Yakovlev UT-2

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UT-2
Yak-UT-2 a.jpg
Role Trainer/Fighter-trainer
National origin USSR
Manufacturer Yakovlev
Designer Aleksandr Sergeyevich Yakovlev
First flight 11 July 1937 - Ya-20
Number built 7,243
Developed from AIR-10, Ya-20

The Yakovlev UT-2 (Russian: УТ-2, NATO reporting name "Mink") was a trainer aircraft used by the Soviet Air Force from 1937 until the 1950s. It was the standard Soviet trainer during World War II.

Development[edit]

The UT-2 was designed as a trainer, more suitable for training pilots of modern and fast aircraft than the older U-2 (Po-2) biplane. The new plane was designed by Yakovlev's team at OKB-115. The next design, AIR-10, was based upon the AIR-9, but it was simpler, with two separate open cockpits, and lacking slats and flaps. It was flown on 11 July 1935. The AIR-10 won the competition with other trainer designs in 1935 and, after changes, was accepted as the standard Soviet Air Force trainer. A temporary designation for this plane became Ya-20 (Я-20). This is just because of the original AIR was the abbreviated name of Alexey Ivanovich Rykov, a communist leader executed in 1938; Yakovlev changed names of his aircraft to the politically safe Ya. The mixed construction (wood and metal) of the AIR-10 was changed to wooden only, to simplify production. A prototype used the 112 kW (150 hp) Shvetsov M-11E radial, but production aircraft used 82 kW (110 hp) M-11Gs. Serial production started in September 1937. The plane was given the designation UT-2 (uchebno-trenirovochnyi {учебно-тренировочный}, primary/advanced trainer).

The UT-2 was used also by civilian aviation. However, it soon demonstrated it was not easy to fly, with a tendency to spin. After some changes to its construction, the plane became safer and was fitted with a 93 kW (125 hp) M-11D, as the UT-2 model 1940.

To improve handling and stability, a new UT-2M (modernized) variant was developed in 1941 and put into production. The shape of wings was totally new, with a swept leading edge instead of a straight one (the wing's trailing edge was now straight), and the tailfin was larger.

In total, 7,243 UT-2 and -2Ms were produced in five factories between 1937 and 1946. Despite all improvements, the handling and flight characteristics of the UT-2 were never excellent. In the 1950s they were replaced with the Yak-18 as a primary trainer and the Yak-11 as an advanced trainer. After the war, the UT-2 and -2M were also used by countries like Poland and Hungary.

Variants[edit]

Yakovlev UT-2
  • AIR-10 UT-2 pre-cursor.
  • AIR-11 - Three-seat prototype.
  • Ya-20 UT-2 prototype.
  • UT-2 (initial production)- too prone to spin.
  • UT-2 (1940 standard) - modified to improve spin characteristics.
  • SEN (UT-2N) - Air cushion landing gear tests.[1]
  • UT-2M - Production from 1941, re-designed wings.
  • UT-2MV - Light Bomber
  • UT-2V - Bombing Trainer
  • Yak-5 - Single-seat fighter trainer development of UT-2

Operators[edit]

 France
 Hungary
 Poland
 Mongolia
 Romania
 Soviet Union
 Yugoslavia

Specifications (UT-2, 1940 standard)[edit]

Data from Gordon 2005, and Gunston 1995

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 7.15 m (23 ft 5-1/2 in)
  • Wingspan: 10.2 m (33 ft 5-1/2 in)
  • Height: 2.99 m (9 ft 10 (tail up) in)
  • Wing area: 17.12 m2 (184.3 ft2)
  • Empty weight: 628 kg (1,385 lb)
  • Gross weight: 940 kg (2,073 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Shvetsov M-11D, 93.2 kW (125 hp)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 210 km/h (131 mph)
  • Cruising speed: 99 km/h (60 mph)
  • Range: 1,130 km (702 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 5,000 m (16,400 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 3.3 m/s (649 ft/min)

Armament

  • 2 or 4 x 50 kg (110 lb) bombs (UT-2MV Light Bomber).
  • 2 x 50 kg (110 lb) bombs + 8 x RS-82 rockets (UT-2MV Light Bomber).

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Gordon, Yefim. (1989). OKB Yakovlev. London: Ian Allan. pp. 36 to 45. 
  • Gunston, Bill (1995). The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1875-1995. London: Osprey.