Yaghnobi language

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Yaghnobi
yaɣnobī́ zivók, яғнобӣ зивок
Native to Tajikistan
Region originally from Yaghnob Valley, in 1970s relocated to Zafarobod, in 1990s some speakers returned to Yaghnob
Ethnicity Yaghnobi people
Native speakers
12,000  (2004)[1]
Early forms
Sogdian
  • Yaghnobi
Dialects
Eastern Yaghnobi
Western Yaghnobi
Cyrillic script
Latin script
Arabic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 yai
Glottolog yagn1238[3]
Linguasphere 58-ABC-a
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Yaghnobi-speaking areas and enclaves of Yaghnobi-speakers among a Tajik majority

The Yaghnobi language[4] is a living Eastern Iranian language (the other living members being Pashto, Ossetic and the Pamir languages). Yaghnobi is spoken in the upper valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by the Yaghnobi people. It is considered to be a direct descendant of Sogdian and has often been called Neo-Sogdian in academic literature.[5]

There are some 12,500 Yaghnobi speakers. They are divided into several communities. The principal group lives in the Zafarobod area. There are also re-settlers in the Yaghnob valley. Some communities live in the villages of Zumand and Kůkteppa and in Dushanbe or in its vicinity.

Most Yaghnobi speakers are bilingual in the West Iranian Tajik. Yaghnobi is mostly used for daily family communication, while Tajik is used by Yaghnobi speakers for business and formal transactions. A single Russian ethnographer was told by nearby Tajiks—long hostile to the Yaghnobis, who were late to adopt Islam—that the Yaghnobis used their language as a "secret" mode of communication to confuse the Tajiks; this account led to the belief by some (especially those reliant solely on Russian sources) that Yaghnobi or some derivative of it was used as a code for nefarious purposes.[6]

There are two main dialects, a western and an eastern one. These dialects differ primarily in phonetics. For example, historical corresponds to t in the western dialects and s in the eastern, e.g. met - mes 'day' from Sogdian mēθ myθ. Western ay corresponds to eastern e, e.g. wayš - weš 'grass' from Sogdian wayš or wēš wyš. The early Sogdian group θr (later ṣ̌) is reflected as sar in the east but tir in the west, e.g. saráy - tiráy 'three' from Sogdian θrē/θray or ṣ̌ē/ṣ̌ay δry. t/s and ay/e are not the only features recognised as relevant to distinguish those two dialects, there are also some differences in verbal endings and in the lexicon. In between these two main dialects there is a transitional dialect. It shares some features of the western language and some features of the eastern one.

Writing[edit]

Yaghnobi was a scriptless language until the 1990s,[7] but according to Andreyev some of the Yaghnobi mullahs used the Arabic script for writing the Yaghnobi language before 1928, mainly when they needed to hide some information from the Tajiks.[8] Nowadays the language is transcribed by scholars using a modified Latin script, with the following symbols:

a (á), ā (ā́), b, č, d, e (é), f, g, ɣ, h, ḥ, i (í), ī (ī́), ǰ, k, q, l, m (m̃), n (ñ), o (ó), p, r, s, š, t, u (ú), ū (ū́), ʏ (ʏ́), v, w (u̯), x, x°, y, z, ž, ع

In recent times Sayfiddīn Mīrzozoda from the Tajik Academy of Sciences uses a modified Tajik alphabet for writing Yaghnobi. This alphabet is quite unsuitable for Yaghnobi—it does not distinguish short and long vowels, the difference v/w or does not mark stress etc. Yaghnobi alphabet follows with Latin equivalents given in parenthesis:

А а (a) Б б (b) В в (v) Ԝ ԝ (w) Г г (g) Ғ ғ (ɣ) Д д (d) Е е (e/ye) Ё ё (yo) Ж ж (ž) З з (z) И и (i, ī) Ӣ ӣ (ī) й (y) К к (k) Қ қ (q) Л л (l) М м (m) Н н (n) О о (o) П п (p) Р р (r) С с (s) Т т (t) У у (u, ū, ʏ) Ӯ ӯ (ū, ʏ) Ф ф (f) Х х (x) Хԝ хԝ (x°) Ҳ ҳ (h, ḥ) Ч ч (č) Ҷ ҷ (ǰ) Ш ш (š) Ъ ъ (ع) Э э (e) Ю ю (yu, yū, yʏ) Я я (ya)

