 25 48.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 4.0[13]
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 110 39.1[34] 110 0.0[34] 110 2.7[34] 110 28.2[34] 110 0.9[34] 110 7.3[34]
Brahui Dravidian (Northern) 25 0.0[13] 25 24.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 28.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13]
British IE (Germanic, West) 32 68.8[35] 32 9.4[35]
Bulgarians IE (Slavic, South) 24 17.0[25] 34 14.7[36] 116 20.7[29]
Burusho Burushaski (isolate) 97 1.0[37] 97 27.8[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 8.2[37] 97 1.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 0.0[37] 97 16.5[37]
Catalans IE (Italic) 24 79.2[6] 24 0.0[38] 32 4.2[38] 33 6.1[15] 28 3.6[15] 24 8.0[38]
Cantabrians (Pasiegos) IE (Italic) 56 42.9[29]
Chamalins Caucasian (Northeast) 27 0.0[16] 27 7.4[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 70.4[16] 27 18.5[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 0.0[16] 27 3.7[16]
Chechens Caucasian (Northeast) 19 5.0[4] 19 5.0[4]
Chuvashes Altaic (Turkic, Oghur) 79 3.8[39] 79 31.6[39] 79 11.3[39] 79 0[39] 79 0[39] 79 24.2[39] 79 0[39] 79 27.8[39] 79 0[39] 79 0[39]
Copts (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Ancient Egyptian) 33 15.2[23] 33 21.2[23] 33 45.5[23]
Croats (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 108 15.7[7] 108 34.3[7] 108 37.0[7][40] 108 5.6[7] 108 0.0[7] 108 1.9[7] 108 0.9[7]
Croat (mainland) IE (Slavic, South) 189 38.1[10]
Cypriots IE (Greek) 45 9.0[25] 45 2.0[25] 45 27.0[25]
Czechs IE (Slavic, West) 257 34.2[41] 257 18.3[41] 257 5.8[41] 257 4.7[41] 257 5.1[41] 257 1.6[41]
Czechs and Slovaks IE (Slavic, West) 45 35.6[6] 45 26.7[6] 198 13.6[10] 45 2.2[6]
Danes IE (Germanic, North) 12 41.7[35] 12 16.7[35] 194 38.7[10] 35 2.9[29]
Dargins Caucasian (Northeast) 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] - - - - 68 94.1[16] 68 2.9[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16] 68 0.0[16]
Dargins Caucasian (Northeast) 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 58.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 4.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4] 26 0.0[4]
Dolgans Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 67 1.5[39] 67 16.4[39] 67 1.5[39] 67 34.3[39]
Druze (Arabs) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 28 14.3[29]
Dutch IE (Germanic, West) 27 70.4[6] 27 3.7[6] 30 26.7[10] 84 8.0[25] 34 0[15]
Egyptians Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 92 5.4[42] 92 0.0[42] 92 1.1[42] 92 43.5[42] 92 3.3[42] 92 22.8[42] 92 2.2[42] 92 0.0[42] 92 7.6[42] 92 0.0[42]
Egyptians (North) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 43 9.3[43] 43 2.3[43] 43 0.0[43] 43 53.5[43] 44 18.2[17] 43 7.0[43] 43 2.3[43] 43 0.0[43]
Egyptians (South) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 13.8[43] 29 0.0[43] 29 3.4[43] 29 31.0[43] 29 24.1[17] 29 17.2[43] 29 10.3[43] 29 0.0[43]
English (Central) IE (Germanic, West) 215 61.9[44] 215 3.3[44]
Estonians Uralic (Finnic) 207 9.0[25] 118 37.3[45] 210 18.6[10] 207 3.0[25] 207 1.0[25] 207 40.6[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 57 2.0[25] 57 10.5[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 63.2[25]
Finns Uralic (Finnic) 38 0.0[39] 38 7.9[39] 38 28.9[39] 38 63.2[39]
French IE (Italic) 23 52.2[6] 23 0[6] 23 17.4[10] 40 8.0[25]
Frisians IE (Germanic, West) 94 56.0[46] 94 7.0[46] 94 29.0[46] 94 2.0[46] 94 6.0[46]
German Frisians (West) IE (Germanic, West) 94 55.3[47] 94 7.4[47] 94 34.0[47] 94 2.1[47] 94 1.4[47]
Fulbe (Guinea-Bissau) Niger–Congo (Senegambian) 59 1.7[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 13.6[33] 59 74.6[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33] 59 0.0[33]
Fur Nilo-Saharan (Fur) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 59.4[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Gagauz (Kongaz) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 48 10.4[48] 48 12.5[48] 48 31.3[48] 48 16.7[48] 48 8.3[48] 48 10.4[48] 48 4.2[48] 48 6.3[48]
Gagauz (Etulia) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 41 14.6[48] 41 26.8[48] 41 24.4[48] 41 9.8[48] 41 7.3[48] 41 17.1[48] 41 0.0[48] 41 0.0[48]
Germans (West) IE (German) 48 47.9[6][35] 48 8.1[6][35] 16 37.5[10] 16 6.2[6]
Germans (East) IE (German) -  ? -  ? -  ? -  ?
