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Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide
Protein YWHAB PDB 2bq0.png
PDB rendering based on 2bq0.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols YWHAB ; GW128; HS1; KCIP-1; YWHAA
External IDs OMIM601289 MGI1891917 HomoloGene20724 GeneCards: YWHAB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE YWHAB 208743 s at tn.png
PBB GE YWHAB 217717 s at tn.png
PBB GE YWHAB 217718 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7529 54401
Ensembl ENSG00000166913 ENSMUSG00000018326
UniProt P31946 Q9CQV8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003404 NM_018753
RefSeq (protein) NP_003395 NP_061223
Location (UCSC) Chr 20:
43.51 – 43.54 Mb
Chr 2:
163.99 – 164.02 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

14-3-3 protein beta/alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAB gene.[1]

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 14-3-3 family of proteins, members of which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery. Two transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been identified for this gene.[2]


YWHAB has been shown to interact with CDC25A,[3] CDC25B,[3][4] BRAF,[5][6] C-Raf,[3][7][8][9][10][11] RPS6KA1,[12] EPB41L3,[5][13] CD29,[14] Wee1-like protein kinase,[15] PTPN3,[16] Protein kinase Mζ,[9] MAPK7,[17] TESK1,[18] TNFAIP3,[11] Cbl gene,[19] HDAC4[20] and KCNK3.[21]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tommerup N, Leffers H (June 1996). "Assignment of the human genes encoding 14,3-3 Eta (YWHAH) to 22q12, 14-3-3 zeta (YWHAZ) to 2p25.1-p25.2, and 14-3-3 beta (YWHAB) to 20q13.1 by in situ hybridization". Genomics 33 (1): 149–50. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0176. PMID 8617504. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: YWHAB tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide". 
  3. ^ a b c Conklin, D S; Galaktionov K, Beach D (August 1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 92 (17): 7892–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 41252. PMID 7644510. 
  4. ^ Mils, V; Baldin V, Goubin F, Pinta I, Papin C, Waye M, Eychene A, Ducommun B (March 2000). "Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase". Oncogene (ENGLAND) 19 (10): 1257–65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203419. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 10713667. 
  5. ^ a b Ewing, Rob M; Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, Climie Shane, McBroom-Cerajewski Linda, Robinson Mark D, O'Connor Liam, Li Michael, Taylor Rod, Dharsee Moyez, Ho Yuen, Heilbut Adrian, Moore Lynda, Zhang Shudong, Ornatsky Olga, Bukhman Yury V, Ethier Martin, Sheng Yinglun, Vasilescu Julian, Abu-Farha Mohamed, Lambert Jean-Philippe, Duewel Henry S, Stewart Ian I, Kuehl Bonnie, Hogue Kelly, Colwill Karen, Gladwish Katharine, Muskat Brenda, Kinach Robert, Adams Sally-Lin, Moran Michael F, Morin Gregg B, Topaloglou Thodoros, Figeys Daniel (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein–protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. (England) 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. 
  6. ^ Qiu, W; Zhuang S, von Lintig F C, Boss G R, Pilz R B (October 2000). "Cell type-specific regulation of B-Raf kinase by cAMP and 14-3-3 proteins". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (41): 31921–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003327200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10931830. 
  7. ^ Yuryev, Anton; Wennogle Lawrence P (February 2003). "Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis". Genomics (United States) 81 (2): 112–25. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(02)00008-3. ISSN 0888-7543. PMID 12620389. 
  8. ^ Truong, Amy B; Masters Shane C, Yang Hongzhu, Fu Haian (November 2002). "Role of the 14-3-3 C-terminal loop in ligand interaction". Proteins (United States) 49 (3): 321–5. doi:10.1002/prot.10210. PMID 12360521. 
  9. ^ a b Van Der Hoeven, P C; Van Der Wal J C, Ruurs P, Van Dijk M C, Van Blitterswijk J (January 2000). "14-3-3 isotypes facilitate coupling of protein kinase C-zeta to Raf-1: negative regulation by 14-3-3 phosphorylation". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND). 345 Pt 2 (Pt 2): 297–306. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3450297. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1220759. PMID 10620507. 
  10. ^ Yuryev, A; Ono M, Goff S A, Macaluso F, Wennogle L P (July 2000). "Isoform-Specific Localization of A-RAF in Mitochondria". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (13): 4870–8. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.13.4870-4878.2000. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 85938. PMID 10848612. 