Cyrillic script[edit]

А а Б б В в Ԝ ԝ Г г Ғ ғ
Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Ӣ ӣ Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м
Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т
У у Ӯ ӯ Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Ч ч
Ҷ ҷ Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э Ю ю Я я

Notes to Cyrillic:

1) The letter й never appears at the beginning of a word. Words beginning with ya-, yo- and yu-/yū-/yʏ- are written as я-, ё- and ю-; in a similar way are these combinations written in the middle of the word, f.ex. viyóra is виёра [vɪ̆ˈjoːra].

2) The usage of letters ӣ and ӯ is not exactly known, it appears, that those letters can be used to distinguish two similar sounding words by orthography (f.ex. иранка and ӣранка, рупак and рӯпак). Maybe letter ӣ is also used as a stress marker as it is also in Tajik. Letter ӯ can also be used in Tajik loanwords to indicate a Tajik vowel ů [ɵː], but it can have some other usage that is not known yet.

3) In older texts Yaghnobi alphabet did not use letters Ъ ъ and Э э—instead of Tajik ъ is used Yaghnobi letter and Yaghnobi е covered both Tajik е and э for value /e/; in later notation those letters were integrated into the alphabet—so the older writing етк was changed into этк to represent pronunciation [ˈeːtkʰ] (and not *[ˈjeːtkʰ]), older writing ша’мак was changed to шаъмак [ʃʲɑʕˈmak].

4) Sound combinations /ji/ and /je/ are written е and и. Yaghnobi letter и can have value */ji/ after a vowel as it has in Tajik, letter ӣ after a vowel has value */jiː/. Letter е has two values—in word-initial position and after a vowel it is pronounced [jeː], in position after a consonant it means [eː], please note that /je/ is rare in Yaghnobi—it can be found only in Tajik or Russian loans, the only example for /je/ is a Европа [ˈjeːvrɔpa], this word itself is a Russian loanword.

5) Russian letters Ц ц, Щ щ, Ы ы and Ь ь, that can be used in Tajik loans from Russian are not used in Yaghnobi—the Russian words are written as they are pronounced by the Yaghnobi speakers, not as they are written originally in Russian (f.ex. aeroplane is самолет/самолёт in Russian, written самолёт in Tajik and pronounced [səmʌˈʎot] in Russian and similar in Tajik, in Yaghnobi it is written as самалиёт respecting Yaghnobi pronunciation [samalɪˈjoːtʰ] or [samajlˈoːtʰ]; word concert is borrowed to Yaghnobi from Russian концерт [kʌnˈtse̠rt] in form кансерт [kʰanˈseːrtʰ]), see Tajik консерт.

6) By consultation with Sayfiddīn Mīrzozoda distinction between sounds /v/ and /w/ is needed to be established—for the sound /v/ letter в will be used but for /w/ another letter should be adopted. By the agreement Latin letter W w would be the best choice, also for representation of /x°/ letter combination Хw хw should be used. Mīrzozoda uses letter w in some texts, this notation was unfortunately inconsistent.

Sounds[edit]

Yaghnobi includes 9 vowels—3 short, 6 long—and 27 consonants.

Vowels[edit]

short: i [i-ɪ-e], a [(æ-)a(-ɑ)], u [(y-)u-ʊ-o] (all short vowels might be reduced approximately to [ə] in pretonic positions)

long: ī [i:], e [ɛ:-e:], ā [(a:)-ɑ:], o [(ɒ:-)ɔ:(-o:-u:)], ū [u:], ʏ [(u:-)y:(-i:)]

diphthongs: ay [ai̯] (ay in native words appears only in the western dialects, in the eastern it changes to e, ay can also appear in the eastern dialect, but by different etymology), oy [ɔ:i̯], uy [ʊi̯], ūy [u:i̯], ʏy [y:i̯], iy [ɪi̯]; ow [ɔ:u̯], aw [au̯]

Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
ɪ
ʊ


ɛː
ɔː


a
ɑː
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Notes:

1) Please note that long e, o and ʏ are conventionally not written with the lengthening sign.

