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Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide
Protein YWHAQ PDB 2btp.png
PDB rendering based on 2btp.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols YWHAQ ; 14-3-3; 1C5; HS1
External IDs OMIM609009 MGI891963 HomoloGene105677 GeneCards: YWHAQ Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE YWHAQ 212426 s at tn.png
PBB GE YWHAQ 200693 at tn.png
PBB GE YWHAQ 213699 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 10971 22630
Ensembl ENSG00000134308 ENSMUSG00000076432
UniProt P27348 P68254
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_006826 NM_011739
RefSeq (protein) NP_006817 NP_035869
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
9.72 – 9.77 Mb
Chr 12:
21.39 – 21.42 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

14-3-3 protein theta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAQ gene.[1]

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins that mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse and rat orthologs. This gene is upregulated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It contains in its 5' UTR a 6 bp tandem repeat sequence that is polymorphic; however, there is no correlation between the repeat number and the disease.[2]


YWHAQ has been shown to interact with MEF2D,[3] Bcl-2-associated X protein,[4] CRTC2,[5][6] C-Raf,[6][7][8][9] Histone deacetylase 5,[10] NRIP1,[11] Protein kinase Mζ,[8] UCP3,[12] PFKFB2,[13] Telomerase reverse transcriptase,[14] Bcl-2-associated death promoter,[15][16] Cbl gene[9][17] and Protein kinase D1.[18][19]


