Yadana gas field
|Yadana gas field|
|Location||Mottama offshore area|
|Partners||Total S.A. (31.2%)
Chevron Corporation (28.3%)
PTT Public Company Limited (25.5%)
Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (15%)
|Start of development||1995|
|Start of production||1998|
|Current production of gas||8×109 m3/a (280×109 cu ft/a)|
|Recoverable gas||150×109 m3 (5.3×1012 cu ft)|
The Yadana gas field contains more than 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas and has an expected field life of over 30 years. In 2009, the output averaged 780 million cubic feet per day (22×106 m3/d).
The gas field lies around 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) beneath the seabed in the water depth around 40 metres (130 ft). The offshore production complex consist of two remote wellhead platforms, one bridge-linked wellhead platform, a production platform, a living quarters platform, and a medium compression platform. Produced gas is exported through two pipelines. The first, 409-kilometre-long (254 mi) pipeline runs 346 kilometres (215 mi) underwater from Yadana to Daminseik at the coast. From there, a 63-kilometre (39 mi) onshore section runs to the Thai border. The onshore section crosses a region inhabited by the Karen, a minority ethnic group hostile to the government. Construction of the pipeline was completed in 1998 and it cost US$1.2 billion. This pipeline has capacity of 500 million cubic feet per day (14×106 m3/d).
The second, 287-kilometre-long (178 mi) pipeline from the Yadana to Yangon was inaugurated on 12 June 2010. The 24-inch (610 mm) pipeline has 151-kilometre-long (94 mi) offshore and 136 kilometres (85 mi) long onshore sections. The pipeline has capacity of 150 million cubic feet per day (4.2×106 m3/d).
The Yadana gas field and pipelines are operated by Total S.A., a French energy group, with Chevron Corporation, a United States-based company, as its junior partner along with PTT, a Thai state-owned oil and gas company, and Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE), a state-owned enterprise of Myanmar. Operator of the gas field is Total. Total has working interest of 31.2%, Chevron 28.3%, PTT 25.5%, and MOGE 15%.
The Yadana project has been subject to much criticism in the international community, particularly because companies of democratic nations invested in a regime that has been noted for its human rights violations. The State Law and Order Restoration Council came under intense scrutiny for their human rights abuses during the construction of the pipeline and their involvement in the project led to a lawsuit being filed against Unocal. Evidence collected by EarthRights International suggests that villagers are routinely forced to work in various guises. One former soldier from the 273 battalion said : "We were told it was a 30 year project and the country got half, and the foreigners got half of the benefit. We ask the villagers to carry shell ammunition, food and supplies. During the portering the soldiers treat porters not so good. I do not want to mention about these bad things so much since I myself I have done it to these people as well at that time." Troops routinely force civilians to work for them and those who refuse are often beaten, tortured or sometimes killed. Since early 2009 Burmese soldiers have ordered villagers to build a new police camp. "The Yadana project ushered in the Burmese army and the Burmese army continues to provide security for the companies and the project. The Total company has been complicit in abuses," said Matthew Smith of ERI.
The 2006 documentary Total Denial depicted the controversy surrounding the construction of the Yadana pipeline.
- Yadana means "treasure" in Burmese. Total. "Yadana Project". Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Tan Hwee Hwee (2009-11-18). "Rangoon in line for Yadana gas". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Manuel Velasquez. Unocal in Burma. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Environment News Service. "Unocal Settles Out of Court With Myanmar Villagers". Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- "Gas Pipeline Opens to Ease Yangon's Chronic Power Shortage". Downstream Today. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "Total says Myanmar operation unaffected by cyclone". Reuters. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- EarthRights International. "Yadana Natural Gas Pipeline Project". Retrieved 2007-12-18.[dead link]
- "Thailand's Yadana pipeline: Proposed route starts controversy". Watershed: People's Forum on Ecology 2 (2). November 1996 – February 1997. Retrieved 2008-01-11.
- The Independent 14 August 2009
- Bogumil Terminski (2012), Oil-Induced Displacement and Resettlement. Social Propblem and Human Rights Issue, Working Paper, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.