Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of Sub-Saharan Africa

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Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in various ethnic groups and populations from Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on relevant studies, the samples are taken from individuals identified by linguistic designation (AA=Afroasiatic, KS=Khoisan, NS=Nilo-Saharan and NC=Niger–Congo). The table below's third column gives the total sample size studied, and the other columns indicate the percentage observed of the particular haplogroup.

Population Language group n A B E1a E1b1a E1b1b E2 J R1b T Reference
Afro-Asiatic[nb 1] Afro-Asiatic (AA) 236 5.5 3.8 0.4 3.3 34.8 0.8 19.5 20.8 3.8 Wood 2005[1]
Alur Nilotic (NS) 9 22 0 0 11 0 67 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Amhara (Ethiopia) Semitic (AA) 48 14.6 2.1 0 - 35.4 0 33.3 0 4.2 Hassan 2008[2]
Bamileke Bantoid (NC) 85 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Bantus (Gabon) Bantu (NC) 795 0.5 6.7 0.2 79.4 0.1 6.2 0 5.5 0 Berniell 2009[4]
Bantus (Kenya) Bantu (NC) 29 13.8 3.4 0 51.7 13.7 17.2 0 0 0 Hurles 2005[5]
Bantus (Tanzania)[nb 2] Bantu (NC) 110 2.7 9.1 - 48.2 21.8 16.4 0 0 1.8 [3][6]
Bantus (South Africa)[nb 3] Southern Bantu (NC) 137 5.1 10.9 0 54.7 4.4 21.2 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Bantus (South-Eastern) Bantu (NC) 343 5.0 16.3 -- 66.2 1.5 10.2 -- 0 -- Naidoo 2010[7]
Beja Cushitic (AA) 42 4.8 0 0 0 52.4 0 38.1 4.8 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Benin (Fon) Gbe (NC) 100 0 0 0 95 0 5 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Berbers Berber (AA) 64 3 0 2 5 80 0 6 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Burkina Faso[nb 4] Niger–Congo (NC) 106 0 0.9 3.8 81.1 2.8 11.3 0 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Burunge Cushitic (AA) 24 0 25 -- 4 33 -- -- -- -- Tishkoff 2007[6]
Cameroon (North)[nb 5] Adamawa (NC) 72 1.4 12.5 4.2 54.2 0 0 0 27.8 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (North)[nb 6] Chadic (AA) 54 1.8 3.7 0 13.0 3.7 7.4 0 70.4 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Cameroon (South)[nb 7] Bantoid (NC) 89 0 5.6 0 93.3 0 0 0 1.1 0 Cruciani2002[8]
R.D. Congo (East)[nb 8] Bantu (NC) 36 2.8 0 0 63.9 13.9 19.4 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Copts (Sudanese) Arabic (AA) 33 0 15.2 0 0 21.2 0 45.5 15.2 - Hassan 2008[2]
Cross River (Nigeria) Cross River (NC) 1113 0 -- -- 87 -- -- 0 0 0 Veeramah2010[9]
Datog Nilotic (NS) 35 3 3 -- 11 54 -- -- -- -- Tishkoff 2007[6]
Dinka Nilotic (NS) 26 62 23 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Dogon Dogon (NC) 55 1.8 7.3 45.5 43.6 0 1.8 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Ethiopians Afro-Asiatic (AA) 242 17.8 0.8 0 - 48.8 0.4 26.9 0 3.7 Moran 2004[10]
Ethiopian Jews Cushitic (AA) 22 41 0 0 0 50 0 5 0 5 Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe[nb 9] Senegambian (NC) 37 5.4 0 29.7 48.6 -- 0 0 -- 8.1 Cruciani2002[8]
Fulbe (Sudan) Senegambian (NC) 26 0 0 0 0 34.6 0 0 53.8 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Fulbe (Nigeria) Senegambian (NC) 21 - - - - - - - 0 - Cruciani2010[11]
Fur Fur (NS) 32 31.3 3.1 0 0 59.4 0 6.3 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Ghana[nb 10] Kwa (NC) 91 0 0 2.2 92.3 1.1 0 0 1.1 0 Wood 2005[1]
Hadza Hadza (Isolate/KS) 80 0 57.5 - 26.2 15.0 - - - - Tishkoff 2007[6]
Hausa (Sudan) Chadic (AA) 32 12.5 15.6 0 12.5 3.1 0 0 40.6 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Hema Northeast Bantu (NC) 18 6 0 2.2 28 28 39 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Hutu (Rwanda) Northeast Bantu (NC) 69 0 4 0 83 3 8 0 1 0 Luis 2004[3]
