Toronto Pearson International Airport
|Toronto Pearson International Airport|
|IATA: YYZ – ICAO: CYYZ
– WMO: 71624
|Operator||Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)|
|Serves||Greater Toronto Area|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−05:00)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−04:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||569 ft / 173 m|
Toronto Pearson International Airport (also known as Lester B. Pearson International Airport or simply Pearson Airport or Toronto Pearson) (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ) is an international airport serving the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, its metropolitan area, and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration that is home to 8.7 million people. The airport is located 22.5 km (14.0 mi) northwest of downtown Toronto, in the adjacent city of Mississauga. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
Pearson is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2014, it handled 38,571,961 passengers and 433,610 aircraft movements in 2013. It is the world's 35th-busiest airport by total passenger traffic, 24th-busiest airport by international passenger traffic, and 15th-busiest airport by flights. Pearson is a major North American global gateway, handling more international passengers than any airport in North America other than John F. Kennedy International Airport.
Pearson is the main hub for Air Canada. It is also a hub for passenger airline WestJet and cargo airline FedEx Express, and serves as an operating base for passenger airlines Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson Airport is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports with facilities for United States border preclearance.
An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada. There are 75 airlines operating at Pearson, connecting the airport to over 155 international destinations worldwide. Pearson is one of only two airports in North America, the other being JFK International Airport, with scheduled direct flights to all six of the world's inhabited continents.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Infrastructure and services
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Cargo operations
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Access
- 8 Incidents and accidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In February 1935, the Government of Canada announced its intention to build an airport in Toronto. A site near Malton, Ontario, northwest of Toronto, was chosen as the location for the new airport.
In April 1937, land agents representing the Toronto Harbour Commission approached farmers in Malton who owned Lots 6-10 on Concession 5 and 6 to acquire land for Malton Airport. Agreements were drawn up for a total purchase of 570.9 hectares (1,410.8 acres), and several farmers sold lots ranging in size from 20 to 80 hectares (50 to 200 acres).
The second terminal, a standard wood frame building, was built in 1938. The airport at the time covered 170 hectares (420 acres) with full lighting, radio, weather reporting equipment, two hard surface runways, and one grass landing strip. The first scheduled passenger flight to Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Airlines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.
A third "TCA" terminal was built to the western side of second wood frame terminal in 1949. It could handle 400,000 passengers per year and had an observation deck on the roof. In front of the old terminal was a set of stairs leading to a ramp to allow visitors to access the rooftop observation deck. Further expansion saw the expropriation of land near the hamlet of Elmbank. The runways were 5/23, a 3,368 m (11,050 ft) runway (used for test flights of the CF-105 Arrow (Avro Arrow) fighter from the Avro Canada plant); 14/32, a 3,498 m (11,475 ft) runway (replaced by 15L/33R); and 10/28, a 2,263 m (7,425 ft) runway that now is a taxiway.
The 1939 and 1949 addition (and surrounding structures) were torn down in 1964 with the area developed for Air Canada's hangar with the terminal site now occupied by the Vista Cargo Centres (Cargo Area 5).
U.S. border preclearance
Preclearance was pioneered at Pearson in 1952 as a convenience to allow it to connect as a domestic airport to the many smaller airports in the United States that at the time lacked customs and immigration facilities. It was at first a service performed by U.S. Customs agents at the gate. U.S. federal government concerns over smuggling between precleared and non-cleared passengers at Toronto Pearson (who at that time shared mixed terminal space) nearly ended the program in the 1970s, until a compromise was reached that called for segregated facilities. Today, Pearson handles 8 million passengers through its U.S. customs and immigration preclearance facilities per year, which is roughly one quarter of all passenger traffic at the airport.
The third "TCA" terminal was demolished in the late 1960s and replaced by the Aeroquay One terminal building, which was built further south of the original site along Airport Road. Aeroquay One (also called Terminal One) had a square central structure housing ticketing and baggage facilities topped by a parking garage with about eight levels and ringed by a two-storey passenger concourse leading to the gates. It was designed by John B. Parkin, with construction taking place between 1957 and 1964. Aeroquay One was officially opened on February 28, 1964 by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson.