Germans (Berlin) IE (German) 103 23.3[49] 103 22.3[49] 103 32[49] 103 9.7[49] 103 1.3[49]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 63 14.3[6] 63 7.9[6] 63 0.0[6] 64 2.0[25] 63 36.5[6] 63 30.1[6] 63 1.6[6] 63 1.6[6]
Georgians Caucasian (South) 66 9.1[9] 66 10.6[9] 66 1.5[9] 66 3.0[9] 66 0.0[9] 66 36.4[9] 66 31.8[9] 66 0.0[9] 66 1.5[9] 66 1.5[9]
Greeks IE (Greek) 77 11.7[37] 77 15.6[37] 77 19.5[37] 77 20.8[37] 77 16.9[37] 77 9.1[37] 77 0.0[37] 77 2.6[37]
Greeks IE (Greek) 118 22.8[6][35] 118 8.3[6][35] 261 13.8[10] 84 23.8[15] 92 6.5[15]
Greeks IE (Greek) 171 13.5[50] 171 11.1 171 15.8 171 31.6 171 19.9 171 4.7 171 1.8
Greeks (Crete) IE (Greek) 193 17.0[50] 193 8.8 193 13.0 193 8.8 193 38.9 193 10.9 193 2.1
Greeks (Peloponnese) IE (Greek) 36 47[15]
Greeks (Thrace) IE (Greek) 41 12.2[8] 41 22.0[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 0.0[8] 41 19.5[8] 41 4.9[8]
Greeks (North) IE (Greek) 96 14.6[43] 96 18.8[43] 96 12.5[43] 96 35.4[43] 96 5.2[43] 96 2.1[43] 96 1.0[43]
Greeks (South) IE (Greek) 46 19.6[43] 46 2.2[43] 46 23.9[43] 46 43.5[43] 46 6.5[43] 46 2.2[43] 46 0.0[43]
Hausa (Sudan) Afro-Asiatic (Chadic) 32 40.6[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 3.1[23] 32 12.5[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Herero Niger–Congo (Bantu, Central) 24 12.5[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 70.8[42] 24 4.2[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42] 24 0.0[42]
Herzegovinians IE (Slavic, South) 141 3.6[7] 141 12.1[7] 141 63.8[7] 141 8.5[7] 141 0.7[7]
Hui (Ningxia) Sino-Tibetan (Sinitic) 54 3.7[51] 54 11.1[51] 54 0.0[51] 54 0.0[51] 54 9.3[51] 54 1.9[51] 54 0.0[51] 54 1.9[51]
Hungarians Uralic (Ugric) 45 13.3[6] 113 20.4[39] 162 22.8[10] 53 9.4[15] 49 2.0[15] 103 8.0[52] 103 1.0
Icelanders IE (Germanic, North) 181 41.4[35] 181 23.8[35] 181 34.2[35]
Ingush Caucasian (Northeast) 27 5.0[4]
Iranians (North Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 33 15.2[53] 33 6.1[53] 33 0.0[53] 33 0.0[53] 33 0.0[53] 33 33.3[53] 33 15.2[53] 33 6.1[53] 33 0.0[53] 33 3.0[53]
Iranians (South Iran) IE (Iranian, West) 117 6.0[53] 117 16.2[53] 117 0.0[53] 117 5.1[53] 117 1.7[53] 117 35.0[53] 117 12.8[53] 117 0.9[53] 117 3.4[53] 117 6.0[53]
Irish IE (Celtic) 222 81.5[35] 222 0.5[35] 257 2.0[25]
Italians IE (Italic) 50 62.0[38] 332 2.7[35] 50 8.0[38] 99 13.0[25] 50 10.0[38]
Italians (Calabria) IE (Italic) 37 32.4[6] 148 5.4[10] 80 16.3[7] 57 1.8[15]
Italians (Apulia) IE (Italic) 78 2.6[10] 86 13.9[15] 86 31.4[15]
Italians (Sardinia) IE (Italic) 77 22.1[6] 142 42.3[10] 139 5.0[15] 144 12.5[15]
Italians (Northern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 86 20.0[43] 86 0.0[43] 86 28.0[43] 86 13.0[43] 86 21.0[43] 86 0.0[43] 86 0.0[43]
Italians (Southern Sardinia) IE (Italic) 187 19.0[43] 187 1.0[43] 187 35.0[43] 187 11.0[43] 187 14.0[43] 187 0.0[43] 187 0.0[43]
Italians (North-central) IE (Italic) 50 62.0[6] 390 0.5[10] 212 10.4[7] 52 26.9[15]
Italians (South) IE (Italic) 68 20.0[43] 68 3.0[43] 68 6.0[43] 68 26.0[43] 68 15.0[43] 68 3.0[43] 68 0.0[43]