Igbo[nb 11] Volta–Niger (NC) 209 A3b2=0 - - 89.3 - - 0 - 0 Veeramah 2010[9]
Iraqw Cushitic (AA) 9 0 22 0 11 56 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Khoisan[nb 12] Khoisan (KS) 90 47.7 14.4 0 24.4 6.7 2.2 1.1 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Khoisan Khoisan (KS) 183 44.3 11.5 0 23.0 16.4 1.6 0 1.6 0 Naidoo 2010[7]
Khoisan (South Africa)[nb 13] Khoisan (KS) 129 33.3 12.4 0 35.7 14.7 3.9 0 0 0 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Kikuyu & Kamba Northeast Bantu (NC) 42 2 2 0 73 19 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
ǃKung Northern Khoisan (KS) 64 36 8 0 39 11 6 0 0 0 Cruciani2002[8]
Luo Nilotic (NS) 9 11 22 0 66 0 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Maasai Nilotic (NS) 26 27 8 0 16 50 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Malagasy Malayo-Polynesian 35 0 8.6 0 34.3 0 8.6 5.7 - 0 O=34.3%[5]
Mandinka Mande (NC) 39 5 3 3 79 8 3 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Masalit Maban (NS) 32 18.8 3.1 0 0 71.9 0 6.3 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Mossi Gur (NC) 49 0 2 -- 90 2 -- -- -- -- Tishkoff 2007[6]
Namibia (Nama) Khoikhoi (KS) 11 64 0 0 18 9 0 0 - 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nande Northeast Bantu (NC) 18 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Niger–Congo[nb 14] Niger–Congo (NC) 705 2.7 9.6 4.5 68.2 3.9 6.9 0.1 1.4 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 15] Nilo-Saharan 91 12.1 35.2 0 29.7 14.3 8.8 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Nilo-Saharan[nb 16] Nilo-Saharan 345 23.2 17.4 -- 9.9 33.9 2.6 6.1 -- -- See [nb 17]
Nubians Nubian(NS), Arabic(AA) 39 0 7.7 0 0 23.1 0 43.6 10.3 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Nuba Nuba (NS) 28 46.4 14.3 0 0 39.3 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Nuer Nilotic (NS) 12 33.3 50 0 0 16.7 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Oromo (Ethiopia) Cushitic (AA) 78 10.3 1.3 0 - 62.8 1.3 3.8 0 5.1 Hassan 2008[2]
Ouldeme Chadic (AA) 13 - - - - - - - 95.5 - Cruciani2010[11]
Pygmy (Mbuti) Central Sudanic (NS) 47 2 59 0 34 0 4 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Pygmy (Western)[nb 18] Niger–Congo (NC) 60 5 53.3 - 28.3 0 - 0 3.3 0 Berniell 2009[4]
Sandawe Sandawe (tentative/KS) 68 4 14 - 43 34 - - - - Tishkoff 2007[6]
Senegalese Niger–Congo (NC) 139 0 0 5.0 81.3 6.5 2.9 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Shilluk Nilotic (NS) 15 53.3 26.7 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Shuwa Arabs Arabic (AA) 5 - - - - - - - 40 - Cruciani2010[11]
Somalis Cushitic (AA) 201 0.5 1.0 0 1.5 81.1 0.5 3.0 R1a=1 10.4 Sanchez2005[12]
South African Whites Indo-European 157 0 0 0.6 0.6 9.6 0 3.8 51.6 -- Others=33.8[7]
Sudan (Arabs)[nb 19] Semitic (AA) 102 2.9 0 0 0 16.7 0 47.1 15.7 0 Hassan 2008[2]
South Sudan (Nilotic)[nb 20] Nilotic (NS) 81 50.6 24.7 0 0 24.7 0 0 - 0 Hassan 2008[2]
West Sudan (Darfur)[nb 21] Nilo-Saharan (NS) 90 27.8 2.2 0 0 62.2 0 4.4 - 0 Hassan 2008[2]
Tuareg (Burkina Faso)[nb 22] Tuareg (AA) 38 - - 0 16.7 77.8 0 - 0 - Pereira 2010[13]
Tuareg (Mali)[nb 23] Tuareg (AA) 21 - - 0 9.1 90.9 0 - 0 - Pereira 2010[13]
Tuareg (Niger)[nb 24] Tuareg (AA) 31 - - 0 44.4 16.7 0 - 33.3 - Pereira 2010[13]
Tutsi (Rwanda) Northeast Bantu (NC) 94 0 15 0 80 1 4 0 0 0 Luis 2004[3]
Wolof Senegambian (NC) 34 0 0 12.0 68.0 12.0 3.0 0 0 - Wood 2005[1]
Yoruba Volta–Niger (NC) 13 0 8 0 92 0 0 0 0 0 Tishkoff 2007[6]
Xhosa Southern Bantu (NC) 80 5 5 0 54 5 28 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]
Zulu Southern Bantu (NC) 29 3 20 0 55 0 21 0 0 0 Wood 2005[1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Afroasiatic from: Ethiopia, Cameroon, Egypt, Tunisia.