2) Long ā is recognised, but it appears only as a result of compensatory lengthening (f.ex. ǰām < ǰaعm < ǰamع).

3) In recent borrowings from Tajik ů [ɵ:] and/or Uzbek [ɵ, ø] can also appear, but its pronunciation usually merges with ū).

4) Vowel ʏ is recognised by some authorities, by some other not. It seems that it is an allophone of ū. The origin of ʏ comes from historical stressed *ū, but historical *ō, changed in Yaghnobi to ū, remains unchanged. It seems, that the status of ʏ is unstable and it is not recorded in all varieties of Yaghnobi, while ʏ is often realised as ū, ūy/ūy, uy/uy or ʏ. In summary: *ū́ (under stress) > ū/ūy/uy/ʏ or ū, *ō > ū (f.ex. vʏz/vūz, goat; Tajik buz, Avestan buza-). By some authorities ʏ can be transcribed as ü.

5) Vowel o can change to ū in front of a nasal (cf. Toǰīkistón × Toǰīkistū́n, nom × nūm).

6) Vowel e is considered as a long vowel, but in front of h or ع its pronunciation is somewhat shorter—so than e is realised as a half-short (or even short) vowel. Etymologically this "short" e in front of h, ع comes from older *i, in pronunciation of Yaghnobi we can see alternation e/i in front of h/ع—in case when the historical cluster *ih or *iع appears in a closed syllable, than *i changes to e, in open syllable this change does not take place (this development is similar to Tajik one)—this change can be seen in case of verb dih-/deh-: infinitive díhak × 3rd sg. present déhči.

7) In Yaghnobi dialects there can be seen a different development of historical svarabhakti vowel: in the Western and Transitional dialects this is rendered as i (or u under certain circumstances) but in the Eastern dialects it changes to a (but also i or u): f.ex. *θray > *θəráy > W./Tr. tiráy × E. saráy but *βrāt > *vərāt > W./Tr./E. virót; when the second vowel is a back vowel usually changes to u in Western or Transitional dialects: *(čə)θβār > *tfār > *təfór > W./Tr. tufór (but also tifór) × E. tafór, *pδūfs- > *bədū́fs > W./Tr./E. budū́fs-. The later change appears also in morphology: verb tifárak (the form is same in all three dialects) has form in 3rd sg. present tufórči < *təfár- < *tfar- < *θβar-. Alternation i/a can be seen also in Tajik loans where an unstressed vowel can undergo this change: W./Tr. širī́k × E. šarī́k < Tajik šarīk /šarīk/, W./Tr. xipár × E. xapár < Tajik xabar /xabar/. The former svarabhakti vowels are often ultra-short or reduced in pronunciation, in some cases they can disappear in a fast speech: xišáp /xišáp × xⁱšáp × xšap/ < *xəšáp < *xšap.

8) Vowel a changes to o in verbal stems of the type -Car- when an ending containing historical or *t is added: tifár-, infinitive tifárak, 1st sg. present tifarómišt but 3rd sg. present tufórči (ending -či comes from older -tišt), 2nd pl. present W./Tr. tufórtišt E. tufórsišt, x°ar-: x°árak : x°arómišt : xórči : xórtišt/xórsišt (please note also that when a changes to o after , x loses its labilisation). This change takes place with all verbs of Yaghnobi origin and also in case of older loans from Tajik, in case of new loans a remains unchanged, f. ex.: gudár(ak) : gudórči × pár(ak) : párči - the first verb is an old loan from Tajik guzaštan < guδaštan, the later is recent loan from parrīdan.

Consonants[edit]

stops: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /ɡ/, /q/ (/k/ and /ɡ/ are palatalised to [c] and [ɟ] respectively before a front vowel or after a front vowel at the end of a word)

fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /ʃʲ/ š, /ʒʲ/ ž, /χ/ x, /ʁ/ ɣ, /χʷ/ , /h/ ([ɦ] appears as an allophone between vowels or voiced consonants), /ħ/ , /ʕ/ ع

affricates: // č, // ǰ

nasals: /m/, /n/ (both have allophones /ŋ/ and /ɱ/ before /k, ɡ/ and /f, v/, respectively)

trill: /r/

lateral: /l/

approximant: /β̞/ w, /j/ y

Place of articulation Bilabial Labio‐
dental
Alveolar Post‐
alveolar

or Palatal
Velar Uvular or Labialised Uvular Pharyn‐
geal
Glottal
Manner of articulation
Nasal    m        n          
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q     
Affricate
Fricative f v s z ʃʲ ʒʲ χ χʷ ʁ ħ ʕ h
Approximant    β̞    j
Trill    r
Lateral Approximant    l  