Aeroquay One ceased operations on April 5, 2004, and has since been demolished.
Former Terminal 2
Considered state-of-the-art in the 1960s, the original Terminal 1 became overloaded by the early 1970s. Terminal 2 opened as a passenger airline terminal on June 15, 1972. Initially, it served only charter airlines, but it became the hub for Air Canada passenger flights on April 29, 1973.
While a legend suggests that Terminal 2 was originally intended as a freight terminal, this was not the case. The legend may have stemmed from the fact that a cargo facility was used as a temporary passenger terminal while waiting for completion of the new terminal 
Terminal 2 had a facility for United States border preclearance and handled both domestic and international trans-border traffic. Domestic traffic was moved to the new Terminal 1 when it became operational, leaving Terminal 2 to handle international traffic to the United States for Air Canada and its Star Alliance partner United Airlines.
The airport was renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. Operationally, the airport is often referred to as Toronto Pearson.
A passenger tunnel with moving walkways at the northwest corner of Terminal 2 connected it with Terminal 1.
Terminal 2 saw its last day in operation as a passenger terminal January 29, 2007. The following day, airlines moved to the newly completed Pier F, or Hammerhead Pier at the current Terminal 1.
Demolition of Terminal 2 began in April 2007 and concluded in November 2008.
Operation Yellow Ribbon
During the September 11 attacks in 2001, Toronto Pearson International Airport played a role in Operation Yellow Ribbon. It received 14 of the diverted international flights that were destined for the United States after the closure of US airspace.
In order to accommodate its growing aircraft volume, substantial redevelopment of the airside and infield systems has taken place. Cargo facilities were added to the centre of the airport between the parallel north–south runways in order to increase capabilities and to offset the loss of the cargo facilities that were removed for the current terminal buildings. Two runways were built to increase the number of aircraft that Toronto Pearson could process. A north–south runway, 15R/33L, was added and completed in 1997. Another east–west runway, 06R/24L, was completed in 2002.
The continued increase of air traffic at Toronto Pearson resulted in a 2013 decision by Transport Canada to proceed with the planning and construction of Toronto Pickering International Airport (following a 2001 decision to simply revive plans for the airport), which would be approximately 50 km (31 mi) east of Toronto Pearson and handle up to 11.9 million passengers per year by 2032 with its three runways.
Toronto Pearson International Airport has two operating terminals, Terminals 1 and 3. T1 opened on April 6, 2004. The old Terminal 1, which closed simultaneously with the opening, was demolished to make room for additional gates at Pier E. Pier F at Terminal 1, which has an enlarged end called "Hammerhead F", opened on January 30, 2007 to replace Terminal 2. This pier accommodates international traffic and adds 7 million passengers per year to the airport's total capacity. Redevelopment of the airport was a logistical challenge, as the existing terminals remained operational throughout construction and demolition.
As of August 2010, free high-speed Wi-Fi internet access is available throughout all passenger terminals at Toronto Pearson.
Terminal 1 is designed to handle domestic, international, and trans-border flights in one facility. The terminal features three piers: Piers D and E with 38 gates and Pier F with 23 gates. Pier F serves transborder and international flights, replacing Terminal 2 and the Infield Terminal (IFT). A Pier G is slated to be built in the future if demand warrants.
Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Toronto operate out of Terminal 1; however, the terminal is also used by airlines that are not members of Star Alliance. Terminal 1 contains 58 gates: D1, D3, D5, D7-D12, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D31–D45 (D32, D34, D36 also serve US flights and carry F designation), D51, D53, D55, D57 (also carry F designation), F60–F63, F64A–F64B, F65, F66A–F66B, F/E67–F/E81 (F68-F73 and F78-F81 serve both US and international flights but E74-E77 are international only), F91, and F93. Two of the gates, E73 and E75, can accommodate the Airbus A380. Emirates is the only operator of this type of airplane at Toronto Pearson.