Italians (Sicily) IE (Italic) 51 8.8 55 27.3[15] 42 23.8[15]
Italians (East Sicily) IE (Italic) 87 20.0[43] 87 2.3[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 29.0[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 5.0[43] 87 0.0[43]
Italians (West Sicily) IE (Italic) 125 27.0[43] 125 2.4[43] 125 11.0[43] 125 19.0[43] 125 13.0[43] 125 3.0[43] 125 0.0[43]
Iyengar Dravidian (Southern) 30 0.0[13] 30 30.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 20.0[13] 30 13.3[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 0.0[13] 30 16.7[13]
Iyer Dravidian (Southern) 29 0.0[13] 29 27.6[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 10.3[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Kabardinian Caucasian (Northwest) 29.0[4]
Kalash (Pakistan) IE (Dardic) 44 18.2[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 9.1[37] 44 18.2[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 0.0[37] 44 25.0[37]
Karakalpaks Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 44 9.1[54] 44 18.2[54] 44 0.0[54] 44 0.0[54] 44 4.5[54]
Kazakhs Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 54 5.6[54] 54 3.7[54] 54 0.0[54] 54 0.0[54] 38 0.0 54 1.9[54] 54 0.0[54]
Khants Uralic (Ugric) 47 19.1[39] 47 4.3[39] 47 0.0[39] 47 76.6[39]
Komi Uralic (Finnic) 94 16.0[39] 94 33.0 94 5.3 94 35.1
Komi (Izhemsky) Uralic (Finnic) 54 0.0[55] 54 29.6[55] 54 1.9[55] 54 0.0[55] 54 0.0[55] 54 0.0[55] 54 0.0[55] 54 68.5[55] 54 0.0[55] 54 0.0[55]
Komi (Priluzsky) Uralic (Finnic) 49 2.0[55] 49 32.7[55] 49 4.1[55] 49 0.0[55] 49 0.0[55] 49 0.0[55] 49 0.0[55] 49 61.2[55] 49 0.0[55] 49 0.0[55]
Kumyks Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 76 19.7[16] 76 13.2[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 2.6[16] 76 46.1[16] 76 11.8[16] 76 0.0[16] 76 1.3[16] 76 0.0[16]
Kurds (Northern Iraq) IE (Iranian, NW) 95 16.8[19] 95 11.6[19] 95 16.8[19] 95 7.4[19] - 95 40.0[19] 95 4.2[19] 95 3.2[19]
Kyrgyz Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 52 1.9[54] 52 63.5[54] 52 1.9[54] 52 0.0[54] 41 4.9 41 2.4 52 0.0[54]
Latvians IE (Baltic) 34 15.0[25] 114 39.5[25] 86 7.0[10] 114 0.9[45] 114 42.1[45]
Lebanese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 914 8.1[43] 914 2.5[43] 914 4.8[43] 914 16.2[43] 914 0.7[43] 914 46.1[43] 914 6.6[43] 914 0.1[43] 914 4.7[43] 914 5.2[43]
Lezgins Caucasian (Northeast) 31 16.1[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 6.5[16] 31 58.1[16] 31 9.7[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16] 31 0.0[16]
Lithuanians IE (Baltic) 38 5.0[25] 114 36.0[45] 114 0.9[45] 114 43.0[45]
ethnic Macedonians IE (Slavic, South) 79 5.1[7] 79 15.2[7] 79 34.2[7] 79 24.1[7] 79 12.7[6][7][15] 79 5.1[7]
Macedonians (Skopje) IE (Slavic, South) 52 13.5[8] 52 13.5[8] 52 28.8[8] 52 23.1[8] 52 11.5[8] 52 3.8[8]
Macedonian Romani IE (Indic) 57 1.8[7] 57 1.8[7] 57 3.5[7] 57 29.8[7] 57 1.8[7]
Maltese Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 187 22.0[43] 187 5.0[43] 187 9.0[43] 187 6.0[43] 187 9.0[43] 187 0.0[43] 187 0.0[43]