  2. ^ Tanzania: Turu, Mbugwe, Wairak, Sukuma.
  3. ^ South Africa: Sotho–Tswana, Xhosa, Zulu.
  4. ^ Burkina Faso ethnic groups: Mossi, Rimaibe, Fulbe.
  5. ^ Adamawa Cameroon: Fali, Tali, mixed.
  6. ^ Chadic Cameroon: Ouldeme, Daba, mixed.
  7. ^ Southern Cameroon: Bamileke, Ewondo, Bakaka.
  8. ^ RDC: Nande, Hema.
  9. ^ Fulbe from Burkina Faso and Cameroon.
  10. ^ Ghana: Ewe, Ga, Fante.
  11. ^ Calculated by averaging the haplogroup frequencies of the IG-C (Calabar), IG-E (Enugu) and IG-N (Nenwe) Igbo samples (see Table 1) in Table 4.
  12. ^ Khoisan: !Kung/Sekele, Tsumkwe San, Dama, Nama.
  13. ^ Khoisan from South Africa: Khwe, !Kung, and mixed.
  14. ^ Niger–Congo from: Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Cameroon, CAR, DRC, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.
  15. ^ Nilo-Saharan: Alur, Mbuti (R.D.Congo), Massai, Luo (Kenya). Clade was exclusively carried by the Maasai amongst the Nilo-Saharan speakers - Appendix A
  16. ^ Nilo-Saharan: 14 populations from R.D.Congo, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania and Cameroon
  17. ^ Nilo-Saharans in Wood 2005, Hassan 2008, Tishkoff 2007 and Cruciani 2002
  18. ^ Pygmies: Baka, Bakola.
  19. ^ Northern Sudan: Gaalien, Meseria, Arakien.
  20. ^ South Sudan: Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer.
  21. ^ Western Sudan: Fur, Masalit, Borgu. Clade introduced from North Africa. High frequencies likely due to a population bottleneck.
  22. ^ Tgor: Tuareg from Burkina Faso, around the village of Gorom-Gorom.
  23. ^ Tgos: Tuareg from Mali, near Gossi.
  24. ^ Ttan: Tuareg from Niger, in the vicinity of Tanut.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Wood, Elizabeth T et al 2005 Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes; also Appendix A
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Hassan, Hisham Y. et al. 2008 Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History
  3. ^ a b c d e J. R. Luis et al 2004, The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations
  4. ^ a b Berniell-Lee, Gemma et al 2009 Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages
  5. ^ a b Hurles, Matthew E. et al 2005, The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Tishkoff, Sarah A. et al 2007 History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation
  7. ^ a b c Naidoo, Thijessen et al 2010, Development of a single base extension method to resolve Y chromosome haplogroups in sub-Saharan African populations
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Cruciani, Fulvio et al 2002, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes
  9. ^ a b Veeramah, Krishna R; et al. (2010). "Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria". BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-92. PMC 2867817. PMID 20356404. Retrieved 2010-09-16.  & Supplementary material
  10. ^ Moran CN et al 2004, Y chromosome haplogroups of elite Ethiopian endurance runners.
  11. ^ a b c Cruciani et al. 2010, Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages
  12. ^ Sánchez, Juan J et al 2005, High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males
  13. ^ a b c Pereira, Luísa et al. (2010), Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel & Supplementary Material SM7

External links[edit]