Measuring over 567,000 square metres (6,000,000 sq ft), Terminal 1 is the 11th-largest airport terminal in the world in terms of floor area.
Along with the standard border facilities, the terminal also contains a few customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers that are connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are directed to Pier F. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.
Terminal 3, which opened on February 21, 1991, was built to offset traffic from the old Terminals 1 and 2. Terminal 3 was initially advertised as "Trillium Terminal 3" and the "Trillium Terminal". It was built as a private venture and was a state-of-the-art terminal containing a U.S. customs preclearance facility, among other things. A parking garage and hotel is located across from the terminal and is connected by an elevated pedestrian walkway. At the time of the opening, the hotel was managed by Swissôtel. However, it was rebranded as a Sheraton property in October 1993. In 1997, the GTAA purchased Terminal 3 and shortly thereafter implemented a C$350 million expansion.
A team of coordinators known as T3RD oversaw the redevelopment and expansion of Terminal 3. In 2004, the Pier C Expansion opened, followed by the East Processor Extension (EPE) in June 2006, adding 40 new check-in counters, new retail space, additional secure 'hold-screening' for baggage, and a huge picture window that offers one of the most convenient apron viewing locations at the airport. This phase of the expansion also included improved Canadian Border services and a more open arrivals hall. Phase II of the EPE was completed in 2007 and includes larger security screening areas and additional international baggage claim areas. The West Processor Expansion Shell was completed in early 2008.
All SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson operate from Terminal 3, along with WestJet, Air Transat, and most other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance. Terminal 3 has 39 gates: A1–A6, B7–B20, B22 and C24–C41.
The infield terminal was built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1. Its gates were opened in 2002 and 2003. A first class lounge was opened in 2005. The terminal, also known as the IFT, has 11 gates (521 to 531). A pedestrian tunnel originally connected the Infield Terminal to Terminal 2 and now connects to Terminal 1. Although it is currently closed, plans are in place to reactivate it if necessary in the future to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand, or to provide additional capacity during future terminal building construction at the airport.
When it was in use, passengers were transported by bus between Terminal 1 and the IFT to reach their gates.
The Infield Terminal is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.
Infrastructure and services
In July 2006, the automated LINK Train people mover opened, with two 6-car trains that run between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and the Sheraton Gateway Hotel, where a reduced rate and airport staff parking lot exists between Airport Road and Viscount Road. In 2009, a new 8,500 vehicle parking garage opened near Viscount station, linked via a bridge across Viscount Road. The structure accommodates long term parking, employee parking, and rental car operations.
- GTAA Fire and Emergency Service has 2 fire stations to provide firefighting and rescue operations.
- Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement service at the airport. Airport Division is located on 2951 Convair Drive, on the southern perimeter of the airport near the Facilities Building adjacent to Highway 401.
- The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) maintains a Toronto Airport Detachment to provide federal police services and is located at 255 Attwell Drive east of the airport in Etobicoke. The RCMP formerly provided policing at the airport. In December 2009, the Peel force asked the RCMP to assist in policing the airport due to the failed bombing incident at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport. The Canada Border Services Agency, as well as the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, maintain extensive operations at the airport.
- The Greater Toronto Airports Authority administration offices are located on Convair Drive near the southeast corner of the airport. They were relocated when the original office was demolished to make way for the new Terminal 1 parking facilities.
- Skyservice Business Aviation
- Cara Operations – onboard food catering
- Federal Express - located at the northwest end of the airport
There are two supplies of aviation fuel at the airport:
Air Traffic Control
Pearson is one of two airports in Canada with a Traffic Management Unit (TMU) to help control planes on the taxiways and apron areas. The TMU is located in the tower at Terminal 1. The airport's main control tower is located within the infield operations area.