All voiced consonants are pronounced voiceless at the end of the word, in speech when after an unvoiced consonant comes a voiced one, the unoviced is voiced by assimilation. In case of voicing q the voiced opposition is ɣ, not [ɢ].

Note: Sounds b, g, h, , ǰ, q, l and ع appear mostly in loan-words, native words with those sounds are rare, mostly onomatopoeic.

Grammar[edit]

Note: In following sections symbols W, E and Tr. refer to the western, eastern or transitional dialect.

Noun[edit]

Case endings:

Case Stem ending is consonant Stem ending is vowel other than -a Stem ending is -a
Sg. Direct (Nominative) - - -a
Sg. Oblique -i -y -ay (W), -e (E)
Pl. Direct (Nominative) -t -t -ot
Pl. Oblique -ti -ti -oti

Examples:

  • kat : obl.sg. káti, pl. katt, obl.pl. kátti
  • mayn (W) / men (E) : obl.sg. máyni/méni, pl. maynt/ment, obl.pl. máynti/ménti
  • póda : obl.sg. póday/póde, pl. pódot, obl.pl. pódoti
  • čalló : obl.sg. čallóy, pl. čallót, obl.pl. čallóti
  • zindagī́ : obl.sg. zindagī́y, pl. zindagī́t, obl.pl. zindagī́ti
  • mórti : obl.sg. mórtiy, pl. mórtit, obl.pl. mórtiti
  • Also the izofa construction is used in Yaghnobi, it appears in phrases and constructions adopted from Tajik or with words of Tajik origin.

Pronouns[edit]

Forms of the personal pronouns:

Person Nominative Singular Oblique Singular Enclitic Singular Nominative Plural Oblique Plural Enclitic Plural
1st man man -(i)m mox mox -(i)mox
2nd tu taw -(i)t šumóx šumóx -šint
3rd ax, áwi, (aw), íti, (īd) -(i)š áxtit, íštit áwtiti, ítiti -šint

The 2nd person plural, šumóx also finds use as the polite form of the 2nd person.

Numerals[edit]

Eastern Yaghnobi Western Yaghnobi Tajik loan
1 ī ī yak, yag, ya
2 du
3 saráy tⁱráy se, say
4 tafór tᵘfór, tⁱfór čor
5 panč panč panǰ
6 uxš uxš šiš, šaš
7 avd aft haft
8 ašt ašt hašt
9 nau̯ nau̯ nuʰ
10 das das daʰ
11 das ī das ī yozdáʰ
12 das dū das dʏ dᵘwozdáʰ
13 das saráy das tⁱráy senzdáʰ
14 das tafór das tᵘfór / tⁱfór čordáʰ
15 das panč das panč ponzdáʰ
16 das uxš das uxš šonzdáʰ
17 das avd das aft habdáʰ, havdáʰ
18 das ašt das ašt haždáʰ
19 das nau̯ das nau̯ nūzdáʰ
20 bīst
30 bī́st-at das bī́st-at das
40 dū bīst dʏ bīst čil
50 dū nī́ma bīst dʏ nī́ma bīst pinǰóʰ, panǰóʰ
60 saráy bīst tⁱráy bīst šast
70 saráy nī́ma bīst tⁱráy nī́ma bīst, tⁱráy bī́st-u das haftód
80 tafór bīst tᵘfór / tⁱfór bīst haštód
90 tafór nī́ma bīst tᵘfór / tⁱfór nī́ma bīst navád
100 sad
1000 hazór

Verb[edit]

Personal endings - present:

Person Singular Plural
1st -omišt -īmišt
2nd -īšt -tišt (W, Tr.), -sišt (E)
3rd -tišt (W), -či (E, Tr.) -ošt

Personal endings - preterite (with augment a-):

Person Singular Plural
1st a- -im a- -om (W), a- -īm (E, Tr.)
2nd a- a- -ti (W, Tr.), a- -si (E)
3rd a- - a- -or

By adding the ending -išt (-št after a vowel; but -or+išt > -ošt) to the preterite a durative preterite is formed.