Mandenka (Guinea-Bissau) Niger–Congo? (Mande) 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 4.4[33] 45 86.7[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33] 45 0.0[33]
Maratha IE (Indic) 20 0.0[13] 20 10.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 0.0[13] 20 15.0[13] 20 15.0[13]
Moldavians (Karahasani) IE (Italic) 72 16.7[48] 72 34.7[48] 72 25.0[48] 72 12.5[48] 72 9.7[48] 72 0.0[48] 72 1.4[48] 72 0.0[48]
Moldavians (Sofia) IE (Italic) 54 16.7[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 35.2[48] 54 13.0[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 1.9[48] 54 3.7[48] 54 1.9[48]
Erzya Uralic (Finnic) 46 39.1[36]
Moksha Uralic (Finnic) 46 21.7[36]
Moksha Uralic (Finnic) 83 13.3[39] 83 26.5 83 19.3 83 19.3
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 111 2.7[39] 111 47.7 111 8.1 111 41.4
Mari Uralic (Finnic) 48 10.4[25] 48 29.2 48 0.0 48 6.3 48 50.0
Masalit Nilo-Saharan (Maban) 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 71.9[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 6.3[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23] 32 0.0[23]
Mongolians Altaic (Mongolic) 65 9.2[56] 149 0.0[57] 149 2.7[57] 149 0.7[57] 149 8.1[57] 149 0.0[57] 149 0.0[57]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 112 25.9[35] 112 17.9[35] 72 40.3[10]
Norwegians IE (Germanic, North) 52 30.8[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 1.9[25] 52 3.8[25] 52 0.0[25] 52 0.0[25]
Nubians (Sudan) Nilo-Saharan (Eastern Sudanic) 39 10.3[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 5.1[23] 39 23.1[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 43.6[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23] 39 0.0[23]
Orcadians IE (Germanic, West) 71 66.0[46] 71 19.7[46]
Oromo Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 79.5[14] 78 3.8[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 0.0[14] 78 5.1[14] 78 0.0[14]
Ossetians IE (Iranian, NE) 47 42.6[25] 47 2.1[25] 47 6.0[25] 47 34.0[25] 60.0[58]
Pallan Dravidian (Southern) 29 3.4[13] 29 24.1[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 13.8[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13]
Pashtuns IE (Iranian, SE) 96 4.2[37] 96 44.8[37] 96 0.0[37] 96 2.1[37] 96 6.3[37] 96 11.5[37] 96 0.0[37] 96 1.0[37] 96 12.5[37]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 55 16.4[6] 55 56.4[6] 191 17.8[10] 99 4.0[15] 97 1.0[15]
Poles IE (Slavic, West) 93 13.4[39] 93 55.9[39] 93 16.1[39] 93 3.2[39]
Portuguese IE (Italic) 303 5.3[10]
Portuguese (South) IE (Italic) 57 56.0[25] 57 2.0[25] 57 17.0[25]
Portuguese (North) IE (Italic) 328 62.0[25] 328 0[25] 328 11.0[25]
Rajputs IE (Indic) 29 0.0[13] 29 31.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 0.0[13] 29 17.2[13] 29 6.9[13]
Romanians IE (Italic) 54 13.0[48] 54 20.4[48] 54 48.1[48] 54 7.4[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 5.6[48] 54 0.0[48] 54 0.0[48]
Romanians IE (Italic) 361 22.2[10]
Romanians (Constanţa) IE (Italic) 31 16.1[8] 31 9.7[8] 31 41.9[8] 31 9.7[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 6.5[8] 31 12.9[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 0.0[8] 31 0.0[8]