All three major airline alliances (Star Alliance, SkyTeam, and Oneworld) have a large presence at Toronto Pearson, and therefore all maintain frequent flyer lounges within the airport. There are also several "Pay-In" lounges open for use by all passengers, regardless of airline, frequent flyer status, or class of travel.
- Terminal 1
- Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge (Star Alliance)
- Domestic (Take elevator to the left at security, next to Tim Hortons)
- International (Level 3, before the escalators down to gates)
- International – USA Transborder (Level 4, take elevators to the right at security)
- Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
- Domestic (After main security on Level 3, on the right)
- International (Next to Gate E77, take the elevator to Level 3)
- International - USA Transborder (Near Gate F91)
- Terminal 3
- American Airlines Admirals Club (Oneworld)
- British Airways The Galleries Club Lounge (Oneworld)
- British Airways The Galleries First Lounge (Oneworld)
- KLM Crown Lounge (SkyTeam)
- Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
- Domestic (Between Gate B22 and C24)
- International (Next to Gate C32, take the elevator to the AT level)
The airport's 115-member airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at the airport. From mid-November to mid-April, the unit is in winter mode armed with a $38 million snow removal budget. The airport employs 11 Vammas PSB series and 4 Oshkosh HT-Series snowplow units.
Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing about 10,500 aircraft each winter. The six de-icing bays can handle up to 12 aircraft at a time, taking between 2 and 19 minutes per aircraft.
During de-icing, a heated glycol and water mixture is applied to the aircraft to remove frozen contamination adhering to critical flight control surfaces. During anti-icing, additional chemicals are applied to provide long-term protection against icing.
Airlines and destinations
Passenger airlines and destinations
- ^1 : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Toronto to Addis Ababa eastbound is nonstop. There is a fuel stop at Rome Fiumicino Airport on the flight from Addis Ababa to Toronto, however passengers are not permitted to disembark or board the aircraft at FCO.
- ^2 : Philippine Airlines flights to/from Manila stop in Vancouver. However, Philippine Airlines does not have eighth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Toronto and Vancouver, and thus only carries passengers traveling between Toronto and Manila.
Cargo airlines and destinations
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK||VISTA|
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul||FedEx|
operated by Morningstar Air Express
|Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal–Mirabel, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Timmins, Vancouver, Winnipeg||FedEx|
|Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter||Brussels (begins 17 May 2015)||TBD|
|Korean Air Cargo||Anchorage, Seoul–Incheon||Cargo West|
|Lufthansa Cargo||Frankfurt||Cargo West|
Pearson operates two primary cargo facilities. The Cargo West Facilities are located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L, and the Cargo Area 5 or VISTA Cargo Centres Incorporated are located north of Terminal 3. A third facility dedicated to FedEx operations occupies facilities at the north side of the airport near runway 05/23.
|American Airlines||Canada Border Services Agency|
|CAS Canada Inc.||Korean Air Cargo|
|WestJet Air Supply||Worldwide Flight Services|
|Air Canada Cargo||ACE Freight||AeroLogic||Air France Cargo||Airline Cargo Sales||Air-Ship International||Air Time Express||Alitalia||All Trade Shipping||American Aviation Parts & Service||Airport Terminal Services|
|Austrian Airlines||Canada Border Services Agency||Canada Post||Cargo Sales Resources||Cargo Zone||CAS Cargo and Travel||Cathay Pacific||Delta Air Lines||DHL Express|
|El Al||EVA Air||Excel Cargo||Exp-Air Cargo||Freight Systems Incorporated||Air India||Handlex Incorporated||International Cargo||International Fastline Forwarding||Japan Airlines||KLM Cargo|
|LAN Chile||LOT Polish Airlines||Lufthansa Cargo||Mayfield Cargo||Finnair||Onward Transportation||Orbit Brokers||SATA Cargo||Pine Tree Express||Platinum Air Cargo|
|Prestige International||Secure Maple Freight||Swiss International Airlines||Swissport||Turkish Airlines Cargo||TBI||U Freight International||UPS Airlines||VCC Cargo Services|
|Shell Aerocentre Hangars and Flight Lounge||All Cargo Airlines Ltd|
The airport is accessible from Highway 427 (just north of the Highway 401) or from Highway 409, a spur off Highway 401 that leads directly into the airport. Airport Road to the north and Dixon Road to the east both provide local access to the airport.