Participle: Present participle is formed by adding -na to the verbal stem. Past participle (or perfect participle) is formed by addition of -ta to the stem.

Infinitive is formed by addition of ending -ak to the verbal stem.

Negation is formed by prefix na-, in combination with augment in preterite it changes to nē-.

Copula - Present:

Person Singular Plural
1st īm om
2nd išt ot (W, Tr.), os (E)
3rd ast, -x, xast, ásti, xásti or

Lexicon[edit]

Present knowledge of Yaghnobi lexicon comes from three main works - from a Yaghnobi-Russian dictionary presented in Yaghnobi texts by Andreyev and Peščereva and then from a supplementary wordlist presented in Yaghnobi grammar by Xromov. The last work is Yaghnobi-Tajik dictionary compiled by Xromov's student Sayfiddīn Mīrzozoda (being himself Yaghnobi native speaker). What is now known, in Yaghnobi Tajik words represent the majority of lexicum (some 60%), then come words of Turkic origin (up to 5%, mainly from Uzbek) and few Russian words (approx. 2%; note that through Russian language also many international words came to Yaghnobi). So only about one third of the lexicon is Eastern-Iranian origin, those words can be easily comparable to those known from Sogdian, Ossetian, Pamir languages or Pashto.

Sample text[edit]

"Fálɣar-at Yáɣnob asosī́ láfz-šint ī-x gumū́n, néki áxtit toǰīkī́-pi wó(v)ošt, mox yaɣnobī́-pi. 'Mʏ́štif' wó(v)omišt, áxtit 'Muždív' wó(v)ošt." [ˈfalʁɑratʰ ˈjɑʁnɔˑb asɔˑˈsiː ˈlafzʃʲɪntʰ ˈiːχ ɡʊˈmoːn ˈneːcʰe ˈɑχtʰɪtʰ tʰɔˑdʒʲiˑˈcʰiːpʰe ˈβ̞oːˀɔˑʃʲtʰ moːʁ jɑʁnɔˑˈbiːpʰe ˈmyːʃʲtʰɪf ˈβ̞oːˀɔˑmɪʃʲtʰ ˈɑχtʰɪtʰ mʊʒʲˈdɪv ˈβ̞oːˀɔˑʃʲtʰ]

"In Falghar and in Yaghnob is certainly one basic language, but they speak Tajik and we speak Yaghnobi. We say 'Müštif', they say 'Muždiv'."

(In edited Cyrillic orthography it could have been written this way: "Фалғарат Яғноб асосӣ лафзшинт ӣх гумун, неки ахтит тоҷикипӣ ԝоошт, мох яғнобипӣ. 'Мӯштиф' ԝоомишт, ахтит 'Муждив' ԝоошт.")

An anecdote about Nasreddin: 1. Nasriddī́n ī xūd či bozór uxš tangái axirī́n. 2. Kaxík woxúrdš avī́, čáwi apursóšt: 3. “Xūd čof pūl axirī́nī?” 4. Nasriddī́n ī́ipiš ǰawób atifár, dúipiš ǰawób atifár, tiráyipiš ǰawób atifár, aɣór: 5. “Hámaipi ǰawób tifaróm, zīq vómišt.” 6. Ax xūdš či sarš anós, bozórisa adáu̯, fayród akún: 7. “E odámt! 8. Daràu̯-daráwi maydónisa šau̯t, īyóka ǰām vʏt! 9. Kattóti šumóxpi árkšint ast!” 10. Odámt hamáš maydóni īyóka ǰām avór, áni šáhri hičúxs nàapiráxs. 11. Nasriddī́n balandī́i sári asán, fayród akún: 12. “E odámt, ɣiríft, nihíš xūd man uxš tangái axirī́nim”.