Romanians (Ploieşti) IE (Italic) 36 8.3[8] 36 5.6[8] 36 38.9[8] 36 16.7[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 19.4[8] 36 8.3[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 0.0[8] 36 0.0[8]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 122 6.6[25] 122 46.7[25] 122 6.6[25] 122 4.1[25] 122 18.0[25]
Russians IE (Slavic, East) 414 6.8[59] 414 48.3[59] 414 15.9[59] 414 4.8[59] 414 0.0[59] 414 1.4[59] 414 1.2[59] 414 14.0[59]
Russians (Northern)(Arkhangelsk region) IE (Slavic, East) 114 14.0[60] 114 40.0[60] 114 5.3[60] 114 0.0[60] 114 0.0[60] 114 0.9[60] 114 1.3[60] 114 39.3[60] 114 114
Russians (Central) IE (Slavic, East) 364 7.7[60] 364 47.0[60] 364 16.5[60] 364 5.0[60] 364 0.0[60] 364 3.3[60] 364 0.0[60] 364 16.0[60] 364
Russians (Southerns) IE (Slavic, East) 484 4.8[60] 484 56.9[60] 484 21.0[60] 484 1.8[60] 484 0.0[60] 484 3.5[60] 484 1.0[60] 484 10.0[60]
Russians

(Oryol region)

IE (Slavic, East) 110 3.6[60] 110 62.7[60] 110 22.7[60] 110 0.9[60] 110 0.0[60] 110 0.9[60] 110 0.0[60] 110 5.4[60]
Russians

(Voronezh region)

IE (Slavic, East) 96 5.2[60] 96 59.4[60] 96 20.8[60] 96 1.0[60] 96 0.0[60] 96 3.1[60] 96 2.1[60] 96 6.3[60]
Russians

(Tver region)

IE (Slavic, East) 73 6.8[60] 73 56.2[60] 73 15.0[60] 73 4.1[60] 73 0.0[60] 73 4.1[60] 73 0.0[60] 73 11.0[60]
Russians (Kuban Cossacks) IE (Slavic, East) 90 8.8[60] 90 47.3[60] 90 24.2[60] 90 3.3[60] 90 0.0[60] 90 4.4[60] 90 1.1[60] 90 7.7[60]
Russians (Novgorod region) IE (Slavic, East) 38 8.1[59] 38 54.1[59] 38 10.8[59]
Sami (Sweden) Uralic (Finnic) 38 7.9[61] 38 15.8[61] 38 31.6[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 44.7[61] 38 0.0[61] 38 0.0[61]
Sami Uralic (Finnic) 127 3.9[39] 127 11.0[39] 35 31.4[10] 14[62] 127 47.2[39]
Saharawish (Morocco) Afro-Asiatic (Semitic) 29 79.3[15] 29 3.4[15] 29 17.2[15]
Scots IE (Celtic) 61 77.1[35] 61 6.6[35] 178 11.2[10]
Serbs IE (Slavic, South) 113 10.6[7] 113 15.9[7] 113 36.3[7] 113 21.2[7] 113 8[7]
Serbs (Bosnia) IE (Slavic, South) 81 6.2[9] 81 13.6[9] 81 40.7[9] 81 22.2[9] 81 0.0[9] 81 9.9[9] 81 1.2[9] 81 6.2[9] 81 0.0[9] 81 0.0[9]
Slovenians IE (Slavic, South) 75 21.3[9] 75 38.7[9] 75 30.7[9] 75 2.7[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 4.0[9] 75 2.7[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 0.0[9] 75 0.0[9]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 70 37.1[25] 70 7.1[25] 70 5.7[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25] 70 0.0[25]
Slovenian IE (Slavic, South) 55 38.2[10]
Somalis Afro-Asiatic (Cushitic) 201 0.0[63] 201 1.0[63] 201 0.0[63] 201 81.1[63] 201 1.5[63] 201 3.0[63] 201 0.5[63] 201 0.0[63] 201 10.4[63] 201 0.0[63]
Spanish IE (Italic) 126 68.0[25] 126 2.0[25] 126 10.0[25]
Spanish (Ibiza) IE (Italic) 54 57.4[43] 54 0.0[43] 54 1.9[43] 54 7.4[43] 54 13.0[43] 54 16.7[43] 54 0.0[43]
Spanish (Majorca) IE (Italic) 62 66.1[43] 62 0.0[43] 62 8.1[43] 62 6.2[43] 62 6.2[43] 62 1.6[43] 62 0.0[43]
Spanish (Minorca) IE (Italic) 37 73.0[43] 37 2.7[43] 37 2.7[43] 37 18.9[43] 37 0.0[43] 37 0.0[43] 37 0.0[43]
Spanish (South) IE (Italic) 162 65.0[43] 162 2.0[43] 162 6.0[43] 162 9.0[43] 162 4.0[43] 162 0.0[43] 162 0.0[43]