  11. ^ a b Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (August 1996). "14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 271 (33): 20029–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.33.20029. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8702721. 
  12. ^ Cavet, Megan E; Lehoux Stephanie, Berk Bradford C (May 2003). "14-3-3beta is a p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) isoform 1-binding protein that negatively regulates RSK kinase activity". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (20): 18376–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208475200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12618428. 
  13. ^ Yu, Tingxi; Robb Victoria A, Singh Vinita, Gutmann David H, Newsham Irene F (August 2002). "The 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of the DAL-1/Protein 4.1B tumour suppressor interacts with 14-3-3 proteins". Biochem. J. (England) 365 (Pt 3): 783–9. doi:10.1042/BJ20020060. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1222735. PMID 11996670. 
  14. ^ Han, D C; Rodriguez L G, Guan J L (January 2001). "Identification of a novel interaction between integrin beta1 and 14-3-3beta". Oncogene (England) 20 (3): 346–57. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204068. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 11313964. 
  15. ^ Wang, Y; Jacobs C, Hook K E, Duan H, Booher R N, Sun Y (April 2000). "Binding of 14-3-3beta to the carboxyl terminus of Wee1 increases Wee1 stability, kinase activity, and G2-M cell population". Cell Growth Differ. (UNITED STATES) 11 (4): 211–9. ISSN 1044-9523. PMID 10775038. 
  16. ^ Zhang, S H; Kobayashi R, Graves P R, Piwnica-Worms H, Tonks N K (October 1997). "Serine phosphorylation-dependent association of the band 4.1-related protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 with 14-3-3beta protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (43): 27281–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.43.27281. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9341175. 
  17. ^ Zheng, Qinlei; Yin Guoyong, Yan Chen, Cavet Megan, Berk Bradford C (March 2004). "14-3-3beta binds to big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1/ERK5) and regulates BMK1 function". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 279 (10): 8787–91. doi:10.1074/jbc.M310212200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 14679215. 
  18. ^ Toshima, J Y; Toshima J, Watanabe T, Mizuno K (November 2001). "Binding of 14-3-3beta regulates the kinase activity and subcellular localization of testicular protein kinase 1". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (46): 43471–81. doi:10.1074/jbc.M104620200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11555644. 
  19. ^ Robertson, H; Langdon W Y, Thien C B, Bowtell D D (November 1997). "A c-Cbl yeast two hybrid screen reveals interactions with 14-3-3 isoforms and cytoskeletal components". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 240 (1): 46–50. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7608. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 9367879. 
  20. ^ Grozinger, C M; Schreiber S L (July 2000). "Regulation of histone deacetylase 4 and 5 and transcriptional activity by 14-3- 3-dependent cellular localization". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (14): 7835–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.140199597. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 16631. PMID 10869435. 
  21. ^ O'Kelly, Ita; Butler Margaret H, Zilberberg Noam, Goldstein Steve A N (November 2002). "Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic reticulum by dibasic signals". Cell (United States) 111 (4): 577–88. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01040-1. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 12437930. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kino T, Pavlakis GN (2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 193–205. doi:10.1089/104454904773819789. PMID 15142377. 
  • Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome?". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1024: 153–67. doi:10.1196/annals.1321.013. PMID 15265780. 
  • Calinisan V, Gravem D, Chen RP et al. (2006). "New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1 superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium". Front. Biosci. 11: 1646–66. doi:10.2741/1911. PMID 16368544.