IPA Transcription: 1. nasre̝ˈdːiːn ˈiː ˈχuːd ˈtʃɪ̞ bɔˑˈzoːr ˈʋ̘χʃʲ tʰaŋˈɟa̝jĕ̝ ɑχĕ̝ˈriːn. 2. cʰaˈχecʰ β̞ɔˑˈχʋˑrdʃʲ aˈve̝ː, ˈtʃaβ̞e apʰʋrˈsoːɕt: 3. „ˈχuːd ˈtʃoːf ˈpʰuːl ɑχĕ̝ˈriːne̝ˑ?“ 4. nasre̝ˈdːiːn ˈiːjĕ̝pʰe̝ʃʲ dʒaˈβ̞oːb atʰĕ̝ˈfar, ˈdʋ̘je̝pʰe̝ʃʲ dʒaˈβ̞oːb atʰĕ̝ˈfar, tʰɪ̆ˈraje̝pʰe̝ʃʲ dʒaˈβ̞oːb atʰĕ̝ˈfar, ɑˈʁoːr: 5. „ˈhama̝jĕ̝pʰe̝ dʒaˈβ̞oːb tʰĕ̝faˈro̝ːm, ˈze̝ˑqʰ ˈvo̝ːmɪʃʲtʰ.“ 6. ˈaχ ˈχuːdʃʲ ˈtʃɪ̞ ˈsarɪ̆ʃʲ aˈnoːs, bɔˑˈzoːrɪsa aˈdau̯, fai̯ˈroːd aˈkʰʋn: 7. „ˈeː ɔˑˈdamtʰ! 8. darˌau̯-daˈraβ̞e mai̯ˈdoːne̝sa ˈʃʲau̯tʰ, iˑjˈoːcʰa ˈdʒɑːm ˈvyːtʰ! 9. cʰaˈtʰːoːtʰe̝ ʃʲʋ̆ˈmoːχpʰe̝ ˈarcʃʲɪ̞nt ˌastʰ!“ 10. ɔˑˈdamtʰ haˈmaʃʲ mai̯ˈdoːne̝ iˑjˈoːcʰa ˈdʒɑːm aˈvoːr, ˈane̝ ˈʃʲahrɪ he̝ˑˈtʃʋ̝χs ˌna̝ˀa̝pʰĕ̝ˈraχs. 11. nasre̝ˈdːiːn balanˈdiːjĕ̝ ˈsare̝ aˈsan, fai̯ˈroːd aˈkʰʋn: 12. „ˈeː ɔˑˈdamtʰ, ʁĕ̝ˈre̝ftʰ, nĕ̝ˈhe̝ˑʃʲ ˈχūd ˈman ˈʋ̘χʃʲ tʰaŋˈɟa̝jĕ̝ ɑχĕ̝ˈriːne̝m“.

Cyrillic version: 1. Насриддин ӣ хӯд чи бозор ухш тангаи ахирин. 2. Кахик ԝохурдш авӣ, чаԝи апурсошт: 3. “Худ чоф пул ахиринӣ?” 4. Насриддин ӣипиш ҷаԝоб атифар, дуипиш ҷаԝоб атифар, тирайипиш ҷаԝоб атифар, ағор: 5. “Ҳамаипӣ ҷаԝоб тифаром, зиқ вомишт.” 6. Ах хӯдш чи сарш анос, бозориса адаԝ, файрод акун: 7. Э одамт! 8. Дараԝ-дараԝи майдониса шаԝт, ӣёка ҷаъм вӯйт! 9. Каттоти шумохпӣ аркшинт аст.” 10. Одамт ҳамаш майдони ӣёка ҷаъм авор, ани шаҳри ҳичухс наапирахс. 11. Насриддин баландии сари асан, файрод акун: 12. “Э одамт, ғирифт, ниҳиш хӯд ман ухш тангаи ахириним.”