  1. ^ Malaspina A, Kaushik N, de Belleroche J (November 2000). "A 14-3-3 mRNA is up-regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord". J Neurochem 75 (6): 2511–20. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0752511.x. PMID 11080204. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: YWHAQ tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide". 
  3. ^ Choi, S J; Park S Y, Han T H (July 2001). "14-3-3tau associates with and activates the MEF2D transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation". Nucleic Acids Res. (England) 29 (13): 2836–42. doi:10.1093/nar/29.13.2836. PMC 55772. PMID 11433030. 
  4. ^ Nomura, Masaya; Shimizu Shigeomi, Sugiyama Tomoyasu, Narita Masashi, Ito Toshinori, Matsuda Hikaru, Tsujimoto Yoshihide (January 2003). "14-3-3 Interacts directly with and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic Bax". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (3): 2058–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207880200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12426317. 
  5. ^ Screaton, Robert A; Conkright Michael D, Katoh Yoshiko, Best Jennifer L, Canettieri Gianluca, Jeffries Shawn, Guzman Ernesto, Niessen Sherry, Yates John R, Takemori Hiroshi, Okamoto Mitsuhiro, Montminy Marc (October 2004). "The CREB coactivator TORC2 functions as a calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detector". Cell (United States) 119 (1): 61–74. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.09.015. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 15454081. 
  6. ^ a b Ewing, Rob M; Chu Peter, Elisma Fred, Li Hongyan, Taylor Paul, Climie Shane, McBroom-Cerajewski Linda, Robinson Mark D, O'Connor Liam, Li Michael, Taylor Rod, Dharsee Moyez, Ho Yuen, Heilbut Adrian, Moore Lynda, Zhang Shudong, Ornatsky Olga, Bukhman Yury V, Ethier Martin, Sheng Yinglun, Vasilescu Julian, Abu-Farha Mohamed, Lambert Jean-Philippe, Duewel Henry S, Stewart Ian I, Kuehl Bonnie, Hogue Kelly, Colwill Karen, Gladwish Katharine, Muskat Brenda, Kinach Robert, Adams Sally-Lin, Moran Michael F, Morin Gregg B, Topaloglou Thodoros, Figeys Daniel (2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. (England) 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. 
  7. ^ Yeung, K; Janosch P, McFerran B, Rose D W, Mischak H, Sedivy J M, Kolch W (May 2000). "Mechanism of suppression of the Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by the raf kinase inhibitor protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (9): 3079–85. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.9.3079-3085.2000. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 85596. PMID 10757792. 
  8. ^ a b Van Der Hoeven, P C; Van Der Wal J C, Ruurs P, Van Dijk M C, Van Blitterswijk J (January 2000). "14-3-3 isotypes facilitate coupling of protein kinase C-zeta to Raf-1: negative regulation by 14-3-3 phosphorylation". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND) 345 (2): 297–306. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3450297. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1220759. PMID 10620507. 
  9. ^ a b Liu, Y C; Elly C, Yoshida H, Bonnefoy-Berard N, Altman A (June 1996). "Activation-modulated association of 14-3-3 proteins with Cbl in T cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 271 (24): 14591–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.24.14591. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8663231. 
  10. ^ Vega, Rick B; Harrison Brooke C, Meadows Eric, Roberts Charles R, Papst Philip J, Olson Eric N, McKinsey Timothy A (October 2004). "Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (19): 8374–85. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.19.8374-8385.2004. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 516754. PMID 15367659. 
  11. ^ Zilliacus, J; Holter E, Wakui H, Tazawa H, Treuter E, Gustafsson J A (April 2001). "Regulation of glucocorticoid receptor activity by 14--3-3-dependent intracellular relocalization of the corepressor RIP140". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 15 (4): 501–11. doi:10.1210/me.15.4.501. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11266503. 
  12. ^ Pierrat, B; Ito M, Hinz W, Simonen M, Erdmann D, Chiesi M, Heim J (May 2000). "Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 interact with members of the 14.3.3 family". Eur. J. Biochem. (GERMANY) 267 (9): 2680–7. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01285.x. ISSN 0014-2956. PMID 10785390. 
  13. ^ Pozuelo Rubio, Mercedes; Peggie Mark, Wong Barry H C, Morrice Nick, MacKintosh Carol (July 2003). "14-3-3s regulate fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels by binding to PKB-phosphorylated cardiac fructose-2,6-bisphosphate kinase/phosphatase". EMBO J. (England) 22 (14): 3514–23. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg363. ISSN 0261-4189. PMC 165633. PMID 12853467. 
  14. ^ Seimiya, H; Sawada H, Muramatsu Y, Shimizu M, Ohko K, Yamane K, Tsuruo T (June 2000). "Involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in nuclear localization of telomerase". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (11): 2652–61. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.11.2652. ISSN 0261-4189. PMC 212742. PMID 10835362. 
  15. ^ Chen, Lin; Willis Simon N, Wei Andrew, Smith Brian J, Fletcher Jamie I, Hinds Mark G, Colman Peter M, Day Catherine L, Adams Jerry M, Huang David C S (February 2005). "Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function". Mol. Cell (United States) 17 (3): 393–403. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.12.030. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 15694340. 
  16. ^ Hsu, S Y; Kaipia A, Zhu L, Hsueh A J (November 1997). "Interference of BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells by 14-3-3 isoforms and P11". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 11 (12): 1858–67. doi:10.1210/me.11.12.1858. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 9369453. 
  17. ^ Pedraza-Alva, G; Sawasdikosol S, Liu Y C, Mérida L B, Cruz-Muñoz M E, Oceguera-Yañez F, Burakoff S J, Rosenstein Y (January 2001). "Regulation of Cbl molecular interactions by the co-receptor molecule CD43 in human T cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 276 (1): 729–37. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008494200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11024037. 
  18. ^ Storz, P; Hausser A, Link G, Dedio J, Ghebrehiwet B, Pfizenmaier K, Johannes F J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C [micro] is regulated by the multifunctional chaperon protein p32". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (32): 24601–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002964200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10831594. 
  19. ^ Hausser, A; Storz P, Link G, Stoll H, Liu Y C, Altman A, Pfizenmaier K, Johannes F J (April 1999). "Protein kinase C mu is negatively regulated by 14-3-3 signal transduction proteins". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (14): 9258–64. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.14.9258. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10092600. 

Further reading[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.