Restricted road access from Courtney Park Drive and Britannia Road to the west of the airport are for authorized vehicles only. Various roads to the cargo area to the north are also restricted. Other roads that travel along the airport grounds and runways are blocked off by fencing and gates. When drivers pick up or drop off guests at Toronto Pearson, they are permitted to stop momentarily outside the Arrivals and Departure areas at both terminals.
Bus services that connect Toronto and the surrounding region to Pearson Airport include the Toronto Transit Commission (public transit), GO Transit (public regional transit), MiWay (public transit), Brampton Transit (public transit) and Can-ar Coach Service (private airport coach service):
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)|
|192 Airport Rocket||Express service to Kipling Station on the||All-day||1 and 3|||
|52A Lawrence West||Local service serving Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence Station via Lawrence West Station, both on the||All-day||1 and 3|||
|300A Bloor-Danforth||Runs express from the airport to Burnhamthorpe Road at Highway 427, then serves Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue to Warden Avenue||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|1 and 3|||
|307 Eglinton West||Local service along Eglinton Avenue to Yonge Street||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|1 and 3|||
|34 Brampton Local||Eastbound: Semi-express service to York Mills and Yorkdale TTC subway stations on the||All-day||1 only|||
|40 Pearson Airport||Express service to Richmond Hill Centre bus terminal.||All-day||1 only|||
|7 Airport||Local service to:||All-day||1 only|||
|107 Malton Express||Express service to:
Transfer from the airport's offsite parking to airport terminals is made via Viscount LINK Station.
|Mondays to Saturdays||Viscount LINK Station|||
|24 Northwest||Local service to:||Rush hour||Viscount LINK Station|||
|57 Courtneypark||Local service from the airport's Infield Cargo area to:
Northbound: Meadowvale Town Centre
|59 Infield||Local service from Westwood Mall to the airport's Infield Cargo area||One trip daily||None|||
|115 Airport Express||Semi-express service to Bramalea bus terminal||All-day||1 only|||
|Can-ar Coach Service|
|Operates a once-a-day coach service to Port Elgin, Ontario, serving communities in Dufferin, Grey, and Bruce counties.|||
Taxis, limousines, and shuttle vehicles
Toronto Pearson International Airport has pick-up locations for taxis, limousines, out-of-town bus, and/or even shuttle services, all of which offer transportation to downtown Toronto, cities throughout Ontario, and into Detroit, Michigan, USA. Taxis are licensed by the City of Mississauga, not from the City of Toronto. Taxis that are licensed in Toronto can deliver to Pearson, but only airport-licensed taxis and limos can pick up at Pearson legally. Rides can also be prearranged through GTA Airport Taxi or GTA Airport Limo at the Airport, providing prompt pick-up outside of the terminal. Pearson Airport Limousine companies use GTAA authorized out-of-town flat rates for pick-ups from Pearson Airport.
Toronto Pearson International Airport supports many out-of-town small bus, van, and shuttle operators, offering transportation from the airport to cities, towns, and villages throughout Southern Ontario. Some operators offer connections to other airports in Ontario (John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton and London International Airport in London) or in the United States (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Detroit, Michigan and Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, New York). Megabus operators a shuttle service to Pearson from Kingston, Ontario with stops at Queen's University, Belleville and Port Hope.
Future transit connections
The Eglinton Crosstown light rail line was originally projected to connect Pearson to Scarborough by 2018 as part of the Transit City plan. However, when the four Transit City lines were found to be $2.4 billion over their funding envelope in January 2010, parts of the network were deferred, including the western section of the Eglinton Crosstown LRT.