Translation: 1. Nasreddin has bought a tubeteika at the bazaar for six tangas. 2. Everyone he met, asked him: 3. “For how much money have you bought the tubeteika?” 4. Nasreddin has answered to the first of them, he has answered to the second of them, he has answered to the third of them, than he sow: 5. “If I will answer to everyone, I will go crazy.” 6. He has taken the tubeteika of his head, run to the bazaar, cried: 7. “Hey, people! 8. Go quickly to the square, gather somewhere there! 9. The Big-ones have something to deal with you.” 10. All the people have gathered somewhere at the square, no one else has remained in the city. 11. Nasreddin came upon a high place, cried: 12. “Hey people, let you know, I bought this tubeteika for six tangas

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Yaghnobi at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Gernot Windfurh, 2009, "Dialectology and Topics", The Iranian Languages, Routledge
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Yagnobi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Also rendered Yaghnabi, Yagnobi or Yagnabi; - yaɣnobī́ zivók (in Tajik variant of Cyrillic script яғнобӣ зивок [jɑʁnɔːˈbiː zɪ̆ˈvoːkʰ], Russian ягнобский язык jagnobskij jazyk, Tajik забони яғнобӣ zabon-i yaɣnobî, Persian زبان یغنابى zæbɑ̄n-e yæɣnɑ̄bī, Ossetic ягънобаг æвзаг jaɣnobag ævzag, German Jaghnobisch, Czech jaghnóbština, Slovak jagnóbčina, Ukrainian ягнобська мова jahnobs’ka mova, Polish jagnobski język, Croatian jagnopski jezik, Greek γιαγκνομπί, γιαγνομπί, Turkish yagnabca, yagnobca, yagnob dili; linguistic abbreviation: YAGH
  5. ^ Bielmeier. R. Yaghnobi in Encyclopedia Iranica
  6. ^ See С. И. Климчицкий: Секретный язык у ягнобцев и язгулёмцев. In: Академия наук СССР – Труды Таджикистанской базы, т. IX – 1938 – История – язык – литература. Akademijaji Fanho SSSR: Asarhoji ʙazaji Toçikiston, çildi IX – Tarix – zaʙon – adaʙijot. Москва – Ленинград (: Издательство Академии наук СССР), 1940. 104-117.
  7. ^ The Cyrillic Tajik alphabet-based writing were invented by Sayfiddīn Mīrzozoda in the 1990s. (Russian) Ягнобцы - Форум «Центральноазиатского исторического сервера»
  8. ^ М. С. Андреев, Материалы по этнографии Ягноба, Душанбе (Дониш) 1970, pp. 38-39

References[edit]

(M. S. Andrejev, Je. M. Peščereva, Jagnobskije teksty s priloženijem jagnobsko-russkogo slovarja, Moskva - Leningrad 1957) (in Russian)

  • М. Н. Боголюбов, Ягнобский (новосогдийский) язык. Исследование и материалы. Автореферат на соискание ученой степени доктора филологических наук, Ленинград 1956

(M. N.Bogoljubov, Jagnobskij /novosogdijskij/ jazyk. Issledovanija i {{{2}}}. Avtoreferat na soiskanije učenoj stepeni doktora filologičeskix nauk, Leningrad 1956) (in Russian)

(M. N. Bogoljubov: Jagnobskij jazyk. In: V. V. Vinogradov (ed.): Jazyki narodov SSSR. Tom pervyj: Indojevropejskije jazyki. Moskva, 1966, p. 342-361) (in Russian)

  • С. Мирзозода, Яғнобӣ зивок, Душанбе 1998.

(S. Mirzozoda, Yaɣnobī zivok, Dušanbe 1998) (in Tajik)

  • С. Мирзозода, Луғати яғнобӣ - тоҷикӣ, Душанбе 2002.

(S. Mirzozoda, Luɣat-i yaɣnobī - tojikī, Dušanbe 2002) (in Tajik)

  • Ľ. Novák: Jaghnóbsko-český slovník s přehledem jaghnóbské gramatiky. Яғнобӣ-чехӣ луғат яғнобӣ зивоки дастури феҳрастипӣ. Praha (: Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Karlovy v Praze), 2010. ISBN 978-80-7308-337-3

(Ľ. Novák: Yaghnobi-Czech Dictionary with an Outline of Yaghnobi Grammar. Praha 2010) (in Czech)

(A. L. Xromov, Jagnobskij jazyk, Moskva 1972) (in Russian)

(A. L. Xromov, Jagnobskij jazyk. In. V. S. Rastorgujeva (ed.): Osnovy iranskogo jazykoznanija. Novoiranskije jazyki II. - Vostočnaja gruppa. Moskva 1987, p. 644-701.) (in Russian)

External links[edit]