Szlama Ber Winer

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Szlama Ber Winer
postcard by Abram Bajler
Szlama Winer by Abram Bajler (deportation).jpg
Postcard sent to Warsaw by Abram Bajler, nephew of Szlamek Winer, informing about the final deportation of his uncle with family
Born 23 September 1911
Izbica Kujawska
Died c. April 10, 1942(1942-04-10) (aged 30)
Bełżec death camp
Nationality Polish
Other names Yakov Grojanowski
Known for Holocaust deposition called the Grojanowski Report

Szlama Ber Winer nom de guerre Yakov (Ya'akov) Grojanowski (referred to as Szlamek Bajler incorrectly by the surname of his nephew Abram Bajler from Zamość) (23 September 1911 – c. 10 April 1942), was a Polish Jew from Izbica Kujawska, who survived the Chełmno extermination camp during the Holocaust in Poland. Szlamek (the diminutive form of Szlama) escaped from the Waldlager work commando at Chełmno (German: Kulmhof) and described in writing the atrocities he witnessed at the extermination camp, not long before his own subsequent death in the gas chambers of Bełżec. His deposition is commonly known as the Grojanowski Report.[1]

Life[edit]

Szlama Ber (Szlamek) was born in Izbica Kujawska near Koło on 23 September 1911 (or the 10th, in Julian calendar) to a Jewish merchant Iccak Wolf Winer (35 years of age) and Srenca née Laskow, his lawful wife according to birth certificate from the Office of Public Records.[2] They lived in Izbica just north of Chełmno before the Holocaust. It was an area of interwar Poland which had been annexed in 1939 by Nazi Germany as part of the new territory of Reichsgau Wartheland earmarked for complete "Germanization". In 1940 the Nazis created a ghetto in Izbica for 1,000–1,600 Jews.[3] On 12 January 1942 Winer was deported to Chełmno extermination camp, to slave labour with the camp's Sonderkommando.[4][5] Two days later his Izbica Ghetto was liquidated through deportations of 900–1,000 others to extermination on 14–15 January 1942. The young Szlamek was spared but had witnessed the death of his own family in the gas vans. He was assigned by the SS to the burial commando. On Monday, 19 January, Szlamek escaped by slipping out of a lorry on the way to the Rzuchów forest subcamp.[6]

The report[edit]

Chelmno extermination camp did not have direct rail connections. Jews were delivered by train to Koło, then to nearby Powiercie, and in overcrowded lorries to camp. They were forced to abandon their bundles along the way. At the manor house in Chełmno they were compelled to undress for transport to a "bath", unaware that it was the final stage of their lives. In this photo, loading of victims sent from the ghetto in Łódź

Szlamek managed to make his way from Chełmno to the Warsaw Ghetto in occupied Poland. He contacted the clandestine Oneg Shabbat group, headed by Emanuel Ringelblum, and gave detailed information about his harrowing experience with the Sonderkommando. He described the entire extermination procedure at the camp: how the people were murdered in gas vans, the constant beatings by the SS, how the inside of the vans was cleaned between loads, and how the bodies were buried in deep dug-out mass graves.[7] Szlamek also described the brutal treatment of prisoners forced to deal with the dead, and his escape from the camp.[8] Winer wrote the Grojanowski Report on the request of Oneg Shabbat who sent its Polish version to the Delegatura, the underground representatives of the Polish government-in-exile, while the German copy was produced for the German people in the hope that it would evoke more compassion for the Jews in them.[9][10][11]

Wanted by the Gestapo, Szlamek was whisked to Zamość where subsequently he also wrote to his friends at the Warsaw Ghetto about the existence of a death camp in Bełżec.[9] A few days after writing this last communiqué, around the 10th of April 1942, he was apprehended together with members of his extended family and deported to the Bełżec extermination camp along with some 3,000 Jews of the Zamość Ghetto, marched from the market place to the awaiting Holocaust trains.[10][12][13]

The postcard written by the 14-year-old Abram Bajler, the nephew of Szlama Winer, sent from Zamość to Warsaw on 24 April 1942 some two weeks after the deportation of his own uncle to death camp, reads:

Dear Mr Waser. After receiving your postcard, I am induced to reply. Albeit, my Uncle will never come, because he is not in Zamość anymore. Two weeks have already passed since he left our town with the family. For now, we don't know where he is. I'm left with my younger brother. We were at work at the time. Try to imagine, the 14-year-old I, and my sibling, with nobody to care for us; but we manage, because we have no choice. There's no other news. Greetings, Abram.

— Translation from Polish, original at Holocaust Research Project.org [9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Szlamek Bajler". Deathcamps.org. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  2. ^ Patrick Montague (2012). Chełmno and the Holocaust: The History of Hitler's First Death Camp. I.B.Tauris Publishers. p. 241. ISBN 1848857225. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Statistical data: "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  (English), and "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  (Polish) as well as "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at ARC.(English).
  4. ^ Virtual Shtetl, Izbica Kujawska. Museum of the History of Polish Jews.
  5. ^ Szlamek Bajler and Family WordPress.com.
  6. ^ Jon E. Lewis, Voices from the Holocaust pages 101–102 (Google Books).
  7. ^ Heath, Alan. "Chelmno Waldlager". Youtube.com. 
  8. ^ ARC (2006), Szlamek Bajler, also known as Yakov Grojanowski (extract from deposition), Death Camps.org. Sources: Martin Gilbert, Lucjan Dobroszycki.
  9. ^ a b c Chris Webb (2010), Chelmno Diary: "Szlamek Bajler recounts his time at Chelmno" (extract from deposition with foreword) Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team.
  10. ^ a b "Grojanowski Report, Yad Vashem" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-09. "According to Yad Vashem summary the Grojanowski Report is available at the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw (copy in: YVA, JM/2713). It was translated into Hebrew by Elisheva Shaul, as "Taking of Testimony from the Forced Undertaker Jakob Grojanowski, Izbice-Kolo-Chelmno," Yalkut Moreshet 35 (April 1983), pp. 101-122." 
  11. ^ "Chelmno, Yad Vashem" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  12. ^ Martin Gilbert (1986), The Holocaust – The Jewish Tragedy, William Collins Sons & Co, London.
  13. ^ "Yad Vashem "Diaries", footnote 12" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 

References[edit]