One of the routes in GO Transit's proposed Highway 407 BRT system would reach the airport. As a precursor, GO as of June 2013[update] operates the 40 Airport Express route between Richmond Hill Centre Terminal and Pearson Airport. This route formerly served Mississauga City Centre, but was shortened due to MiWay's launch of its own Airport Express route. A bus rapid transit route is planned to use the Mississauga Transitway, which is under construction. Mississauga Transit's 107 Malton Express has been in service since March 2010, connecting Mississauga City Centre, Malton, and Pearson Airport via the LINK Train's Viscount Station during peak hours only. After the completion of the transitway in late 2013, travel times between these destinations would be cut down to 19 minutes (compared to 7 Airport's 41 minutes and to the current 107's 29 minutes). Also, an all-day, all-week connection between the two destinations would be established.
Incidents and accidents
- On October 3, 1959, Vickers Viscount CF-TGY of Trans-Canada Air Lines was written off when it landed short of the runway. No fatalities among the 38 on board.
- On June 13, 1964, Vickers Viscount CF-THT of Air Canada was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed after the failure of two engines on approach.
- The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still found on the site.
- On August 30, 1970, Douglas C-47 CF-JRY of D G Harris Productions was damaged beyond economic repair in a storm.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 passengers on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.
- On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. The rear third of the plane burst into flames, eventually engulfing the whole plane except the cockpit and wings. There were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.
- On March 29 2015, Air Canada Flight 624 departed from Toronto Airport but had a crash landing at its destination, Halifax.  There were no fatalities, but many were injured in the landing.
- Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
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- Cook, Dave (2010). Fading History Vol. 2. Mississauga, Ontario: David L. Cook. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-9734265-3-3.
- Hicks, Kathleen A. (2006). Malton: Farms to Flying. Mississauga, Ontario: Friends of the Mississauga Library System. p. 133. ISBN 0-9697873-9-1.
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- Transport Canada, Press Release, June 11, 2013;
- Cf. Transport Canada, Plan Showing Pickering Airport Site; also Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Pickering Airport Draft Plan Report, 6.3. By comparison, Toronto Pearson International Airport had 32.3 million passengers in 2008, with an average of 1,179 "aircraft movements" per day (GTTA, Toronto Pearson Fast Facts; and Pickering Airport Site Zoning Regulations, September 30, 2004.
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- Joan Bryden (2 April 1997). "Settlement near over cancelled airport contract". Toronto Star (Thestar.com). p. B3. Retrieved 2010-09-22.
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Located on a 470-acre [190 ha] site between four major runways, this $250 million development is Canada's largest design-build project and comprised of six structures totaling 1,356,360 square feet: the Air Canada Maintenance Building, three cargo buildings including the Air Canada Cargo Terminal, a 3-bay Hangar Facility, and the 11-gate Infield Holdroom Terminal.
- "Toronto Pearson Master Plan - Chapter 6 : Passenger Terminals". Archived from the original on 2014-07-25. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
The Infield Terminal (IFT) was constructed to provide interim gating capacity during the phased construction of Terminal 1. The first two gates became operational in June 2002, with the remaining nine gates opening the following year. (The final three gates opened in July 2003, bringing the total available to 11.)
- "Air Canada opens new Maple Leaf Lounge at the Infield Terminal at Toronto Pearson Airport". Express Voyage. 2005-02-10. Archived from the original on 2014-09-17.
Air Canada will officially open its newest Maple Leaf Lounge at the Infield Terminal at Toronto Pearson Airport on February 10, 2005.
- Howard Slutsken (2014-06-02). "Toronto Pearson International Airport, Then and Now: Part Two". Airway News. Archived from the original on 2014-09-17.
Consequently a new infield cargo, hanger, operations complex and eleven-gate Infield Terminal were built to allow the phased demolition and construction of the project to occur. The infield complex was linked to the terminal buildings by a new tunnel under Runway 15L/33R.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Pearson International Airport.|
- Official website
- Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks - PDF
- Airport Wayfinder: Interactive video guide and detailed informations about Toronto-Pearson International Airport.
- Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.