Spanish (Valencia) IE (Italic) 73 64.0[43] 73 3.0[43] 73 10.0[43] 73 11.0[43] 73 1.0[43] 73 1.0[43] 73 0.0[43]
Swedes (Northern) IE (Germanic, North) 48 22.9[25] 48 18.8[25] 57 26.3[10] 48 2.1[25] 48 2.1[25] 48 8.3[25]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 110 20.0[35] 110 17.3[35] 225 40[10]
Swedes IE (Germanic, North) 160 13.1[64] 160 24.4[64] 160 37.5[64] 160 1.3[64] 160 0.0[64] 160 14.4[64]
Swiss IE (German/Italic) 144 7.6[10]
Tabassarans Caucasian (Northeast) 43 39.5[16] 43 2.3[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 51.2[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16] 43 0.0[16]
Tatars Altaic (Turkic, Kipchak) 126 8.7[39] 126 34.1[39] 126 4.0 126 23.0
Turkmens Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 30 36.7[54] 30 6.7[54] 30 0.0[54] 30 0.0[54] 21 23.8 21 9.5 30 0.0[54]
Turks Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 523 16.1[65] 523 6.9[65] 741 5.1[10] 523 11.3[65] 523 33.5[65] 523 10.9[65] 523 3.8[65] 523 2.5[65] 523 4.2[65]
Turks Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 167 20.4[25] 167 4.8[25] 167 10.2[25] 167 32.9[25] 167 2.4[25]
Turks Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 59 20.3[63] 59 11.9[63] 59 6.8[63] 59 13.6[63] 59 30.5[63] 59 8.5[63] 59 1.7[63] 59 0.0[63]
Turks (Central Anatolia) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 61 6.6[7]
Turks (Istanbul) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 46 13.0[15] 73 24.7[15]
Turks (Konya) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 117 14.5[15] 129 31.8[15]
Turks (Cypriot) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 46 13.0[29]
Turks (Southeastern) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 24 4.2[29]
Turks (Erzurum) Altaic (Turkic, Oghuz) 25 4.0[29]
Udmurt Uralic (Finnic) 87 2.3[39] 87 10.3[39] 87 1.1[39] 87 85.1[39]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 50 2.0[6] 50 54.0[6] 50 18.0[6] 50 4.0[6] 50 6.0[6] 50 4.0[6] 50 6.0[6] 50 2.0[6] 50 0.0[6]
Ukrainians IE (Slavic, East) 53 18.9[48] 53 41.5[48] 53 24.5[48] 93 7.5[7] 53 9.4[48] 53 0.0[48] 53 5.7[48] 53 0.0[48]
Uyghurs (Kazakhstan) Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 41 0.0[54] 41 22.0[54] 41 2.4[54] 41 0.0[54] 41 0.0[54] 33 27.3[66] 41 2.4[54] 41 0.0[54] 41 2.4[54]
Uyghurs (Xinjiang) Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 68 17.6[51] 68 22.1[51] 68 0.0[51] 68 0.0[51] 68 0.0[51] 68 10.3[51] 68 4.4[51] 67 6.0[57] 67 0.0[57] 68 4.4[51]
Uyghurs (Ürümqi) Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 49 8.2[67] 49 28.6[67] 49 0.0[67] 49 0.0[67] 49 18.4[67]
Uyghurs (Ürümqi) Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 31 19.4[56] 31 22.6[56] 31 6.5[56] 31 25.8[56] 31 9.7[56] 31 0.0[56] 31 0.0[56]
Uyghurs (Yili) Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 39 15.4[56] 39 15.4[56] 39 0.0[56] 39 0.0[56] 39 7.7[56]
Uzbeks Altaic (Turkic, Karluk) 366 9.8[54] 366 25.1[54] 366 2.2[54] 366 2.5[54] 28 21.4[66] 28 0.0[66] 366 3.0[54]
Vanniyar Dravidian (Southern) 25 0.0[13] 25 8.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 0.0[13] 25 16.0[13] 25 20.0[13]
Vellalar Dravidian (Southern) 31 0.0[13] 31 12.9[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 38.7[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 0.0[13] 31 16.1[13]
Welsh (Anglesey) IE (Celtic) 88 89.0[46] 88 1.0[46] 196 8.1[10] 88 3.0[46]
Yagnobis IE (Iranian, NE) 31 32.3[54] 31 16.1[54] 31 0.0[54] 31 0.0[54] 31 32.3[54] 31 0.0[54] 31 9.7[54]
Yakuts Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 155 1.9[39] 155 1.9[39] 155 1.3[39] 155 88.4[39]
Yakuts Altaic (Turkic, Siberian) 10 80.0[11]
Yorubas Niger–Congo (West) 21 4.8[68] - - - - - - 28 93.1[69] - - - - - - - - - -
Population Language[1] n[2] R1b[3] n R1a n I n E1b1b n E1b1a n J n G n N n T n L


The tree below shows the descent of the major Y Chromosomal groups from the so-called Y-Chromosomal Adam.


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
M S QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b IE = Indo-European
  2. ^ a b First column gives the amount of total Sample Size studied
  3. ^ a b Second column gives the Percentage of the particular haplogroup among the Sample Size
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
  5. ^ a b Although the chart here says J, this group has mainly only J2
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Semino, A; Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000). "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic *** sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF). Science 290 (5494): 1155–9. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Pericic, M; Lauc LB, Klaric IM, Rootsi S, Janicijevic B, Rudan I, Terzic R, Colak I, Kvesic A, Popovic D, Sijacki A, Behluli I, Dordevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec DD, Stefanovic BD, Villems R, Rudan P (2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.  Haplogroup frequency data in table 1
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Bosch, E.; Calafell, F.; González-Neira, A.; Flaiz, C; Mateu, E; Scheil, HG; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L et al. (2006). "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns". Annals of Human Genetics 70 (Pt 4): 459–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x. PMID 16759179. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (24 December 2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Rootsi et al. (2004).
  11. ^ a b Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe. Derenko et al.
  12. ^ a b Khar'kov, VN; Stepanov, VA; Medvedeva, OF; Spiridonova, MG; Voevoda, MI; Tadinova, VN; Puzyrev, VP (2007). "Gene pool differences between Northern and Southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups". Genetika 43 (5): 675–87. PMID 17633562. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct Sengupta, S; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, R; Mehdi, SQ; Edmonds, CA; Chow, CE; Lin, AA; Mitra, M et al. (2006). "Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607. 
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